Minor Fleets of WW2

The rest of the world 1939-45


Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
San Salvador

Belligerents of WW2 are well known: The British Empire, Nazi Germany, Italy, France and the low countries (notably Belgium and the Netherlands), the Balkans, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, USA, URSS, Japan, Thailand and China. However there were a magnitude of neutral countries as well, which possessed a substantial navy, like Spain or Portugal. For obvious reasons, out of the war, despite Franco's gesture by sending the Azul Division in Russia. Siam, another less known example, fought Vichy French Indochina on the behalf of Japan in 1941 and so became another belligerent. The second world war was global. Some neutral countries joined the fight late, other were involved even before the war, like Czechoslovakia and Austria. Yes, both had a Navy.

So in this chapter we are about to see the entirety of these forgotten fleets of WW2: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eire, Egypt, Estonia, Haiti, Hungary, Honduras, Iraq, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Liberia, Mandchuko, Morocco, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Persia (Iran), San Salvador, Sarawak, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zanzibar...

Definition of a fourth rank Navy in WW2

What is meant by 4th rank are navies from countries with limited budgets around the world, generally able to keep in service light or obsolete cruisers and torpedo boats, gunboats and MTBs, as well as rare submersibles. It was, in essence, a coastal fleet or "green water" fleet, by opposition of a "blue water navy", capable to project its power over long distances. Third rank fleets fell often also in this category, beyond the Soviet fleet. This categorization still works today.

Most of these nations stayed (wisely) neutral during the Second World War, with some declaring war on the axis towards the end of the conflict. Others were members of the axis (Like Bulgaria), direct or collateral victims of the conflict (Like Albania and the Baltic States). So here are the status of the countries considered : Albania (neutral), Bulgaria (Axis), Estonia, Lithuania, Lettonia (neutral), Hungary (Axis), Czechoslovakia (Allies), Egypt (British protectorate), Iran/Persia (neutral), Columbia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay (neutral).

Micro fleets: Beyond any rankings lays a small group of "micro-fleets", poor states or landlocked ones which had some watery real estate, in the shape of large rivers and lakes. These "navies" actually included only a few ships at best, riverine boats and patrol vessels. Switzerland, for example, had some armed civilian patrol boats on Lake Geneva. They did some anti-smuggling patrols, mostly for populations that transited through the country from occupied Europe, Fascist Italy or Nazi Germany, including many refugees.

The forgotten navies of Europe in detail

Some were soon involved in the war, despite their preventions, others entered it when the situation started to reverse for the axis.


Albania was invaded by Italy in April 1939. Mussolini was driven by the recent example of Germany annexing Austria and Czechoslovakia and the poorest country in Europe seemed an easy picking, with 8,000 soldiers, some Gendarmes and 5 antiquated aircraft. The country also had a Navy: Two minesweepers and four motor boats. Only the later were in service when the war broke out.

The "navy" of the small Kingdom of the Adriatic had distant roots, located north of the Epirots and ancient Molossians, and their distant ancestors were the Illyrian pirates much feared by the Romans. The latter learned to respect them and even copied their agile Lemboi and Actuarias. In 385 BC, Illyria was conquered by Philip II of Macedonia, then by the Romans from 230 BC to 9 BC. Following the fall of Rome, this province became Roman Byzantine under the name of Albanoï. These lands underwent invasions of Goths and other displaced populations until the early Middle Ages. It became part of the kingdom of "Greater Bulgaria".

Serbia was for a time a vassal state, before the Ottoman empire conquered the whole region. The Albanians then made excellent Janissaries. At the end of the 14th century, Prince Skanderbeg helped by Christian cities reconquered the territory under Turkish domination. After his death however, the country fell again, and for a long time under Ottoman rule. This people over time became strongly Islamized while not preventing local governors from aspiring to more autonomy.

It was not until 1878 when the Pritzen League was formed, that Albania regained independence, and in 1912, following the Balkan war gained it fully. Taken into the torment of the great war, the weak and young state became the playground for successive invaders, the Greeks, Italians, Serbs of Austria-Hungary and Bulgarians. In 1918, these different neighbors had an appetite for the small territory, hoping to gain a slice of it. However the US lobbied for Albania to be independent in 1920, following the Treaty of Tirana.

Seeking Italian protection against its threatening Balkan neighbors, Albania became increasingly dependent of Mussolini's help, especially until its conservative Muslim leader, Ahmet Zog which took power following a coup d'etat in 1928, becoming King Zog. From then, Albania entered a period of nationalist militarization, this time in defiance of Italy. The Italian reaction would came soon after the declaration of war of September 1939.

Durres 1918
Durrës in Albania (1918).

The Duce saw Albania as weakly defended and on April 7th, 1939, Italian troops entered from the North and progressed rapidly. King Zog fled to Britain. After a week of hopeless fighting, what was left of fighting troops fled to the mountains. The country was officially placed under the crown of Victor Emmanuel III. A pro-fascist Tirana government was established under Shefqet Verlaci, and Albanian troops loyal to the government became part of the Italian army, later taking part in the Greek and Balkan campaigns.

A pro-Communist resistance movement organized in the mountains, and soon coalesced various partisan movements, federated around Enver Hoxha. These made life hard for occupation troops until 1943. At this time as in Yugoslavia, partisan war escaped all control, defeating the Italian army. After the Italian capitulation, the Wehrmacht occupied the country. With the help of the Soviet troops the country was liberated at the end of 1944. Enver Hoxha became in 1945 the leader of Albania, but drifted to personal power and terror until his death in 1988. Albania is still today the poorest European state, barely out of half a century backward isolation, the "north Korea of Europe" which once targeted one blockhaus per inhabitant.

-Skeneberg class minesweepers: Skeneberg and Squipnia were the ex-FM16 and 26, German ww1 minesweepers. They were 43 x 6 x 1.45 m long (141 x 20 x 5 feets) with two shafts VTE, 600 hp, for 14 knots. They were armed with a single 88 mm gun. Both were discarded in 1935 so no longer in service when the invasion started, however it is not known if they could have been reactivated if mothballed at that time at the Battle of Durrës (1939) but they are not mentioned.

Tiranë class MBs:
Tiane class MBs - cdts navypedia

The Tiranë, Saranda, Durres, Vlore were ex-SVAN Venice MS boats built in 1926. They were 46 tons, 80 feets (24.38 m) long 450 bhp boats armed with a single 76 mm (3 in) gun and two MGs. They were in service in April 1939, at Durrës. Indeed the Royal Albanian Navy stationed in Durrës consisted of these four patrol boats and a coastal battery with four 75 mm (3 in) guns, which also took part in the fighting.

Mujo Ulqinaku, the commander of the patrol boat Tiranë, machine-gunned many Italian before he was silenced by an artillery shell from an Italian warship. A large number of light tanks were eventually unloaded and crushed what was left of the remaining forces, gaining full control of the city within five hours, despite the valiant defense of Mujo Ulqinaku. Opposite this, the Regia Marine despatched no less than 2 battleships, 3 heavy cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 9 destroyers and 14 torpedo boats, plus auxiliary and transports.

The Danube, starting in the Alps, crossing Austria and Eastern Europe before ending in the Black sea. This wide waterway was criss-crossed by an intense traffic and served as a natural border.

Austrian Navy

The Anschluss on 12 March 1938 gave the impression it was just a German promenade, a peaceful, stress-less annexation. But Austria was a sovereign state in 1938, with an army, an air force, and a navy, as surprising it might be for a land-lock country. In addition it has a political class divided but in majority hostile to Hitler's views and attached to the independence, as well as the population. All three armed branches were mobilized. Back in the past, with the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the new Austrian state lost all access to the sea.

This did not prevent it from maintaining riverine patrols on the Danube, making a single flotilla. In 1927, three of these ships were sold to Hungary and one was sold to the Slovakians in 1929. Shortly before 1939, Austria acquired small minelayer crafts and a few modern, also small patrol boats. Before the German annexation in 1938, this only program called for also minesweeping launches. Read More (external)

River Patrol monitors Birago & Fogas (1916)

The Czuka, of the same type as the Fogas and Birago.

These Former Austro-Hungarian river armoured gunboats were initially called i and k, built at Budapest in 1915-1916. The same year they took the named of Fogas and Csuka. In 1920, the partition of Austro-Hungarian Navy in the St germain en Laye treaty atributed Fogas to Austria. Her sistership Csuka (former 'k') was attributed to Hungary and renamed Siofok. In July 1929 as stated above she was resold to Austria, renamed Birago, but there is nothing clear about possible modifications, other than an overhaul. By default of new infos about it, here are the Fogas and Birago specifications below. In 1927, Fogas was sold back to Hungary and renamed Gödöllö. Birago on her side was the only sizeable armored ship of Austria on the Danube. After the Anschluss she was simply captured and integrated in the German Kriegsmarine as part of the riverine force.
Birago specs
Displacement standard 60 tons
Dimensions: Length 36.0 x 4.60 x 0.90
Machinery: 2 shaft VTE, 2 Yarrow boilers, 800 hp
Max speed 12 kts
Armour: belt: 5mm deck: 4mm turret: 5mm, CT: 5mm
Armament: 66 mm/27 L/30 K.09 gun, two 8.3 mm/66 MGs
Complement: 27
See also: http://www.navypedia.org/ships/austria/austri_rb_fogas.htm - http://www.navypedia.org/ships/austria/austri_rb.htm
The only sizeable ships in the Austrian riverine fleet. 1922, the Hungarian river forces also comprised Szeged, Debrecen and Kecskemet all launched between 1915 and 1918. In 1929, the Siofok, formerly Czuka was overhauled and modernized to be traded to the Austrians in exchange for the patroller Barsch, renamed Baja in Hungarian service. The original Baja has been renamed Hegyalja. The Siofok was renamed Birago in Austrian service (see above).


The Belgian navy in WW2 was really tiny, even in comparison to modest third rank fleets of the time. Its Dutch Neighbour for example, outclassed it by a ratio of twenty to one. The trauma of WW1 drove the Belgians into a strong peace movement. Belgium kept her alliance with France, until deciding in 1936 neutrality was the best course of action. Budget spendings were mostly dedicated to the Army and eastern Fortifications, while the Navy was reduced to its barebone role of fishery protection for its modest territorial waters.

This would be quite a bad joke for Belgian admirals of the past, as the Flemish Navy in the past was famous. It derived from the proud and mighty Dutch fleet, that of the United Provinces, which managed to rose to the rank of the first European naval power in the XVIIth century. An unparalleled naval power with a global trade empire and first commercial corporation, great rival of the the Royal Navy, which it had beaten several times. The idea of an economic prosperity supported by a vast commercial empire and protected by a fleet in beeing is of Batavian obedience, resumption of the Spanish and Portuguese attempts. Independent since 1830, the small Belgian Monarchy had a few minor high seas units and a few river gunboats for its overseas possessions.

Belgian Navy WW1

In WW1, the Belgian Navy employed a handful of fast government's cutters, often unarmed for police role. A dozen were available at the beginning of hostilities, rearmed with field guns and machine guns leased by the Army. The very old City of Antwerp (1864) was by then the only specialized fishery guardship. On Lake Tanganyika during the war, Belgium operated the small spare torpedo boat Netta (1915), to patrol boat on Lake Kiru, and the gunboat Paul Renkin (former civilian steamboat) operated in Congo, and the torpedo boat Vankerhoven on the Nile. With the occupation of flanders by the Germans, which created well-protected naval bases, the Belgian government became aware of the usefulness of a small coastal naval forces and developed it from 1919, thanks to peacemeal entente ships acquisitions.

The Belgian Navy in the interwar

The first potent acquisitions were made right after then end of the Hostilities in 1918: The Belgian government took control of no less than 14 German coastal Torpedo Boats after the evacuation of Flanders. These were the A4-A20 (nine 1915 109 tonnes boats) and the larger A30, 40, 42, 43, 47 (1916, 230 tonnes), renumbered A3PC-A9PC and A21PC-A25PC respectively. This coast defence force was administered by the creation of a naval commission, formed in 1919.

On 19 April 1920, this commission purchased its first large vessel, former Flower class corvette, the 1200 tonnes sloop Zinnia (1915). However political change urged budget cuts and the commission was simply disbanded in March 1927. The year prior, all but four TBs were discarded, and the remainder renamed "A" and then given proper names, but in 1928 the Naval Force was disbanded altogether, and the last two TBs, West Diep and Wielingen, were kept for instruction permanently anchored wih a skeleton, civilian reserve crew. The fleet was now reduced to its fishery protection role, taken by the sloop Zinnia, with again, a civilian crew.

The Belgians acquired the 1931 all-sail training vessel (unarmed) Mercator, a 1200 tonnes barquentine, 13.50 Sq feets with auxiliary diesel engine of 500 bhp (11 knots), and crew of 80, used for training civilian recruits. However it was planned in 1938 to replace the old Zinnia by a new sloop which can be used also as royal yacht in peacetime. Since the Belgians lacked the facilities for it, she was partially designed by them as a "jack of all trade", also training vessel, fishery protection sloop and minelayer/minesweepers with ASW capabilities. However unfortunately for them, the ship ordered at Cockerill in the Netherlands was not yet launched when the Germans invaded the low countries in May 1940. She was seized and launched and completed by them later in 1943 as the Flakship 4 Lorelei (see later).

The Belgian Navy during WW2

Contrary to WWI in which Belgium retained a small part of her territory, the country was completely invaded and occupied, leaving part of the Royal Family in exile in UK for the remainder of the war. King leopold III's decision in 1936 to withdraw from any allianced and became neutral jeopardized French plans to integrated the belgian territory in case of a german invasion, sparing its own territory and especially the northern industrial areas close to the border. This also mechanically deprived the small Belgian navy from any French or British naval help. In May 1940, the Germans did not bothered invading Belgium by sea anyway, launching their unstoppable panzerdivisions once the forts fell to a handful of paratroops. After four days, King Leopold III which stayed at the head of its troops, asked for a surrender despite the advice of its government on 28 May, also wildly criticized by the French president, Daladier, for opening a large gash in the allies defences. Soon after, Belgian the coast was occupied and vessels were captured, including in the Netherlands, the Artevelde in construction.

Occupations years were grim. As for WWI the flanders coast fell under German supervision, reactivating two ancient bases to operate Schellbootes. In prison, Leopold remained a focus for resistance, which was organized in UK around the exiled family. From 1942 an increasing number of Belgian men, and even women and children were forced into deportation to munitions factories in Germany, but about 500,000 were saved by the King's personal pledge to hitler. While resistance was politically divided and very fragmented, this "armée secrete" was nevertheless organized by the exile Pielot Government, participating notably in a repatriation network for downed RAF and USAAF pilots.

HMS Godetia. Commissioned in February 1942 she was transferred immediately to the Royal Navy Belgian Section, returned to the RN two years later, and was active until October 1945, sold for BU. The Belgians also operated HMS Buttercup (K193), another Fower class corvette, from April 1942 to 1944.

The Free Belgian Forces were established in UK, overwhelmingly centered around the army, as there were few navy personel available. By 1944 the Free Belgian forces in the UK numbered some 4,500 men, which active part (the rest was support) formed the 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, better known as "brigade piron" after its commander. It operated in the low countries after D-Day, participating in the Normandy Invasion, battles in France and the liberation of the Netherlands. Some took part in elite forces, the 5th SAS unit and No.10 Inter-Allied commandos. Also 400 Belgian pilots served in the RAF, making two entire squadrons. But most importantly, a small "Fre Belgian Navy" was organized around two corvettes and a group of minesweepers operated by the Belgians during the Battle of the Atlantic. By 1943, in total the FBN had 350 enlisted Belgian sailors and officers, under command of the Royal Navy due to its small size.

11 British 105-feet Admiralty motor minesweepers (118th minesweeping flotilla) were manned by Belgian crews from the spring 1943. It was dissolved in late 1945 and partly transferred to Belgium in 1946.

Belgian navy Zinnia (1915)

Built at Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend, this Flower class ASW sloop of 1915 was sold on 19 avril 1920 to the new Torpedo Boats corps sailors of the Belgian Army. 1200 tonnes, capable of a 2 000 miles radius at 15 knots, she was armed with two 101/120 mm guns, two 47 mm AA (6 pdr). She arrived originally totally disarmed. She served from 1920 to 1926 as fishery guard vessel by C.T.M., and became a training ship afterwards, used by the Ostend Navigation School fro training officers.

In May 1940, she was seized by in Bruges and towed to the Hoboken shipyard to be transformed. She became a Flak-Schiffe, rearmed with a single 105 mm turret forward, two twin AA 20 mm gun mounts FLAK 38, plus four single AA of the same so eight in total. She was pressed into served again as KS-4 (Flak ship 4) Barbara in the Kriegsmarine, now based in Swinemünde (Baltic Sea) to defend the artillery school. She was captured by British troops in October 1945 but retroceded to Belgium. She was operated in Ostend by a crew of the RNSB (Royal Navy Section Belge) and later reassigned to the proper Belgian Navy, rearmed. In 1946 she became Breydel and and returned to its fishery patrols in 1947, until withdrawn in 1949, BU the next year.

Belgian navy Coastal TBs (1916)

The last six remaining Belgian Coastal Torpedo Boats, which stayed pretty much unaltered during their career: They were armed with two 88/27mm TK L/30 C/08, and a single 450mm TT, plus a mechanical minesweeping gear. They were limited to 25 knots in theory, but no longer in 1940. The A23 PC was sold in 1939, so in 1940 only remained A24 PC (Wielingen). Captured by German troops at Antwerp on 18.5.1940, she was towed to be broken up in 1943 for spare metal. Also the last remaining of the serie I CTBs, A9 PC ("West Diep") was also captured in Antwerp on 18.5.1940 and this time recommissioned by the Kriegsmarine as KMS Reiher, later Warendorp, for coastal defence and instruction until 1945. She was broken up in 1948.

Belgian navy Artevelde (1940)

Artevelde in 1945, she was previous called K4 (Flakschiffe Lorelei).

Built in the Netherlands, at Cockerill yard, this Frigate (or sloop for some authors) was originally to be armed as designed by two twin 105 mm guns a twin 40mm AA Bofors, and 30 DCs, plus rails for 64 mines. She was seized by the Germans in the slipway in Antwerp, and later launched on 28.8.1940 as Lorelei and K4. She was towed off to the Netherlands for outfitting, receiving a new German armament: Three single 105/42mm SK C/32, Two single 40/56mm FlaK 28, a twin 37/80mm SK C/30, three quadruple and two twin 20/65mm C/38 FLAK C/38, 120 mines and a mechanical minesweeping gear.

Her original machinery was kept. It was of British origin, Parsons turbine and Babcock & Wilcox boilers working at 32atm, 400°C. She was completed in April 1943 and was recoignised both seaworthy and fast but lacking any protection but for the 40 mm gun shields. They also had poor stability. Until the end of the war, she was used by the Kriegsmarine as an AA escort for convoys. She was later returned to Belgium and returnd into service in 1945 as a frigate (See the cold war section). She was BU in 1954-55.

Note: A cold war Belgian Navy post is in preparation (80% done).

Hungarian Navy

As a member of the Axis, Hungary was another landlocked country, like Czechoslovakia and Austria, which only waterway was the Danube.
During WW2, the small Hungarian riverine force could only be used to patrol, not really to spearhead anywhere since neighbouring Romania became an ally during the invasion of the summer of 1941 (Operation Barbarossa). However, with the decomposition of the eastern front and offensive of the Red army, Soviet forces soon found themselves invading Hungary itself. Soviet forces had their own riverine forces, and could make them enter the Danube via the black sea, first, after clearing the defenses (notably mines) set up by Romania and Hungary. The Danube could be a vital supply road for Red Army troops in any case, but also carry troops far in advance on rear lines and for diversion operations.

In October-December 1944, fighting on the Danube intensified.

Danube River The Danube river, giant waterway of Europe.

Ships of the Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919-22)

After the 1920 partition of St Germain en Laye, Hungary inherited part of the Riverine Austro-Hungarian fleet, which made the bulk of the navy. During the interwar, the oldest ships in service were the LEITHA class river monitors (1872), scrapped in 1921 (or converted as a dredger for the first). They were rebuilt in 1893-1894 but almost did never saw service in the new state of Hungary. They were indeed briefly incorporated in the Hungarian Soviet Republic (see later). The same can be said of the SZAMOS, another armored river monitor (1892). Built in Schoenichen, Újpest, she was also part of this short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic and converted as a dredger in 1921 (or scrapped, sources are not clear about it);

Another interesting ship that never really integrated the Hungarian Navy in the interwar was the river monitor Inn (1915), a development of the Temes class with one twin turret. She served with the Austro-Hungarian navy but in September 1917 she was sunk on the lower Braila, Danube by a mine. Salvaged and towed off in November, she was repaired in Budapest but work was never completed and she remained there until the end of war. On 21 march 1919 she passed under control of Hungarian Soviet republic, and in April she was renamed Újvidek. In late July 1919 as repairs were completed she was renamed again as Marx and commissioned by the Hungarian Danube flotilla. In November 1919 she was interned by the provisional Government of Yugoslavia at Novi Sad. Under the same treaty seen above she was transferred to Romania, on 15 April 1920 and renamed Basarabia. See the Romanian Navy for details.

Yugoslav Slava, ex-Bodrog, a good example of the numerous Danube monitors various neighbouring countries used, in particular Hungary.

Ships of the Hungarian Navy (1922-45)

In July 1941 when was lanched Operation Barbarossa, in which Hungary participated with several divisions, the Danube flotilla was also mobilized. At that time the force comprised the four Compo class riverine gunboats, the two Komarom class, the three HÜSZAR class, the Siofok class Gödöllö, and the minelayers KÖRÖS and Maros. The latter was modern-built in 1928. The only wartime constructions has been modern patrol ships of the six PM class, fast shallow-draught armoured motor gunboats built at Hanz Danubius, Budapest. However only one was completed on time to see action against the Red army in the fall of 1944 (See later).
COMPO class armoured river gunboats (1916)
Szeged in 1925
Szeged in 1925

These ships were built at Danubius yard, Budapest, in Austria-Hungary. These were the Szeged (ex-Wels, ex-Bregalnica, ex-Wels, ex-l) launched in 22/10/1915 and completed in 1916. Two after WW1 were given to Yugoslavia and two to Austria but they were eventually purchased by the Hungarian Government after the peace treaties. She was captured by US forces on 8/5/1945 and broken up in 1947-49 like two others. The class also comprised the Baja (ex-Barsch, ex-Neretva, ex-Barsch, ex-m) which was sold as a mercantile barge in the 1940s, the Compo on 10/1927. The third ship was the Györ, retroceded to Austria on 4/1920 as Compo, and purchased again 10/1927, and the fourth was the Viza (Kecskemét, ex-Viza, ex-o).

These amazing ships were the first river gunboats fitted with steam turbines, which was very unusual for riverine vessels, not expected to go fast. But thise served them well; On trials they showed they could reach 17.3-18.5kts and they saw active service in the black sea as well, showing unusually good seaworthiness. Wels and Barsch were interned at Beograd and later passed onto Yugoslavian flag, Bregalnica and Neretva, later passed under Austrian flag and were purchased back by Hungary. They were all captured in Austria by US troops in 1945.

Displacement: 129/133 tonnes
Dmensions: Length/breadth/Draught 44.0 x 6 x 1 m
Machinery: 2 shafts, AEG geared steam turbines, 2 Yarrow boilers, 1200 hp, 15 knots, 18 tons oil
Armour: belt: 8mm, deck: 6mm, turrets: 10mm, CT: 10mm
Armament: 2 x 2 66mm/24 G. L/26 K.15 BAK guns, 2 x 2 - 8.3mm/66 MGs
The Baja had 2 single 75mm/27 G. L/30 K.16 BAG, and 2 x 2 - 8.3mm/83 MGs
Complement: 40
KOMAROM class armoured river gunboat (1918)
Debrecen 1927
Debrecen 1927

Built at Danubius, Budapest, Austria-Hungary, these former Austro-Hungarian river armoured gunboats were derived from the Wels class and had increased dimensions and modernized AA mounts. Commissioned in August 1918, they were called Stör and Lachs. Allocated to the Hungarian Danube flotilla as Komarom and Pozsony before even the partition was voted. Therefore from 15/4/1920, the first was reallocated to Austria and 14/5/1921. The other was overhauled in 1924 at Debrezen, taking the same name. She was sold on 10/1927 sold to Hungary, modernized and recommissioned as Sopron in 1930. Debrezen was sunk in November 1944 by Soviet tanks at Czepel, near Budapest while Sopron was captured in May 1945 by US troops at Wünsdorf and sold to a private German owner (Hertha, then Irene from 1962), broken up 1966.

Displacement: 129/133 tonnes
Dmensions: Length/breadth/Draughts 44.0 x 6 x 1 m
Machinery: 2 shafts, AEG geared steam turbines, 2 Yarrow boilers, 1200 hp, 15 knots, 18 tons oil
Armour: belt: 8mm, deck: 6mm, turrets: 10mm, CT: 10mm
Armament: 2 x 2 66mm/24 G. L/26 K.15 BAK guns, 2 x 2 - 8.3mm/66 MGs
The Baja had 2 single 75mm/27 G. L/30 K.16 BAG, and 2 x 2 - 8.3mm/83 MGs
Complement: 40
HÜSZAR class armoured river gunboats (1916)
These were three former Russian armour river scout launches, renamed later the Honved, Hüszar and Tüzér in Hungarian service. They had been ordered in 1915 by the War department and never served in the Russian Imperial Navy. They are belonging to two very similar designs and series built by "Vega-Bureau" at Borgo in Finland and the Revensky Factory in Odessa. Captured in 1928 by Austro-Hungarian troops, just three were operational when WW2 broke out, one of the Revensky type and two of the "Vega-Bureau", based on the Hungarian Danube flotilla.

Displacement 15.2 to 16.0 tons, Breadth 2.75 or 3.05 m draught 0.61-0.70 m
Machinery, 2 shaft Stirling gasoline engines 100 shp
Max speed, 11.5 knots, Armour, belt: 7, deck: 5, turret: 7, CT: 7 mm
Armament: 3 x 1 - 8.3/66 mm.
Complement: 9
SIOFOK class armoured river gunboats (1916)
These former Austro-Hungarian river armoured gunboat built in Budapest in 1915-1916 and renamed Fogas were stransferred to Austria in 1920, and in 1927 sold to Hungary, renamed Gödöllö and Csuka, Siofok. Siofok in 1929 was sold to Austria in exchange for Barsch, renamed Birago and recomissioned by the Kriegsmarine. Gödöllö was in reserve from 1935, reactivated from 1941, sunk by Soviet aircraft at Uipest.

Displacement 60 tonnes, 36 x 4.60 x 0.90 m
2 shafts VTE, 2 Yarrow boilers, 800 hp, 12 knots
Armour 5 mm belt, main deck 4 mm, turret 5 mm, CT 5 mm
Armament: 1 x 66 mm/27 G. L/30 K.09, 2 x 8.3 mm/66 MGs
Complement: 27
PM1 class armoured river gunboats (1940)
Hungarian PM1 patrol riverine gunboat

These were wartime fast shallow-draught armoured motor gunboats, made by Hanz Danubius at Budapest. Armed by 40mm/45 in tank gun turrets (From Turán I tanks). They included coaxial 8mm MGs and two more MGs were installed in single mounts inside the deck house, firing through three loophopes. The armoured casemate protected the deck house, the magazines and machinery. They were bad seaboats at high speed, the bow hoping up and masking the view from the low deck house.

This limitation prevent the completion of 5 more boats started in 1942-1943 but still incomplete by late 1944 and later scuttled. The PM3 was commissioned after the war, as PN11 with Soviet armament and partial reconstruction. Others were completed in 1956 as PN31 and PN32, totally modified, and only discarded by 1973. PM1 was badly damaged in November 1944 because of Soviet artillery at Cepel. Surrendered in May 1945 to US Forces and her hull survived s a depot barge at Passau.

Displacement 38 tonnes, 28.0 x 3.70 x 0.60-1.10 m
Propulsion 2-3 shaft, 3 Junkers diesels or 2 Lang MP35 diesels 480/420 hp
Top speed 13.5-20.5 knots
Protection: belt: 13, deck: 20, turrets: 40, CT: 40 or 30 mm
Armament: 2x (40/43 Škoda A17 - 83 mm), 2 x 8.3 mm/83 MGs
Or 2 37 mm/73 70K, 1x 82 mm/11 mortar
Complement: 16
KÖRÖS river minelayer (1918)
A single shallow-draught German minesweeper of the FM class. After 1918 she was the mercantile vessel Liselotte, later she was purchased by Hungary in 1928, and rearmed in Budapest, renamed Körös. She was commissioned by the Danube flotilla and became a minelayer and Training ship. She surrendered to US Troops in May 1945 and was discarded an BU in 1949.

Displacement 170/193 tonnes FL
41.8 waterline/43.0 m oa x 6.00 x 1.40-1.68 m deeply loaded.
2 shafts VTE, 1 Marine boiler, 600 bhp Top speed 14 knots, 32 tons oil, 650 nm/14 knots
Armament: 2 x 83 mm/66, mines
Complement: 35
MAROS river minelaying boat (1928)
Built at Danubius, Budapest, Maros was the first combat ship built in Hungary after theGreat War, bypassing treaty limitations and classified as and auxiliary netlayer. She displaced 90 tonnes, for 30 x 5 x 0.80 m, one shaft diesel and 280 hp, and was armed with two 83 mm/66 guns, 12 mines or a mechanical minesweeping gear, and carried a crew of 9. Maros surrendered to American troops. After the war she was disarmed and converted as a tug and from 1966 a cruise ship, renamed Hohenau (2005) and then Fanny.

Read More/Src
Note: Conway's volumes made no mentions of the Hungarian riverine fleet, whereas they extend on the Austro-Hungarian Navy.

Estonian Navy WW2

Gunboat Lembit
The Estonian gunboat Lembit, in service until 1927.

Although her Navy was created only three years after independence, in 1922, she was balanced and strong for such a small country. Two destroyers, two gunboats, two minelayers were reinforced by auxiliary vessels, while on Lake Peipus three other gunboats guarded from Soviet incursion.

All these ships were of Russian Imperial origin, simply seized in ports in 1918 by the British. Further acquisitions were made in 1920, like a German torpedo boat stranded in Moonsound, towed and repaired. The goal was to maintain a capable green water fleet able to threaten any invading force. In the early 1930s however, amidst economical turmoil, the destroyer Lennuk and Wambola were sold in Peru. Funds saved were used to strengthen maintenance and purchase new submersible and gunboats. The war, however, took place before the construction of additional light ships could be completed.

Documentary: Destroyer Wambola - exhibition 100 years at sea, the ships of Estonia 1918-2018"

Soviet Union officially wishing to strengthen its maritime borders forced Estonia to sign a military assistance on September 28, 1939. Detachments of the Soviet army quickly arrived on the territory, at key defensive points. However, on June 16, the government received a missive, the same as for Latvia, complaining of "provocations" of nationals against the Soviet army and asking for the establishment of a new government to fulfil the commitments of the treaty as well as reinforcement of the troops.

Five days later, with the support of the Soviet army, the Estonian government was deposed and a new pro-Soviet government installed around the Estonian Communist Party. The amalgamation with the USSR was ratified on August 6, 1940, and the navy was dismantled and assimilated to the Soviet fleet.

The crew of the submarine Lembit awarded medals for the defense of Leningrad on 6 June 1943
The crew of the submarine Lembit awarded medals for the defense of Leningrad on 6 June 1943.

Ships nomenclature:

Destroyers class Lennuk
Novik class DD
A Novik class destroyer

-Lennuk and Wambola, formerly Avtoil and Spartak, of the Novik class, launched 1917. 1,350 tons in displacement, fast and powerful. They were Lettonia's master ace in area.
Unfortunately they were sold to Peru in 1933. There has been no known change to the ships.Torpedo Boat Sulev
The ex-A32, converted to lay mines. Stranded in October 1917, recovered in 1923 and rebuilt. Taken over by the Soviets in 1939, she was converted into a patrol vessel of the NKVD, then auxiliary and training ship, and finally enede as a pontoon in Leningrad in 1955.

Submersibles class Kalev Two units ordered at Vickers-Armstrong, launched in 1937. These were coastal, but excellent quality boats. These submersibles, the Kalev and Lembit weighed 620 tons/850 tons underwater, for 58 x 7.30 x 3.30m, powered by two Vickers diesel engiens and two electric motors for 1200/790 hp and 13.5/8.5 knots, for a crew of 58 men.
Captured in 1940 by the Soviets, the Kalev would be used against the Finns (sunk by mines in Hangö in Nov. 1941) while the Lembit became the U1 in 1945, then S85 in 1949, and in 1956 was transferred to a shipyard for experiments. Finally she became a memorial in Tallin, back to Estonia.
gunboat Pikkeri
This modern vessel was built locally in Tallinn, and served as a presidential yacht. In 1940 she passed under Soviet control, as a staff vessel, a sloop in 1941 renamed Kiev, and Luga in 1942, finally Rion from 1946 to 1955, turned into a supply ship. She then began a second civilian life as the research oceanographic ship of Moscow University, taking her old name and operating in the Black Sea until the late 1960s.

Other Ships
The oldest were the Lembit (1st of the name), reformed in 1925, the Wool (ex-Sputnik) sank in September 1941, Wanemune (scuttled in 1941), the minelayer Ristna (demolished in 1960) and Suurop (same class ) sunk in August 1941. More recent were the 200-ton gunboats Mardus, Taara, Uku, Tartu, Ahti, Ilmatar (three served on Lake Peipus), the 50-ton Kalev, Olev and Tahkona mine masters, 8 class stars MP (MP5, 8, 10, 14, 23, Sakala, Delta, Erilane), the three icebreakers Suur Töll, Tasuja, and Juri Vilms, two auxiliary vessels of 200 tonnes, 4 tugboats, and the old Coast Guard Kou (replaced in 1939 by the Pikkeri). (Work in Progress)

Iceland Iceland Navy WW2

Converted merchant vessels were armed to serve as fishery protection vessels. This was setup in 1930:
-Esja (1939, 1347 GRT)
-Aegir (1929, 497 GRT,1x 57 mm gun)
-Thor (1922, 226 GRT ex-purchased German Senator Schafer, 1x 57 mm gun)
-MFV Odinn (1938, 72 tons, 1x 47 mm gun)
-Sudin (1895, 811 GRT, ex-Gotha).
Iceland was independent and neutral at the start of WW2. There was already a fear that operations in Norway would include a Kiesgmarine attempt to invade and use the country as a support base. The allies soon understood the value of the island if it fall into axis hands, notably to disrupt traffic in the north atlantic route. The British government imposed strict export control, notably shipments to Germany as part of its naval blockade.

Winston Churchill offered assistance to Iceland, a cooperation as 'belligerent and an ally', but Reykjavik declined. German diplomatic presence remained in Iceland, and after failing to attract Reykjavik as a co-belligerent decision was made of a pre-emprive invasion. On 10 May 194, operations for a landing commenced. 746 British Royal Marines (Colonel Robert Sturges) landed from a ship escorted by destroyers, and on 17 May two regular army brigades arrived. To the invasion followed the occupation. Icelanic naval forces were at no point in measure to counter the British and there was no professional army to speak of.

US Troops arrived in Reykjavik in January 1942
US Troops arrived in Reykjavik in January 1942

In June 1940, "Z" Force arrived from Canada and three Canadian battalions were garrisoned until retired in the spring of 1941, while British reserve garrison forces replaced them in turn. On 7 July 1941, the neutral United States by agreement with Iceland took over the peaceful occupation, with the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade replacing British troops. The 1st Marine Brigade comprised 4,100 troops and garrisoned Iceland until early 1942, replaced by U.S. Army troops, as they were sent to the Pacific.

Iceland cooperated with the allies but maintained a strict neutrality. The "shelter theory" was accepted in order to avoid the greatest threat of a German invasion. Bases for u-Boats and Fw-200 patrol/recce long range bombers could have create havoc on the North Atlantic. Meanwhile warships were stationed there, or passed by, whereas the meagre Iceland fleet kept en eye on Icelandic water sovereignty and protection of fisheries. There were possible reports about U-Boats but no offensive action is known from the Icelandic "Navy" during this conflict.


The young Republic had a small force only fitted for coast guard and fishery protection. These were the :
-Muircha: Ex-Helga 1908 323 GRT converted gunboat
-Fort Rannoch: 1936, 258 GRT gunboat.
-M1 class MTBs (Thornycroft-built 1939): Five 32 tons MTBs, with 4-shaft petrol engines, 2600 hp and 40 knots, armed with two 21-in TTs and two MGs.

The Middle East

Persia (Iran) in WW2

Neutral Iran was another "collateral" victim of the war. The allies feared this wide region potentially strategic at many levels and with petrol could fell into the hands of the axis. This was not an immediate threat though, as at the worst Axis advance of Rommel was at El Alamein, last defendable outpost before the Nile, but after the invasion of USSR, there were fears a part of Herregruppe Sud would divert a panzerdivision beyond the Caucasus and into Iran.

At the start of the hostilities, the Allies asked Iran to remove German nationals on their territory, fearing Nazi spies or a fifth column could act against British oil facilities there (Shell). Reza Shah refused categorically to take any measure. As the war went on, the Allied fear about a German supply from Iran degenerated into questioning the neutrality of Iran. Not only hundreds of "tourists" from Germany regularly visited ports, but German and Italian vessels in transit also stopped there, notably at Bandar Abbas. Eventually, Reza Shah was given an ultimatum to extrade German workers, refused again.

From there, politicians transmitted the case to the Army. In August 1941, after negociations between the British and Soviet staff ended on plans for a coordinated attack. The British and Soviet troops invaded Iran, in what was called Operation Countenance.

The British arrived from iraq, the Soviet troops from the north, with tanks and aviation. The small Iranian army possessed light Czech tanks and an obsolescent aviation and was in no position to hold back that pincer movement. Quickly brushed aside, combined forces made their junction and marched on Teheran. In September 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced to abdicate, replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, leaning more towards the Allies.

British supply Convoy BA-10

During the invasion, there was little to do for the small Iranian fleet anchored in the Persian Gulf. However, the occupation of the coast enabled the Soviets a new supply road via the port of Bandar Abbas. Soon, a specially constructed railway route was also installed. These were known as the "Persian Corridor", helping Lend Lease another, les dangerous path than the northern route. Also, Moskow saw this as an opportunity of regional influence. Soviet political operatives soon infiltrated Iran, helping to develop the Tudeh Party in early 1942, affiliated to the Komintern. After the September armistice, Iran entered the Allied sphere of influence and declared war on Germany on 9 September 1943, and on Japan in March 1945.

This did not stopped there as Azerbaijani and Kurdish peoples supported by Moskow rebelled and damaged the new Iranian government action. After the war ended, this went to the creation of the People's Republic of Azerbaijan (December 1945) and Kurdish People's Republic, both piloted from Moskow to undermine Iranian regional influence. Soviet troops departed Iran from January 1946, at the expiration of a wartime "protective" treaty which also granted access to American troops. The Navy was soon rebuilt and extended dramatically under conditions of good relations with the new Reza Palhavi government and notably Great Britain.

The Iranian Fleet in WW2

Just before the war in 1939, Iran discarded two old gunvessels, Persepolis (1885, a 1200 tons steamer, also used as Imperial yacht), and Mazaffir (or Muzzafer) (1899, 379 tonnes). The latter was a former Royal Navy gunboat, refitted at Bombay to be resold to Persia. Also were in service the river customs steamer Azerbaidjan (1900s) and Perebonia, and the river gunboat Susa (1885). -German minesweeper FM24 (1918) was also ordered in 1922. She was renamed Fatiya, Palhavi (1926) and Shahan (1935). Discarded 1945.

Babr sank at Khorramshar, 25 August 1941
Babr sank at Khorramshar, 25 August 1941

But the bulk of the Persian Navy was eventually reconstructed in the 1930s, with a large naval plans in 1930 and the order of two patrol sloops, four motor patrol boats and six motor launches in 1935. The 1941 invasion has a tremendous impact, with the two sloops sunk and the motor launches scuttled, the other captured. In addition to the vessels listed below, the Royal Yacht Chahsever was also ordered at CNT. She was launched in 1936, a 150 tonnes vessel with precious wood cabins and air conditioned. To serve this fleet, a Tug, Neyrou was also ordered in 1936.
Babr class sloops
The sloop Babr (1931) - credits naypedia.com

These 950 tonnes vessels were similar to Italian colonial gunboats, with a forecastle and three light guns. They were launched at CNR (Palermo) in September and November 1931. Babr and Palang entered service in 1932, and when the invasion took place, both were sunk on 25 august 1941, on different locations where they were posted: Babr by the British sloop HMS Shoreham at Abadan and Palang at Korrhamshahr by HMAS Yarra. Babr was still recoverable, which was done, but she sank during towing on the Koran river and was lost for good.

-950 tonnes, 63.38 m x 9 m x 3 m. Crew 85.
-2 shaft diesels 1900 shp, 15 knots, oil 120 tonnes.
-Armed by three 102 mm guns (4 in) and two MGs (probably Breda). No protection.
Charogh class patrol boats

Simurgh in construction in CNT, Palermo, prior to launch (July 1931) credits navypedia.com.
330 tonnes patrol boats from the same Yard (CNT) and ordered at the same time, these vessels were still roomy but of lighter construction than the sloops, narrower (ratio 1/8) and armed with light guns. Four vessels were ordered and delivered: Charogh (or SHAHROKH), Chanbaaz, Karkass, and Simorgh. Despite half the output on Babr, they were faster at 15.5 knots, due to their favourable ratio and lesser draught. They were all captured by commonwealth forces on 25 August 1941. The first two, Charogh and Simorgh by a boarding crew of HMAS Yarra and the others, Chahbaaz and Karkass, by boarding groups from the Indian sloop RIN Lawrence at Bandar-Shapur.
They were sent to the Royal Indian Navy (RIN), renamed Nilam, Hira, Moti, and Lal. They received in Indian service a singe 12-pdr gun and a 20 mm AA. They were used as harbor defence and training vessels in Bombay. They were returned to Iran in 1946 and reverted to their original names.

-331 tonnes, 51.80 x 6.7 x 1.83 m, crew 50?
-2 shaft diesel 900 bhp, 15.5 knots
-Armed by two 75 mm and two 37 mm guns AA, all in single mounts.

hmas yarra
HMAS Yarra, the Australian sloop which sank the INS Palang and captured by boarding parties the patrol ships Charogh and Simorgh.
Azerbaidjan class motor launches
Azerbaidjan clas ship (unidentified) circa 1951 - credits navypedia.com
These six 30 tonnes vessels also ordered to CNR were fitted with Krupp diesels. They were named Azerbaidjan*, Gehlani*, Mazendern*, Babolsan, Gorgan and Sef Indreude and launched in 1935. The first three were scuttled or sunk to avoid captured in August 1941. The fate of the others is unknown, but according to navypedia, they were captured at Bandar-Pehlevi by Soviet troops on 27 August, then pressed into service in September 1941 under new names, SKA-1-3, changed to SKA-200-202, then reverted in 1946 to the Iranian Navy, resuming their service on the Caspian sea until the 1970s.

-30 tonnes, 20,88 x 3.81 x 1.07 m, crew 15
-2 shaft Krupp diesels 2x150 bhp, 14 knots
-Armament: one 47mm/40 L/44 (Škoda)

Iraq in WW2

The Royal Iraqi navy of that era was created in 1937. It was a "microfleet" made of British vessels, under influence of Great Britain.
-Alarm: 1919 Tug HMS St Ewe of the "Saint" class, 820 ton ship, specs same as original.
-Faisal I: Royal yacht, ex-San Pew, ex-Restless, 1923, 1025 tons. At some point she became a lighthouse tender in the 1940s.
-Four Thornycroft-built 1937 patrol boats. 67 tons, 100 x 17 x 3 feets (30.48 x 5.18 x 0.91), 2 shaft diesels 280 bhp, 12 knots, 1x 37 mm howitzer
Fate: Kingdom of Iraq
The Iraqi Navy formed as a riverine police four-ship force was headquartered in Basra. During WW2 it took no part in operations but its polce routine on the Tigris; Until 1958 it stayed at the same level, and was gradually neglected, until the Republican revolution of 1958, and from then largely upgraded (see the cold war section).


Belligerent Nations were: China, Japan and Siam. The Chinese Navy was quickly destroyed by the IJN and aviation in 1937 and the following years. It was reduced to nil in WW2. Allied help mostly concerned tanks, planes and ground weaponry. The Imperial Japanese Navy needs no presentation. This formidable force attacked all local powers in the area, after the US Fleet in Hawaii, the IFN fought the Royal Navy and the Dutch Navy, the Australian and New Zealand Navies, going as far as threatening convoys in the Indian Ocean from Madagascar.

An interesting case however is Siam: The Kingdom (future Thailand), independent from the French which colonized nearby Indochina, capitalized on the supposed weakness of Vichy France in 1941, with the blessing of Japan. An attack on French Indochina and a naval battle at Ko Chang however did not bring the expected results. But this is one of these forgotten episodes of WW2. Among small fleets, Mandchuko and Sarawak are worth mentioning.

Mandchuko in WW2

On 18 September 1931 Japane begane to occupy Manchuria and soon gained control of China's eastern provinces, soon declared an "independent" state in 1932. The country remained under strick and total japanese control, backed by powerful armed forces, strecthed-out by the scale of the territory. Soon, a tailored flotilla of gunboats and patrol craft built in Japan was brought to take control of coastal areas and rivers, mainly the Amur which bordered USSR and its tributaries. This flotilla became independent but only saw real fighting in August 1945 when the Soviet invasion started. However at that stage, records says the Mandhuko flotilla was captured entirely by the combined ground forces and Soviet Amur flotilla. These ships had been incorporated in the Soviet Amur flotilla as a result. Many catpured weapons after the capitulation has been handed over to the Chinese communists, used during the civil war, but the fate of the Amur flotilla is uncertain.

The Mandchuko fleet comprised during WW2:

Riverine Gunboat Shun Tien (1935), deployed on the river Amur

-Destroyer Hai Wei, ex Kasii, transferred by the IJN in 1937, returned in 1943.
-Shun Tien class gunboats (270 tonnes, 1934): Shun Tien, Yang Min.
-Ting Pien class gunboats (280 tonnes, 1935). Ting Pien, Chin yen.
All four built in Harima, Japan, shallow draught, heavily armed and well protected. Dimensions 183 and 196 ft or 55.78/59.44 m, 8.884 m long for 0.91 m draught, armed with a twin 120 mm DP forward, single aft, 3 MGs, diesel engines, 680/730 bhp for a top speed of 12.5/13 knots. Complement 70.
-Lisui, ex gunboat Li Chieh, captured 1932.
-Tatung class (YS Tatung, YS Liming, built mistubishi 1933, 65 tonnes, 100 x 16 x 2ft 6 in (30.48 x 4.88 x 0.76 m) diesel engines 240 bhp, 10.5 knots. Armed with a single 57 mm (12 pdr) howitzer, 3 MGs, crew 20.
-About 12 small patrol crafts, and ex-Russian patrol vessels.


-Mandchuko Naval HQ: Newchwang Naval Base, Fengtien
-Secondary Base: Hulutao Naval Base, Fengtien
Flagship: Destroyer Hai Wei.
-2nd sea Patrol Division (Hai Lung, Hai Feng, Li Sui, Lin Chi)
-3rd sea Patrol Division (Kuan Ning, Kuan Ching, Chian Tung)
-4th sea Patrol Division (Hai Kuang, Hai Jui, Hai Jung, Hai Hua)
-5th sea Patrol Division (Daichii, Kaihen, Kaini, Ta Tung, Li Ming)
Manchukuo Riverine Defense Patrol
Base: Yingkou and Antung, Fengtieng
-1st Patrol Division (Sungari River, Ting Pien, Ching Hen, Shun Tien, Yan Ming, described above)
The Sungari River Flotilla operated armored cars on the frozen rivers during the winter instead for patrols.
For the latter, this unit was called the Manchu Imperial Navy land units. They were formed from Japanese and Manchu crews, operating with the local security naval police, tasked with guarding ports, naval bases and dams. There were two units of 500 men each with light weaponry.
The was also a naval air component. It was called the Manchukuo Imperial Navy Air Force, made of two squadrons of Aichi D1A biplanes. It is not known if there were replaced until 1945.

The Manchukuo Riverine Defense Patrol was formed after the Chinese Songha River Fleet surrendereded to Japan on 15 February 1932. It was made of five river gunboats: Lisui, Liji, Jiangqing, Jiangping, and Jiangtong, later reinforced by four more Japanese-built gunboats, Shuntian, Yangmin, Dingbian, Qinren, Datong, Limin, Xichun, Yangchun, Xingya, and Xingren. In addition eighteen smaller patrol boats were added as well as supply vessels. There was also expeditionary force made of three marine battalions, 2000 men strong in 1940. Officers and most ratings came from the Imperial Japanese Navy.

However in 1939 already, Japan started to withdraw its influence, by February 1939, notably the naval instructors departed. This force was renamed "Jiang Shangjun" (River Army), under a Mandchu captain, Yin Zuoqian as lieutenant general. He was succeeded by Li Wenlong (until September 1942), Xian Yuan (until March 1944) and Cao Bingsen (until August 1945). This unit had to deal from 1932 against Chinese rebels, and guard the border against Soviet incursions and patrol rivers such as the Songha, Heilongjiang (Amur) and Wusuli (Ussuri). Border skirmishes happened like the dispute of the Ganchazi (called by the Russian the Bolshoi island icident) on 19–30 June 1937.

A Soviet gunboat was sunk in action. There was also the Donganzhen incident on 27 May 1939, also with the Soviets, when the Japanese lost one patrol boat, another captured. There was also a clash in WW2, wht skirmish of Xingkai Lake in May 1942: Two Soviet airplanes attacked two Manchukuo patrol boats. In 1942 Japanese sailors were back to the Imperial Japanese Navy. The entire fleet was crewed by Mandchu officers and ratings. On 9 August 1945, four gunboats and three patrol boats mutinied and surrendered and the fleet was captured Soviets after Harbin fell, on 20 August.

Mandchu Aichi D1a

Sarawak in WW2

This small British enclave was an oddity in Asia: The Kingdom of Sarawak was created in 1841 by the explorer James Brooke, its first Rajah. After offering military assistance to the Kingdom of Brunei to defeat piracy and insurgency, it became in 1888 a British protectorate, and was annexed in 1890 to the British Empire, along with the Pandaruan region creating the new kingdom's borders. The Japanese invasion in January 1942 left no chance to the local forces.

At that time, Sarawak was defended by the Indian Army: The 2/15th Punjabi Regiment and a small para-military unit called the Sarawak Rangers. The few anti-aircraft guns which existed were placed on the Kuching Airfield, along with a few obsolete planes. The White Rajah of Sarawak, at that time Charles Vyner Brooke, was in Australia at that time. The naval gun battery comprised two 152 mm (6 in) guns detached from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery. It was defended by the 35th Fortress Company of Royal Engineers, at Kuching, about 1,050 men. The Sarawak Rangers comprised about 1,515 men, mainly trained and equipped Iban and Dayak tribesmen.

All units were under command of British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane, named "SARFOR" (Sarawak Force). The oilfields at Miri and Seria and the refinery at Lutong were sabotaged by the British to avoid their fall into Japanese hands. Resistance was futile, and the population suffered from the the occupation. In 1963, Sarawak was incorporated into Malaya, North Borneo, and Singapore, creating the Federation of Malaysia. So apart a land-based Royal Artillery unit there was no real "navy" of Sarawak but possibly one of the ships in service in WW1 (5 gunboats), nominally all discarded in the 1920s. -Aline (1875, 1 screw gun), Lorna Dorne (1881, 2 small guns), Aden (1884, paddle steamer with 1 small gun), Kaka (1901, 400 grt, paddle steamer), the Yacht Zahora (1894) and a few launches. Alice Lorraine and L'Aubaine were loaned steamers used for transport. On the southern part of the Island, the Dutch had a substantial aviation and two submarines.

South America

Columbia in WW2

Columbia as a large country still possessing two coastal areas, the Atlantic and Pacific due to it position at the tip of meso-america, and close to the Panama canal, never competed with the three southern giants, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, in part due to its economics. Between 1906 and 1921 indeed its economy was very unstable. By loosing its nortern province of Panama in 1903, political turmoil led to a disregard for the Navy.

The General Pinzon (ex-Namouna)

The only significant ship until then has been the 1902 Almirante Lezo, a 1200 tonnes "Vickers cruiser" of second hand, previous El Bashir (purchased from Morocco) and later named, Cartagena, and renamed later after her refit in Havana in 1912. The name was an homage to Spanish Admiral Blas de Lezo. She was armed with just two 4.7 in guns (105 mm) and four 1-pounder QF and torpedo tubes above the waterline. She was capable of 15 knots originally but due to neglect she was in poor state, to the point or being stricken in 1925 and latter scrapped. She took part in an interesting event in 1903: The Panama standoff with the USA.

After French effort to build the Panama Canal failed, the United States under "Teddy" Rooselevelt's lobbying, took up the project due to its strategic value. However at the time, it was part of Colombia. Since the latter proved "uncooperative" it was decided to force ownership of the isthmus by arms. A local rebellion was stirred up and financed, and it drew the attention of the tiny Colombian navy. US ships were sent to watch over the situation, the guboat USS Nashville. It was soon facing its Colombian counterpart, Almirante Lezo. The two ships were comparable, and on paper the Nashville was inferior, but it was just the reverse due to her superior artillery. See US WW1 gunboats. Almirante Lezo was escorting a troop transport to Colon, north of Panama, but the presence of the Nashville made this force withdrawn.

The Gunboat Bogota in 1898

On the Pacific side, Colombia aligned the gunboats Bogota and Padilla, anchored in Panama City. Bogota fired on a rebel shore battery but the US Navy was soon present ion force of this side of Panam as well, and discouraged Colombia from trying harder to stem the rebellion. In the end, the new Ohio-class USS Maine, protected cruiser USS Atlanta joined in, as well as the armed merchant ships Dixie and Prairie in the Atlantic, the monitor USS Wyoming, cruisers USS Boston and Marblehead and gunboat Concord on the Pacific side, with crews already well experienced by their fight against the Spaniards in 1898.

Lautaro sinking in Panama Bay Lautaro sinking in Panama Bay after her action with the rebel Almirante Padilla, 20 January 1902.

President Marroquin
President Marroquin
The ex-American civil war steamer RR Cuyler
The ex-American civil war steamer RR Cuyler

The same year, in 1903, the Colombians retired the 1870 cruiser General José Maria Córdoba, ex-Neptuno puchased in 1896.
The 1810-founded Colombian Navy still operated during WW1 (in which the country was neutral) the cruiser General Próspero Pinzon a 1881, 740 tonnes cruiser, also of second hand (ex-Namauna) in 1901. She would be discarded in 1916. Another cruiser which changed hands four times, was the President Marroquin (ex-Bolívar). Also built in 1870 in Uk as the civilian steamer Ban Righ, she was bought and lent to Venezuelan rebels, nenamed "Liberatador", fitted with guns and armor over the engine, steering and bridge. She was returne dto the Colombian Navy in September 1902 and used as training ship until November 1916. In addition we can note here 1888 cruiser 21 de Noviembre (ex-Almirante Padilla) purchased in 1902. A Cargo coaster purchased by rebels by September 1901, heavily, renamed Almirante Padilla, and surrendered in October 1902 to Panama in November 1903.

In addition the Navy had two riverine steam stern wheelers built in New Jersey in 1895-97, with a nickel belt armor and three 1-pdr guns. A third one was larger, 643 tonnes rather than 400, but her characteristics are unknown; All three were discarded in 1935. In 1884 was ordered in the USA, the Steel river gunboat Hércules. She was originally a dredger, converted as an armoured gunboat in 1895-1898 and still active in 1928, sank in an accidental explosion.

Also the Navy operated the steamer La Popa and the transport Cordova. Both were stricken prior to WW1. In 1913 the only addition was four 20 tones steam launches (by Yarrow) for the coast guard, and only one was armed in 1919, with a local field gun due to British embargo. Eventually the Panama canal issue was fixed between Colombian and the USA in the 1921 treaty.

During the interwar, the Colombian Navy also operated two more modern vessels, the Patrol gunboat Bogotá (Built at Tecklenborg, Geestemunde in Germany, 1919), purchased 1932 as the Former German minesweeper M140. She ran aground and sunk off Isla de Manzanillo in 1936. The Patrol gunboat Córdoba was the Nordseewerke-built (Germany) 1920 minesweeper, M140 sunk in gunnery exercises on 11 June 1937. In 1922 the fleet also operated several Government armed steamers and Government river dredgers (at least four, 1906), listed as of 1922.

The navy reverted to a coastguard and river service until seeing a rapid expansion at the eve of the 1932-33 Peru-Colombia War. The more spectacular acquisition was two ex-Portuguese destroyers, completed by four recent riverine gunboats.

In 1939, the Colombian fleet comprised the following:

Vouga class destroyers (1933)

Certainly the most capable ships of the Colombian Navy in 1939, these were the portuguese Douro and Tejo (Vouga class, based on the "A" class or Ambuscade, with a different main artillery) renamed Antioquia and Caldas. Classic 1930 Yarrow destroyer design. Conway's list the first as the "Antiquois". Built at Estaleiro Real de Lisboa, Portugal they were both commissioned in Colombian service in 1934, February and April.

Orignally planned for the Portuguese navy, they were purchased on the stocks on 27.3.1933 as an intermediary for British private concern about Peru's recent acquisition of Novik class destroyers, previous purchased by Estonia. The crews of both Colombian destroyers were hired by the same British company and they arrived in Colombia by May 1934. To be versatile, the destroyers were equipped with rails for minelaying, and had depht-charges. They were original in what they combined Curtiss geared turbine sets and Parsons cruising turbines for economical cruises.

During WW2, they were fitted woth two more 20mm/70 Mk 4 Oerlikon AA guns. In 1952 and 1955 respectively, they received an additional two 127mm/38 Mk 30 guns and six 40mm /60 Bofors Mk 3, plus a 24-barrel (178 rockets) ASWRL Hedgehog Mk 11 and four more modern DCTs as well as a modern radar and sonar. They were discarded in 1961. By then, the Colombian navy has been buffered by numerous acquisitions of larger ships, Swedish and American, rising several fold.
Displacement: 1219 tons standard, 1563 tons FL
Dimensions: 93.6/98.5 (oa) x 9.44 x 2.74
Propulsion: 2 shafts Parsons geared steam turbines, 3 Yarrow boilers, 33,000 shp, 36 kts.
Radius of action: Oil 292 tones, 5400 nm at 15 knots.
Armament: Four 120mm/50 Mk.G, Three 40mm/39 2pdr QF Mk II, 2x4 533 TTs, 20 mines, 2 DCT (12)
Other equipment: Hydrophone
Crew: 147

Colombian gunboats

-Steel river gunboat Presidente Mosquera (ex-Colombia), built in 1912. She was still active as a school for mechanics and boys in 1955, but sunk at moorings 28 November 1957.
-Carabobo class Patrol gunboats (built at C. A. de St. Nazaire-Penhoet, Rouen). Three ships launched launched 1925, and used as Coastguard and later river patrol vessel, Discarded in 1950. Also the Junín (ex-Boyacá) and Pichincha.

-Cartagena class river gunboats: built at Yarrow (Glasgow), comissioned 1931. Also Santa Marta and Barranquilla, stricken 1963, 69 and 85. These were 142 tonnes ships (dimensions 39.62/41.83 m x 7.16 x 0.84 m), powered by two Gardner semi-diesels, 600 bhp and 15.5 knots, armed wth a single 3-in gun (76 mm) and four MGs.
-Patrol gunboat Mariscal Sucre. Yarrow & Co. Glasgow built in 1909, acquired in 1933. This was the former yacht Flying Fox (ex-Winchester) which was used for naval school from 6 December 1948 and stricken in 1955.

Read More:

Costa Rica in WW2

To come...

Cuba in WW2

The Cuban fleet protected its important territorial waters with a fleet of pre-ww1 gunboats of variable tonnage, which are in detail:
-Cuba: 1911, 2055 tons, retired from service in 1971
-Patria: 1911, 1200 tons, retired in 1955.
-Class Diez de Octubre: Dice de Octubre and Veinte y quarto de Febrero (1911, 208 tons, reformed in 1946)
-Baire: 1906, 500 tons, reformed 1948.

Dominican Republic

The small country possessed a limited sea facade, and operated a few patrol boats on rivers but no major ships. However the great "postwar discount" allowed the South-American country to purchase an ex- British River class frigate in 1946, renamed Presidente Trujillo, as well as an ex-Flower class Corvette called Colon (Or Cristobal Colon), also acquired from Canada. She was active in 1980 whereas Trujillo was renamed Mello and served from 1962 as a presidential yacht. She was still active in 1980 but her current status is unknown.


Apart a riverine force to patrol the amazon, the small Equadorian Navy only existed thanks to the use of nearby Chilean naval infrastructure for training.
Libertudor Bolivar: The only significant sea-going warship in service was the 1896 Libertudor Bolivar, ex-Almirante Simpson, a 750 tons gunboat acquired in 1907 from Chile, still active until 1932 when she was discarded.

Cotopaxi: The only other significant warship in service during the interwar was the 300 tons Cotopaxi, dating back from 1884. She was also discarded in 1932, leaving Equador without any sea-going vessel during WW2.


Durango 1936

Although one of the wealthiest country in South America, Mexico never invested in a substantial Navy.
In 1918, the Mexican Navy inherited a large collection of ships dating back 1892 to 1903 (the country stayed neutral, rocked by a revolution):
-The old cruiser Zaragosa (1891), discarded in 1924
-Independecia class gunboats (Independencia, Libertad, 1874, 480 tons) discarded in the early 1920s
-The Plan de Guadalupe (1892, 824 tons) stricken in 1924
-The Tampico class gunboats (1902, 980 tons) stricken 1924
-The Nicholas Bravo class (1903, 1227 tons) stricken 1925
During the interwar, it was made of a relatively modern fleet inherited from the 1932 naval plan, and in addition to a large coast defence ship purchased in 1924 to Brazil, the Mexican feet was reinforced by three destroyer-size patrol sloops (Spanish built), two gunboat-transports (also Spanish built), and ten gunboats (Basque-built on British plans). The government chose to support the Spanish Republicans in 1931 and still during the civil war.

The gunboat Nicholas Bravo

Transport cruiser General Guerrero (1908)
A British-built vessel from Vickers, Barrow this was more a transport than a cruiser with her light armament, and despite having tailored accomodations for 550 troops, 45 horses and field guns, she was still relatively narrow. Her guns were installed on the forecastle (one), the remainder on the poop deck. Also names Vicente Guerrero she commemorated the leader of the war of independence and third Mexican president in 1829. She was stricken in 1924, quite early, for reasons unknown.

-1850 tons, 74.6 x 13.2 x 5.3 m
-1 shaft VTE 1500 shp 12 knots
-Armed with 6 x 4-in (102 mm), crew 300
The fleet also operated the coast defence ship Anahuac, purchased in Brazil in 1924, not modernized and discarded in 1938.

Mexico during the interwar:

We will not dwelve in detail in these events, but internal political history of Mexico is perhaps one of the factors which contributed to limit the country's naval ambitions. The only goal of the navy in these troubled times was to protect the coast, fishery areas, carry and support troops in internal police operations.
The first period was called the Obregón presidency, 1920–1924 a General that suppressed Huerta's rebellion with US help, followed by Calles presidency, 1924–1928, elected after a popular campaign and it was marked by anticlerical measures and the repression of a fierce counter-revolution called the Cristero War (1926–1929). It was followed by the Maximato and the Formation of the ruling party, and three presidents held office, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio, and Abelardo L. Rodríguez. This was followed by the revitalization of the revolution under President Lázaro Cárdenas, which at the eve of World War II (1934–1940), its administration was just stabilizing and consolidating control over Mexico. Since 1936, Mexicans interpreted the civil war in Spain as a major struggle between the communists and fascists seen through their unique revolutionary lens.

Mexico during WW2:

The gunboat Guanajuato after the war (src shipspotting.com)

Mexico position towards the United States was unclear and the country remained neutral. However, Nazi propagandist Arthur Dietrich and his agents in Mexico successfully manipulated editorials covering the European war via bribings, leading major oil companies to boycot Mexican oil following Lázaro Cárdenas' nationalization of the domestic oil industry, and expropriation of all oil properties in 1938. Mexico's started to sell its oil to Germany and Italy as a result.

Manuel Ávila Camacho, Cárdenas's successor, moved away from nationalistic autarchy and proposed to create a better climate for international investment. This move was started decades before under Madero. The new president's regime regime froze wages, repressed strikes, and instituted the "crime of social dissolution" to lower dissidence. The PRI shifted away from radical nationalism under Cárdena. The country played a relatively minor role in World War Two. Relations warmed already under U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the "Good Neighbor Policy" toward Latin America, and Mexico aligned with the United States in 1940, but under a "belligerent neutrality" prior to the Pearl Harbor attack in December 1941.

Mexico went as far as sacnctioning businesses identified by U.S. intelligence as suppoting the Axis and in August 1941 already, Mexico broke off economic relations with Germany. This was followed by staged massive rallies in support of the government and after December 1941, Mexico took a war footing.

Its biggest contributions was to transport war materiel and labor (Bracero Program) and many Mexican were found in European and Pacific theaters transport fleets. The first trained in Los Angeles in 1942. The Good Neighbor Policy was confirmed by the Douglas-Weichers Agreement in June 1941 securing Mexican oil exclusive for the US, and a generous Settlement in November 1941. This political move led other Latin American countries to be more lenient on their support the Allies.

Naval losses were few: Two tankers in the Gulf of Mexico under Mexican flag, the Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro, sunk by U-564 and U-106 respectively. This was enough for the Mexican to declare war on all Axis powers on May 30, 1942. however the Navy's duty was mainly escorting ships in the gulf of mexico and traditional patrols on the west and east coast. The Escuadrón 201 Aztec Eagles was perhaps the best known contribution of the Mexicans, 300 volunteers trained in the United States as pilots and deployed in the pacific. The Escuadrón 201 fought during the liberation of the Philippines as part of the Fifth Air Force in 1945. In addition the Bracero Program sent 290,000 Mexicans to work temporarily on American farms, especially in Texas.

Mexican air force Capt. Radames Gaxiola Andrade stands in front of his P-47D with his maintenance team after he returned from a combat mission. Captain Andrade was assigned to the Mexican air force's Escuadrón 201. Members of the Escuadrón 201 fought alongside U.S. forces during World War II.(Courtesy photo)

-The Mexican Marines, or "Naval Infantry Corps", Cuerpo de Infantería de Marina was founded as far as 1922, during the independence war, and the Secretariat of the Admiralty headed by Don Agustín de Iturbide, assigned the first units of the Mexican Army, consisting of four battalions. Two of them were classified as "Marina" stationed in San Blas and Veracruz.

-The Mexican Naval Aviation was created in 1919. A Mexican-made float biplane was successfully tested by Carlos Santa Ana at the Port of Veracruz that year. In 1926, a squadron of floatplanes designed and made for the Mexican Navy was created and Carlos Castillo Breton, became the first Naval pilot in 1927, training in The U.S. and Mexico. Until 1943, some aircraft were acquired with seven naval officers qualified as pilots, some joining the Mexican Air Force. The Naval Aviation school was created in 1943 at Las Bajadas, Veracruz. They used ex-FAM aircraft to patrol the Gulf of Mexico in search for German submarines and training in 1945.

The navy as considerably augmented after WW2 with transfers from the US Navy, notably Tacoma class frigates and APD class fast personnel transports.

Ships in service in WW2:

Gunboat Progreso (1907)
A 1590 tonnes vessel built in Italy at Odero, Sestri Ponente NyD. This went back to odd circumstances: The Italian Progreso in February 1915 was blown-up accidentally while lying in the port of the same name in Yucatan. Ten were killed, as this two-masted, on funneled vessel was sent to support the forced of General Carranza, then legitimate president. She was raised by the Mexicans, repaired, and returned to service, and discarded in 1947.

-1590 tons, 70.1 x 10.3 x 3 m
-1 shaft VTE 1400 shp 13 knots, coal 209 tons
-Armed with 4 -6pdr (57 mm), crew 140

Guanajuato class patrol sloops (1934)
Ordered in Spain in 1932, built at the Societa Espanol in Ferrol, entered service in 1935. First Mexican warships with Turbines, they were as fast as destroyers, but with light guns and no TTs, but a substantial anti-aircraft battery. The class comprised three ships: Guanajuato, Queretaro and Potosi. Design was based on the Canovas del Castillo gunboat. By lowering armament, space was available to take onboard 230 infantry and 40 horses in special accommodation in the aft superstructure. During WW2, all three were modernized in US shipyards in California. They served until 1975.

-1300 tons, 77.92 x 10.51 x 3.05 m
-2 shaft Parsons geared turbines 5000 shp 29 knots
-Armed with 3x 4-in (102 mm), 2x2x 25 mm AA, 2x2x 13 mm AA.
-Crew 140

Durango class transport gunboats (1934)

Durango circa 1942

Ordered in Spain in 1932 to replace the transport cruiser Vicente Guerrero. They could carry 490 troops and 80 horses, and horse-drawn field artillery. Durango was built at Levante Yard of Vaencia and Zacatecas at the Echevarria & Larrinaga NyD in Cadiz. As political tensions rose, Zacatecas was seized by the Republican Government and served during the civil war. Mexico never received the latter while Durango was active until the late 1970s.

-1600 tons, 85.95 x 12.19 x 3.05 m
-2 shaft Parsons geared turbines, Yarrow boilers, 6500 shp 20 knots
-Armed with 2x 4-in (102 mm), 2x2x 25 mm AA, 2x2x 13 mm AA.
-Crew 141

G class gunboats (1934)
These small coastal vessels were the most important class resulting of the 1932 naval program. They were numbered G20 to G29, built in Basque country at Euskalduna NyD in Bilbao on a British design, with German powerplants and French guns. A truly European affair. This class was split between flotillas of the Pacific ocean and Caribbean. They served until the 1950-60s. The first was discarded in 1945, others in 1954 and the remainder in 1963, modernized.

-130 St./180 tons FL, 44.96 wl, 46.63 oa x 5.03 x 1.59 m
-2 shaft MAN diesels, 3000 shp 26 knots
-Armed with 2x 25 mm AA, 4x 13 mm AA
-Crew 21

Coming soon: The Navy of Morroco

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☸ To read for a better understanding of this website

❢ Abbreviations & acronyms
    AAW// warfare
    AASAmphibious Assault Ship
    AEWAirbone early warning
    AGAir Group
    AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
    AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
    APArmor Piercing
    APCArmored Personal Carrier
    ASMAir-to-surface Missile
    ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
    ASROCASW Rockets
    ASWAnti Submarine Warfare
    ASWRLASW Rocket Launcher
    ATWahead thrown weapon
    avgasAviation Gasoline
    awAbove Waterline
    AWACSAirborne warning & control system
    bhpbrake horsepower
    BLBreach-loader (gun)
    BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
    BUBroken Up
    CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
    CalCaliber or ".php"
    CGMissile Cruiser
    CICCombat Information Center
    C-in-CCommander in Chief
    CIWSClose-in weapon system
    CECompound Expansion (engine)
    ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
    CLCruiser, Light
    CMBCoastal Motor Boat
    CMSCoastal Minesweeper
    CNOChief of Naval Operations
    CpCompound (armor)
    COBCompound Overhad Beam
    CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
    CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
    COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
    COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
    COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
    CRCompound Reciprocating
    CRCRSame, connecting rod
    CruDivCruiser Division
    CPControlled Pitch
    CTConning Tower
    CTLconstructive total loss
    CTOLConv. Take off & landing
    CTpCompound Trunk
    CVAircraft Carrier
    CVA// Attack
    CVE// Escort
    CVL// Light
    CVS// ASW support
    DADirect Action
    DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
    DCDepht Charge
    DCT// Track
    DCR// Rack
    DCT// Thrower
    DEDouble Expansion
    DEDestroyer Escort
    DDE// Converted
    DesRonDestroyer Squadron
    DFDouble Flux
    DPDual Purpose
    DUKWAmphibious truck
    EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
    ECMElectronic Warfare
    ESMElectronic support measure
    FCSFire Control System
    fpsFeet Per Second
    FYFiscal Year
    GMMetacentric Height
    GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
    GRTGross Tonnage
    GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
    HAHigh Angle
    HCHorizontal Compound
    HCR// Reciprocating
    HCDA// Direct Acting
    HCDCR// connecting rod
    HDA// direct acting
    HDAC// acting compound
    HDAG// acting geared
    HDAR// acting reciprocating
    HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
    H/FHigh Frequency
    HF/DF// Directional Finding
    HMSHer Majesty Ship
    HNHarvey Nickel
    HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
    HPHigh Pressure
    HRHorizontal reciprocating
    HRCR// connecting rod
    HSHarbor Service
    HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
    HSET// trunk
    HTHorizontal trunk
    HTE// expansion
    ICInverted Compound
    IDAInverted direct acting
    IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
    ihpindicated horsepower
    IMFInshore Minesweeper
    KCKrupp, cemented
    KNC// non cemented
    LALow Angle
    LCLanding Craft
    LCA// Assault
    LCAC// Air Cushion
    LFC// Flak (AA)
    LCG// Gunboat
    LCG(L)/// Large
    LCG(M)/// Medium
    LCG(S)/// Small
    LCI// Infantry
    LCM// Mechanized
    LCP// Personel
    LCP(R)/// Rocket
    LCS// Support
    LCT// Tanks
    LCV// Vehicles
    LCVP/// Personal
    LCU// Utility
    locolocomotive (boiler)
    LSCLanding ship, support
    LSD// Dock
    LSF// Fighter (direction)
    LSM// Medium
    LSS// Stern chute
    LST// Tank
    LSV// Vehicle
    LPlow pressure
    lwllenght waterline
    MA/SBmotor AS boat
    MGMachine Gun
    MGBMotor Gunboat
    MLMotor Launch
    MMSMotor Minesweper
    MTMilitary Transport
    MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
    HMGHeavy Machine Gun
    MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
    MLMuzzle loading
    MLR// rifled
    MSOOcean Minesweeper
    NCnon condensing
    nhpnominal horsepower
    nmNautical miles
    NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
    NSNickel steel
    NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
    NyDNaval Yard
    OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
    PCPatrol Craft
    PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
    psipounds per square inch
    PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
    QFQuick Fire
    QFC// converted
    RAdmRear Admiral
    RCRreturn connecting rod
    RFRapid Fire
    RPCRemote Control
    rpgRound per gun
    SAMSurface to air Missile
    SARSearch Air Rescue
    SBShip Builder
    SCSub-chaser (hunter)
    SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
    SESimple Expansion
    SET// trunk
    shpShaft horsepower
    SHsimple horizontal
    SOSUSSound Surv. System
    SPRsimple pressure horiz.
    SSSubmarine (Conv.)
    SSMSurface-surface Missile
    sfsteam frigate
    SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
    spfsteam paddle frigate
    STOVLShort Take off/landing
    SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
    tton, long (short in bracket)
    TACANTactical Air Nav.
    TBTorpedo Boat
    TBD// destroyer
    TCTorpedo carriage
    TETriple expansion
    TER// reciprocating
    TFTask Force
    TGBTorpedo gunboat
    TGTask Group
    TLTorpedo launcher
    TLC// carriage
    TSTraining Ship
    TTTorpedo Tube
    UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
    UHFUltra High Frequency
    VadmVice Admiral
    VCVertical compound
    VCE// expansion
    VDE/ double expansion
    VDSVariable Depth Sonar
    VIC/ inverted compound
    VLFVery Low Frequency
    VQL/ quadruple expansion
    VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
    VTE/ triple expansion
    VTOLVertical take off/landing
    VSE/ Simple Expansion
    WTWireless Telegraphy
    xnumber of
    BuShipsBureau of Ships
    DBMGerman Navy League
    GBGreat Britain
    DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    FAAFleet Air Arm
    FNFLFree French Navy
    MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
    MSAMaritime Safety Agency
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    RANRoyal Australian Navy
    RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
    R&DResearch & Development
    RNRoyal Navy
    RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
    ussrUnion of Socialist Republics
    UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
    UNUnited Nations Org.
    USNUnited States Navy
    WaPacWarsaw Pact

⛶ Pre-Industrial Eras

☀ Introduction
☀ Neolithic to bronze age
⚚ Antique
⚜ Medieval
⚜ Renaissance
⚜ Enlightenment

⚔ Naval Battles

⚔ Pre-Industrial Battles ☍ See the page
  • Salamis
  • Cape Ecnomus
  • Actium
  • Red Cliffs
  • Battle of the Masts
  • Yamen
  • Lake Poyang
  • Lepanto
  • Vyborg Bay
  • Svensksund
  • Trafalgar
  • Sinope
⚔ Industrial Era Battles ☍ See the page
⚔ WW1 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page
⚔ WW2 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page

⚔ Crimean War

Austrian Navy ☍ See the page
French Navy ☍ See the page
    Screw Ships of the Line
  • Navarin class (1854)
  • Duquesne class (1853)
  • Fleurus class (1853)
  • Montebello (1852)
  • Austerlitz (1852)
  • Jean Bart (1852)
  • Charlemagne (1851)
  • Napoleon (1850)
  • Sailing Ships of the Line
  • Valmy (1847)
  • Ocean class (1805)
  • Hercules class (1836)
  • Iéna class (1814)
  • Jupiter (1831)
  • Duperré (1840)
  • Screw Frigates
  • Pomone (1845)
  • Isly (1849)
  • Bellone (1853)
  • D’Assas class (1854)
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Primauguet class (1852)
  • Roland (1850)
Royal Navy ☍ See the page
  • Duke of Wellington
  • Conqueror (1855)
  • Marlborough (1855)
  • Royal Albert (1854)
  • St Jean D’Acre (1853)
  • Waterloo (1833
  • Sailing ships of the Line
  • Sailing Frigates
  • Sailing Corvettes
  • Screw two deckers
  • Screw frigates
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Screw guard ships
  • Paddle frigates
  • Paddle corvettes
  • Screw sloops
  • Paddle sloops
  • Screw gunboats
  • Brigs

⚑ 1870 Fleets

Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola ☍ See the Page
  • Numancia (1863)
  • Tetuan (1863)
  • Vitoria (1865)
  • Arapiles (1864)
  • Zaragosa (1867)
  • Sagunto (1869)
  • Mendez Nunez (1869)
  • Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
  • Frigate Tornado (1865)
  • Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
  • Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
  • Dannebrog (1863)
  • Peder Skram (1864)
  • Danmark (1864)
  • Rolf Krake (1864)
  • Lindormen (1868)

  • Jylland CR (1860)
  • Tordenskjold CR (1862)
  • Dagmar SP (1861)
  • Absalon class GB (1862)
  • Fylla class GB (1863)
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Basileos Giorgios (1867)
  • Basilisa Olga (1869)
  • Sloop Hellas (1861)
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine 1870
  • Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
  • De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
  • Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
  • Buffel class turret rams (1868)
  • Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
  • Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
  • Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
  • Adder class Monitors (1870)
  • A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
  • A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
  • Djambi class corvettes (1860)
  • Amstel class Gunboats (1860)
Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
  • Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
  • Screw Frigates (1849-59)
  • Conv. sailing frigates
  • Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
  • Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
  • Paddle Frigates
  • Paddle Corvettes
  • screw sloops
  • screw gunboats
  • Sailing ships of the line
  • Sailing frigates
  • Sailing corvettes
  • Sailing bricks

  • Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
  • Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
  • Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
  • Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
  • Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
  • Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864)
  • Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
  • Taureau arm. ram (1865)
  • Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
  • Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
  • Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

  • Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
  • Talisman cruisers (1862)
  • Resolue cruisers (1863)
  • Venus class cruisers (1864)
  • Decres cruiser (1866)
  • Desaix cruiser (1866)
  • Limier class cruisers (1867)
  • Linois cruiser (1867)
  • Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
  • Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
  • Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
  • Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

  • Curieux class sloops (1860)
  • Adonis class sloops (1863)
  • Guichen class sloops (1865)
  • Sloop Renard (1866)
  • Bruix class sloops (1867)
  • Pique class gunboats (1862)
  • Hache class gunboats (1862)
  • Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
  • Etendard class gunboats (1868)
  • Revolver class gunboats (1869)
Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
  • Barrozo class (1864)
  • Brasil (1864)
  • Tamandare (1865)
  • Lima Barros (1865)
  • Rio de Janeiro (1865)
  • Silvado (1866)
  • Mariz E Barros class (1866)
  • Carbal class (1866)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864)
  • Assari Tewfik (1868)
  • Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
  • Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
  • Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
  • Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
  • Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
  • Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
  • Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
  • Abdul Kadir Battleships (project)

  • Frigate Ertrogul (1863)
  • Selimieh (1865)
  • Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
  • Mehmet Selim (1876)
  • Sloops & despatch vessels
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Marina Do Peru
  • Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
  • CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
  • Turret ship Huascar (1865)
  • Frigate Apurimac (1855)
  • Corvette America (1865)
  • Corvette Union (1865)
Portuguese Navy 1870 Marinha do Portugal
  • Bartolomeu Dias class (28-guns) steam frigates
  • Sagris (14 guns) steam corvette
  • Vasco Da Gama (74 guns) Ship of the Line
  • Dom Fernando I e Gloria (50) Sailing Frigate
  • Dom Joao I class (14 guns) Sailing corvettes
  • Portuguese Side-wheel steamers
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun 1870
  • Ironclad Ruyjo (1868)
  • Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
  • Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
  • Frigate Kasuga (1863)
  • Corvette Asama (1869)
  • Gunboat Raiden (1856)
  • Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
  • Teibo class GB (1866)
  • Gunboat Mushun (1865)
  • Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine 1870
  • Prinz Adalbert (1864)
  • Arminius (1864)
  • Friedrich Carl (1867)
  • Kronprinz (1867)
  • K.Whilhelm (1868)
  • Arcona class Frigates (1858)
  • Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
  • Augusta class Frigates (1864)
  • Jäger class gunboats (1860)
  • Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot 1870
  • Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
  • Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
  • Ironclad Smerch (1864)
  • Pervenetz class (1863)
  • Charodeika class (1867)
  • Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
  • Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
  • Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
  • Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
  • S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
  • S3D Sinop (1860)
  • S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
  • Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
  • Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
  • Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
  • Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
  • Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
  • Almaz class Sloops (1861)
  • Opyt TGBT (1861)
  • Sobol class TGBT (1863)
  • Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
  • Ericsson class monitors (1865)
  • Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
  • Frigate Stockholm (1856)
  • Corvette Gefle (1848)
  • Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
  • Skorpionen class (1866)
  • Frigate Stolaf (1856)
  • Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
  • Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
  • Frigate Vanadis (1862)
  • Glommen class gunboats (1863)
Union Union Navy ☍ See the Page
Confederate Confederate Navy ☍ See the Page
Union 'Old Navy'(1865-1885) ☍ See the Page
  • Dunderberg Bd Ironclad (1865)
  • Wampanoag class frigates (1864)
  • Frigate Chattanooga & Idaho (1864)
  • Frigate Idaho (1864)
  • Java class frigates (1865)
  • Contookook class frigates (1865)
  • Frigate Trenton (1876)
  • Swatara class sloops (1865)
  • Alaska class sloops (1868)
  • Galena class sloops (1873)
  • Enterprise class sloops (1874)
  • Alert class sloops (1873)
  • Alarm torpedo ram (1873)
  • Intrepid torpedo ram (1874)

⚑ 1890 Fleets

Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
  • Parana class (1873)
  • La Plata class (1875)
  • Pilcomayo class (1875)
  • Ferre class (1880)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
  • Custoza (1872)
  • Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
  • Kaiser (1871)
  • Kaiser Max class (1875)
  • Tegetthoff (1878)

  • Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
  • SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
  • SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

  • Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
  • Saida (1878)
  • Fasana (1870)
  • Aurora class (1873)
Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
  • Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
  • Skjold (1896)
  • Cruiser Fyen (1882)
  • Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)
Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Spetsai class (1889)
  • Nauarchos Miaoulis (1889)
  • Greek Torpedo Boats (1881-85)
  • Greek Gunboats (1861-84)
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
  • Gunboat St Michael (1970)
  • Gunboat "1804" (1875)
  • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
  • Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
  • Konigin der Netherland (1874)
  • Draak, monitor (1877)
  • Matador, monitor (1878)
  • R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
  • Evertsen class CDS (1894)
  • Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
  • Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
  • Banda class Gunboats (1872)
  • Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
  • Gunboat Aruba (1873)
  • Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
  • Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
  • Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
  • Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
  • Combok class Gunboats (1891)
  • Borneo Gunboat (1892)
  • Nias class Gunboats (1895)
  • Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
  • Dutch sloops (1864-85)
Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
  • Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
  • Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
  • Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
  • Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
  • Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
  • Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
  • Marceau class barbette ships (1888)

  • Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
  • Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
  • Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
  • Tonnant ironclad (1880)
  • Furieux ironclad (1883)
  • Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Jemmapes class (1892)
  • Bouvines class (1892)

  • La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
  • Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
  • Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
  • Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
  • Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
  • Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
  • Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
  • Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
  • Troude class Cruisers (1888)
  • Alger class Cruisers (1891)
  • Friant class Cruisers (1893)
  • Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
  • Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
  • Linois class Cruisers (1896)
  • D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
  • Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

  • R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
  • Cruiser Tourville (1876)
  • Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
  • Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
  • Villars class Cruisers (1879)
  • Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
  • Cruiser Naiade (1881)
  • Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
  • Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
  • Cruiser Milan (1884)

  • Parseval class sloops (1876)
  • Bisson class sloops (1874)
  • Epee class gunboats (1873)
  • Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
  • Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
  • Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
  • G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
  • Inconstant class sloops (1887)
  • Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
  • Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
  • Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Marinha do Portugal 1898 Marinha do Portugal
Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
  • GB Indipendencia (1874)
  • GB Democrata (1875)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
  • Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
  • Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
  • Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
  • Turkish TBs (1885-94)
Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina
  • Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
  • Caio Duilio class (1879)
  • Italia class (1885)
  • Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
  • Carracciolo (1869)
  • Vettor Pisani (1869)
  • Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
  • Flavio Goia (1881)
  • Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
  • C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
  • Pietro Micca (1876)
  • Tripoli (1886)
  • Goito class (1887)
  • Folgore class (1887)
  • Partenope class (1889)
  • Giovanni Bausan (1883)
  • Etna class (1885)
  • Dogali (1885)
  • Piemonte (1888)
  • Staffeta (1876)
  • Rapido (1876)
  • Barbarigo class (1879)
  • Messagero (1885)
  • Archimede class (1887)
  • Guardiano class GB (1874)
  • Scilla class GB (1874)
  • Provana class GB (1884)
  • Curtatone class GB (1887)
  • Castore class GB (1888)
Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
  • Ironclad Fuso (1877)
  • Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

  • Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
  • Cruiser Takao (1888)
  • Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
  • Cruiser Chishima (1890)
  • Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
  • Cruiser Miyako (1898)

  • Frigate Nisshin (1869)
  • Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
  • Kaimon class CVT (1882)
  • Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
  • Sloop Seiki (1875)
  • Sloop Amagi (1877)
  • Corvette Jingei (1876)
  • Gunboat Banjo (1878)
  • Maya class GB (1886)
  • Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine
  • Ironclad Hansa (1872)
  • G.Kurfürst class (1873)
  • Kaiser class (1874)
  • Sachsen class (1877)
  • Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

  • Ariadne class CVT (1871)
  • Leipzig class CVT (1875)
  • Bismarck class CVT (1877)
  • Carola class CVT (1880)
  • Corvette Nixe (1885)
  • Corvette Charlotte (1885)
  • Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
  • Bussard class (1890)

  • Aviso Zieten (1876)
  • Blitz class Avisos (1882)
  • Aviso Greif (1886)
  • Wacht class Avisos (1887)
  • Meteor class Avisos (1890)
  • Albatross class GBT (1871)
  • Cyclop GBT (1874)
  • Otter GBT (1877)
  • Wolf class GBT (1878)
  • Habitch class GBT (1879)
  • Hay GBT (1881)
  • Eber GBT (1881)
  • Rhein class Monitors (1872)
  • Wespe class Monitors (1876)
  • Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
  • Lima class Cruisers (1880)
  • Chilean TBs (1879)
Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
  • Lindormen (1868)
  • Gorm (1870)
  • Odin (1872)
  • Helgoland (1878)
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy 1898
  • Hotspur (1870)
  • Glatton (1871)
  • Devastation class (1871)
  • Cyclops class (1871)
  • Rupert (1874)
  • Neptune class (1874)
  • Dreadnought (1875)
  • Inflexible (1876)
  • Agamemnon class (1879)
  • Conqueror class (1881)
  • Colossus class (1882)
  • Admiral class (1882)
  • Trafalgar class (1887)
  • Victoria class (1890)
  • Royal Sovereign class (1891)
  • Centurion class (1892)
  • Renown (1895)

  • HMS Shannon (1875)
  • Nelson class (1876)
  • Iris class (1877)
  • Leander class (1882)
  • Imperieuse class (1883)
  • Mersey class (1885)
  • Surprise class (1885)
  • Scout class (1885)
  • Archer class (1885)
  • Orlando class (1886)
  • Medea class (1888)
  • Barracouta class (1889)
  • Barham class (1889)
  • Pearl class (1889)
  • 1870-90 Torpedo Boats
  • Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
    • Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

    • Aragon class (1879)
    • Velasco class (1881)
    • Isla de Luzon (1886)
    • Alfonso XII class (1887)
    • Reina Regentes class (1887)
    • Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
    • Emperador Carlos V (1895)
    • Cristobal Colon (1896)
    • Princesa de Asturias class (1896)

    • Destructor class (1886)
    • Temerario class (1891)
    • TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
    • De Molina class (1896)
    • Furor class (1896)
    • Audaz class (1897)
    • Spanish TBs (1878-87)
    • Fernando class gunboats (1875)
    • Concha class gunboats (1883)
    US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy US Navy 1898☍ See the Page
    • USS Maine (1889)
    • USS Texas (1892)
    • Indiana class (1893)
    • USS Iowa (1896)

    • Amphitrite class (1876)
    • USS Puritan (1882)
    • USS Monterey (1891)

    • Atlanta class (1884)
    • USS Chicago (1885)
    • USS Charleston (1888)
    • USS Baltimore (1888)
    • USS Philadelphia (1889)
    • USS San Francisco (1889)
    • USS Newark (1890)
    • USS New York (1891)
    • USS Olympia (1892)
    • Cincinatti class (1892)
    • Montgomery class (1893)
    • Columbia class (1893)
    • USS Brooklyn (1895)

    • USS Vesuvius (1888)
    • USS Katahdin (1893)
    • USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
    • GB USS Dolphin (1884)
    • Yorktown class GB (1888)
    • GB USS Petrel (1888)
    • GB USS Bancroft (1892)
    • Machias class GB (1891)
    • GB USS Nashville (1895)
    • Wilmington class GB (1895)
    • Annapolis class GB (1896)
    • Wheeling class GB (1897)
    • Small gunboats (1886-95)
    • St Louis class AMC (1894)
    • Harvard class AMC (1888)
    • USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
    • USN Armed Yachts


    ☉ Entente Fleets

    US ww1 US Navy ☍ See the Page
    British ww1 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww1 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Japan ww1 Nihhon Kaigun ☍ See the Page
    Russia ww1 Russkiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Italy ww1 Regia Marina

    ✠ Central Empires

    German Navy 1914 Kaiserliche Marine
    austria-hungary ww1 KuK Kriesgmarine
    turkey ww1 Osmanli Donmanasi
    • Barbarossa class battleships (1892)
    • Yavuz (1914)
    • Cruiser Mecidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Hamidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Midilli (1914)
    • Namet Torpedo cruisers (1890)
    • Sahahani Deria Torpedo cruisers (1892)
    • Destroyers class Berk-Efshan (1894)
    • Destroyers class Yarishar (1907)
    • Destroyers class Muavenet (1909)
    • Berk i Savket class Torpedo gunboats (1906)
    • Marmaris gunboat (1903)
    • Sedd ul Bahr class gunboats (1907)
    • Isa Reis class gunboats (1911)
    • Preveze class gunboats (1912)
    • Turkish WW1 Torpedo Boats
    • Turkish Armed Yachts (1861-1903)
    • Turkish WW1 Minelayers

    ⚑ Neutral Countries

    Argentinian navy Argentina
    Brazilian Navy Brazil
    Chilean Navy 1914 Chile
    Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
    • Gunboat Baire (1906)
    • Gunboat Patria (1911)
    • Diez de octubre class GB (1911)
    • Sloop Cuba (1911)
    Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti
    • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
    • GB Toussaint Louverture (1886)
    • GB Capois la Mort (1893)
    • GB Crete a Pierot (1895)
    Mexican Navy Mexico
    • Cruiser Zatagosa (1891)
    • GB Plan de Guadalupe (1892)
    • Tampico class GB (1902)
    • N. Bravo class GB (1903)
    Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
    • Almirante Grau class (1906)
    • Ferre class subs. (1912)
    Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
    • Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
    • Drski class TBs (1906)
    Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
    • Skjold class (1896)
    • Herluf Trolle class (1899)
    • Herluf Trolle (1908)
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Hekla class cruisers (1890)
    • Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
    • Fyen class crusiers (1882)
    • Danish TBs (1879-1918)
    • Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
    • Danish Minelayer/sweepers
    Greek Royal Navy Greece
    Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
    • Eversten class (1894)
    • Konigin Regentes class (1900)
    • De Zeven Provincien (1909)
    • Dutch dreadnought (project)
    • Holland class cruisers (1896)
    • Fret class destroyers
    • Dutch Torpedo boats
    • Dutch gunboats
    • Dutch submarines
    • Dutch minelayers
    Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
    • Haarfarge class (1897)
    • Norge class (1900)
    • Norwegian Monitors
    • Cr. Frithjof (1895)
    • Cr. Viking (1891)
    • DD Draug (1908)
    • Norwegian ww1 TBs
    • Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
    • Sub. Kobben (1909)
    • Ml. Fröya (1916)
    • Ml. Glommen (1917)
    Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
    • Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
    • Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
    • Sao Gabriel class (1898)
    • Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
    • Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
    • Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
    • Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
    • Portuguese ww1 Gunboats
    Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
    Spanish Armada Spain
    Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
    Chinese navy 1914 China
    Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
    • Maha Chakri (1892)
    • Thoon Kramon (1866)
    • Makrut Rajakumarn (1883)

    ⚏ WW1 3rd/4th rank navies

    ✈ WW1 Naval Aviation

    US naval aviation USN
    • Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
    • Aeromarine 39 (1917)
    • Curtiss H (1917)
    • Curtiss F5L (1918)
    • Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
    • Curtiss NC (1918)
    • Curtiss NC4 (1918)
    • Short 184 (1915)
    • Fairey Campania (1917)
    • Felixtowe F2 (1916)
    • Felixtowe F3 (1917)
    • Felixtowe F5 (1918)
    • Sopwith Baby (1917)
    • Fairey Hamble Baby (1917)
    • Fairey III (1918)
    • Short S38 (1912)
    • Short Admiralty Type 166 (1914)
    • Short Admiralty Type 184 (1915)

    • Blackburn Kangaroo
    • Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter
    • Sopwith Pup
    • Sopwith Cuckoo 1918
    • Royal Aircraft Factory Airships
    German Imperial naval aviation Marineflieger
    • Albatros W.4 (1916)
    • Albatros W.8 (1918)
    • Friedrichshafen Models
    • Gotha WD.1-27 (1918)
    • Hansa-Brandenburg series
    • L.F.G V.19 Stralsund (1918)
    • L.F.G W (1916)
    • L.F.G WD (1917)
    • Lübeck-Travemünde (1914)
    • Oertz W series (1914)
    • Rumpler 4B (1914)
    • Sablatnig SF (1916)
    • Zeppelin-Lindau Rs series
    • Kaiserlichesmarine Zeppelins
    French naval aviation French Naval Aviation
    • Borel Type Bo.11 (1911)
    • Nieuport VI.H (1912)
    • Nieuport X.H (1913)
    • Donnet-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA (1913)
    • Donnet-Denhaut (1915)
    • Borel-Odier Type Bo-T(1916)
    • Levy G.L.40 (1917)
    • Blériot-SPAD S.XIV (1917)
    • Hanriot HD.2 (1918)
    • Zodiac Airships
    Italian naval aviation Italian Naval Aviation
    • Ansaldo SVA Idro (1916)
    • Ansaldo Baby Idro (1915)
    • Macchi M3 (1916)
    • Macchi M5 (1918)
    • SIAI S.12 (1918)
    Russian naval aviation Russian Naval Aviation
    • Grigorovich M-5 (1915)
    • Grigorovich M-9 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-11 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-15 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    ✠ K.u.K. SeeFliegkorps
    • Lohner E (1914)
    • Lohner L (1915)
    • Oeffag G (1916)
    IJN Aviation IJN Air Service
    • IJN Farman 1914
    • Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1917)
    • Yokosuka Igo-Ko (1920)


    ✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

    US ww2 US Navy
    British ww2 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww2 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Soviet ww2 Sovietskiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Koninklije Marine, Dutch Navy ww2 Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    Chinese Navy Chinese Navy 1937 ☍ See the Page

    ✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

    Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    italy ww2 Regia Marina ☍ See the Page
    German ww2 Kriegsmarine ☍ See the Page

    ⚑ Neutral Navies

    Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Armada de Chile Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    Søværnet Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    • Danish ww2 submarines
    • Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers
    Merivoimat Finnish Navy ☍ See the Page
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Greek ww2 Destroyers
    • Greek ww2 submarines
    • Greek ww2 minelayers
    Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser ORP Dragon
    • Cruiser ORP Conrad
    • Brislawicka class Destroyers
    • Witcher ww2 Destroyers
    • Minelayer Gryf
    • Wilk class sub.
    • Orzel class sub.
    • Jakolska class minesweepers
    • Polish Monitors
    Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Douro class DDs
    • Delfim class sub
    • Velho class gb
    • Albuquerque class gb
    • Nunes class sloops
    Romanian Navy Romanian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Romanian ww2 Destroyers
    • Romanian ww2 Submarines
    Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret ☍ See the Page
    • Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    Spanish Armada Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Sverige class CBBs (1915)
    • Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
    • Interwar Swedish CBB projects

    • Tre Kronor class (1943)
    • Gotland (1933)
    • Fylgia (1905)

    • Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
    • Psilander class DDs (1926)
    • Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
    • Romulus class DDs (1934)
    • Göteborg class DDs (1935)
    • Mode class DDs (1942)
    • Visby class DDs (1942)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)

    • Swedish ww2 TBs
    • Swedish ww2 Submarines
    • Swedish ww2 Minelayers
    • Swedish ww2 MTBs
    • Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
    • Swedish ww2 Minesweepers
    Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kocatepe class Destroyers
    • Tinaztepe class Destroyers
    • İnönü class submarines
    • Submarine Dumplumpynar
    • Submarine Sakarya
    • Submarine Gur
    • Submarine Batiray
    • Atilay class submarines
    Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser Dalmacija
    • Dubrovnik class DDs
    • Beograd class DDs
    • Osvetnik class subs
    • Hrabi class subs
    • Gunboat Beli Orao
    Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Taksin class
    • Ratanakosindra class
    • Sri Ayuthia class
    • Puket class
    • Tachin class
    • Sinsamudar class sub
    minor navies Minor Navies ☍ See the Page

    ✈ Naval Aviation

    Latest entries | WW1 | Cold War
    US naval aviation USN aviation ☍ See the Page
    Fleet Air Arm ☍ See the Page
    IJN aviation ☍ See the Page
    • Mitsubishi 1MF (1923)
    • Nakajima A1N (1930)
    • Nakajima A2N (1932)
    • Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" (1935)
    • Nakajima A4N (1935)
    • Mitsubishi A6M "zeke" (1940)
    • Nakajima J1N Gekko "Irving" (1941)
    • Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "George" (1942)
    • Nakajima J5N Tenrai (1944)

    • Aichi S1A Denko* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi A7M reppu* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui* (1945)
    • Mitsubishi J8M2 Shusui-kai* (1945)
    • Kyushu J7W Shinden* (1945)
    • Nakajima J9Y Kikka* (1945)

    • Mitsubishi 1MT (1922)
    • Mitsubishi B1M (1923)
    • Mitsubishi B2M (1932)
    • Kugisho B3Y (1932)
    • Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
    • Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi B5M "Mabel" (1937)
    • Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
    • Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
    • Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
    • Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
    • Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1942)
    • Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
    • Kawanishi P1Y Ginga "Frances" (1943)
    • Kyushu Q1W Tokai "Lorna" (1943)
    • Tachikawa Ki-74 "Patsy" (1944)
    • Nakajima G8N Renzan "Rita" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Nakajima C2N1 (1931)
    • Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
    • Nakajima L1N1 (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K2/4-L (1938)
    • Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
    • Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
    • Mitsubishi L4M1 (1942)
    • Nakajima G5N Shinzan "Liz" (1942)
    • Yokosuka L3Y "Tina" (1942)
    • Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna"(1943)
    • Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
    • Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945)

    • Hiro H1H (1926)
    • Yokosuka E1Y (1926)
    • Nakajima E2N (1927)
    • Aichi E3A (1929)
    • Yokosuka K4Y (1930)
    • Nakajima E4N (1931)
    • Nakajima E8N "Dave" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E7K "Alf" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E11K1 (1937)
    • Aichi E11A "Laura" (1938)
    • Watanabe E9W (1938)
    • Watanabe K8W* (1938)
    • Mitsubishi F1M "pete" (1941)
    • Nakajima E14Y "Glen" (1941)
    • Aichi E13A "Jake" (1941)
    • Aichi H9A (1942)
    • Nakajima A6M2-N (1942)
    • Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" (1943)
    • Aichi E16A "Zuiun" (1944)
    • Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1945)

    • Kawanishi E11K* (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" (1938)
    • Kawanishi K6K* (1938)
    • Kawanishi H6K3 (1939)
    • Kawanishi K8K (1940)
    • Kawanishi H8K "Emily" (1942)
    • Yokosuka H5Y "Cherry" (1936)

    • Mitsubishi 2MR (1923)
    • Yokosho K1Y (1924)
    • Yokosuka K2Y (1928)
    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Hitachi LXG1 (1934)
    • Kyushu K10W "Oak" (1943)
    Italian Aviation ☍ See the Page
    French Aeronavale ☍ See the Page
    • Levasseur PL5/9 (1924)
    • Wibault 74 (1926)
    • CAMS 37 (1926)
    • Gourdou-Leseurre GL.300 series (1926-39)
    • Levasseur PL7 (1928)
    • Levasseur PL10 (1929)
    • Latécoere 290 (1931)
    • Breguet 521/22/23 (1931)
    • Leo H257 bis (1932)
    • Latécoere 300 series (1932)
    • Morane 226 (1934)
    • Dewoitine 376 (1934)
    • Latécoere 321 (1935)
    • Potez 452 (1935)
    • Latécoere 38.1 (1936)
    • Loire 210 (1936)
    • Leo H43 (1936)
    • Levasseur PL107 (1937)
    • Loire 130 (1937)
    • Dewoitine HD.730 (1938)
    • Latecoere 298 (1938)
    • LN 401 (1938)
    Soviet Naval Aviation
    Luftwaffe (Naval) ☍ See the Page
    • Arado 197 (1937)
    • Fieseler Fi-167 (1938)
    • Junkers Ju-87C (1938)
    • Messerschmitt Me 109T (1941)
    • Messerschmitt 155 (1944)

    • Heinkel HE 1 (1921)
    • Caspar U1 (1922)
    • Dornier Do J Wal (1922)
    • Dornier Do 16 ‘Wal’ (1923)
    • Heinkel HE 2 (1923)
    • Junkers A 20/Ju 20 (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro II (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro III (1924)
    • Dornier Do D (1924)
    • Dornier Do E (1924)
    • Junkers G 24 (1924)
    • Rohrbach Ro IV (1925)
    • Heinkel HD 14 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 25 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 26 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 24 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 4 (1926)
    • Junkers W 33/34 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 5 (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro VII Robbe (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro V Rocco (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 31 (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 8 (1927)
    • Arado W II (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 9 (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 16 (1928)
    • Heinkel He 55 (1929)
    • Heinkel He 56 (1929)
    • Arado SSD I (1930)
    • Junkers Ju 52w (1930)
    • Heinkel HE 42 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 50 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 59 (1931)
    • Arado Ar 66 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 58 (1932)
    • Junkers Ju 46 (1932)
    • Klemm Kl 35bW (1932)
    • Heinkel He 62 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 60 (1933)
    • Heinkel He 51w (1933)
    • Arado Ar 95 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 196 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 199 (1939)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 139 (1936)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 138 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 140 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 222 (1938)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 238 (1942)
    • Dornier Do 24/318 (1937)
    • Dornier Do 18 (1935)
    • Dornier Do 26 (1938)
    • Dornier Do 22 (1938)
    • DFS Seeadler (1936)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 58W (1935)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 62 (1937)
    • Heinkel He 114 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 115 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 119 (1936)
    Dutch Naval Aviation
    • Fokker W.3 (1915)
    • Fokker T.II (1921)
    • Fokker B.I/III (1922)
    • Fokker B.II (1923)
    • Fokker T.III (1924)
    • Fokker T.IV (1927)
    • Fokker B.IV (1928)
    • Fokker C.VII W (1928)
    • Fokker C.VIII W (1929)
    • Fokker C.XI W (1934)
    • Fokker C.XIV-W (1937)
    • Fokker T.VIII-W (1939)

    ☢ The Cold War


    Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot ☍ See the Page
    Warsaw Pact cold war navy Warsaw Pact Navies ☍ See the Detail
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • Volksmarine East Germany
    • Parchim class corvettes (1985)
    • Hai class sub-chasers (1958)
    • Volksmarine's minesweepers
    • Volksmarine's FAC
    • Volksmarine's Landing ships
    • ORP Warzsawa (1970)
    • ORP Kaszub (1986)
    • Polish Landing ships
    • Polish FACs
    • Polish Patrol ships
    • Polish Minesweepers
    • Missile Destroyer Muntenia (1982)
    • Tetal class Frigates (1981)
    • Romanian river patrol crafts

    ✦ NATO

    bundesmarine Bundesmarine ☍ See the Page
    Dutch Navy Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)
    • Frigate Beskytteren (1976)
    • Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)
    • Thetis class frigates (1989)
    • Bellona class corvettes (1955)
    • Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

    • Delfinen class submarines (1958)
    • Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

    • Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)
    • Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)
    • Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)
    • Soloven class Torpedo Boats (1962)
    • Willemoes class FAC (1976)
    • Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)
    • Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)
    • Danish Minelayers
    • Danish Minesweepers
    Dutch Navy Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    • CV Karel Doorman (1948)
    • De Zeven Provinciën class cruisers (1945)
    • Holland class DDs (1953)
    • Friesland class DDs (1953)
    • Roodfier class Frigates (1953)
    • Frigate Lynx (1954)
    • Van Speijk class Frigates (1965)
    • Tromp class Frigates (1973)
    • Kortenaer class frigates (1976)
    • Van H. class Frigates (1983)
    • K. Doorman class Frigates (1988)
    • Dolfijn clas sub. (1959)
    • Zwaardvis class subs. (1970)
    • Walrus class subs. (1985)
    • ATD Rotterdam (1990s)
    • Dokkum class minesweepers (1954)
    • Alkmaar class minesweepers (1982)
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hydra class FFs (1990)
    • Greek cold war Subs
    • Greek Amphibious ships
    • Greek MTBs/FACs
    • Greek Patrol Vessels
    Eire Irish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eithne class PBs (1983)
    • Cliona class PBs
    • Deidre/Emer class PBs
    • Orla class fast PBs
    Marina Militare Marina Militare ☍ See the Page
      Aircraft Carriers
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1983)
    • Conte di Cavour (2004)*
    • Trieste (2022)*
    • Cruisers
    • Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)
    • Doria class H. cruisers (1962)
    • Vittorio Veneto (1969)
    • Destroyers

    • Impetuoso class (1956)
    • Impavido class (1957)
    • Audace class (1971)
    • De La Penne class (1989)
    • Orizzonte class (2007)*
    • Frigates
    • Grecale class (1949)
    • Canopo class (1955)
    • Bergamini class (1960)
    • Alpino class (1967)
    • Lupo class (1976)
    • Maestrale class (1981)
    • Bergamini class (2013)*
    • Thaon di Revel class (2020)*
    • Corvettes (OPV)
    • Albatros class (1954)
    • De Cristofaro class (1965)
    • Minerva class (1987)
    • Cassiopeia class (1989)
    • Esploratore class (1997)*
    • Sirio class (2003)*
    • Commandanti class (2004)*
    • Submarines
    • Toti class (1967)
    • Sauro class (1976)
    • Pelosi class (1986)
    • Sauro class (1992)*
    • Todaro class (2006)*
    • Attack/Amphibious ships
    • San Giorgio LSD (1987)
    • Gorgona class CTS (1987)
    • Italian Landing Crafts (1947-2020)
    • Misc. ships
    • Folgore PB (1952)
    • Lampo class PBs (1960)
    • Freccia class PBs (1965)
    • Sparviero class GMHF (1973)
    • Stromboli class AOR (1975)
    • Anteo SRS (1980)
    • Etna class LSS (1988)
    • Vulcano AOR (1998)*
    • Elettra EWSS (2003)*
    • Etna AOR (2021)*
    • Mine warfare ships
    • Lerici class (1982)
    • Gaeta class (1992)*
    Marine Française Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    • Jean Bart (1949)
    • Aircraft/Helicopter carriers
    • Dixmude (1946)
    • Arromanches (1946)
    • Lafayette class light carriers (1954)
    • PA 28 class project (1947)
    • Clemenceau class (1957)
    • Jeanne d'Arc (1961)
    • PA 58 (1958)
    • PH 75/79 (1975)
    • Charles de Gaulle (1994)

    • Cruisers
    • De Grasse (1946)
    • Chateaurenault class (1950)
    • Colbert (1956)

    • Destroyers
    • Surcouf class (1953)
    • Duperre class (1956)
    • La Galissonniere class (1960)
    • Suffren class (1965)
    • Aconit (1970)
    • Tourville class (1972)
    • G. Leygues class (1976)
    • Cassard class (1985)

    • Frigates
    • Le Corse class (1952)
    • Le Normand class (1954)
    • Cdt Riviere class (1958)
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Lafayette class (1990)

    • Corvettes
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Floreal class (1990)

    • Submarines
    • La Creole class (1940)
    • Narval class (1954)
    • Arethuse class (1957)
    • Daphne class (1959)
    • Gymnote test SSBN (1964)
    • Le Redoutable SSBN (1967)
    • Agosta SSN (1974)
    • Rubis SSN (1979)
    • Amethyste SSN (1988)
    • Le Triomphant SSBN (started 1989)

    • Amphibian Ships
    • Issole (1958)
    • EDIC class (1958)
    • Trieux class (1958)
    • Ouragan lass (1963)
    • Champlain lass (1973)
    • Bougainville (1986)
    • Foudre class (1988)
    • CDIC lass (1989)

    • Misc. ships
    • Le Fougueux class (1958)
    • La Combattante class (1964)
    • Trident class (1976)
    • L'Audacieuse class (1984)
    • Grebe class (1989)
    • Sirius class (1952)
    • Circe class (1972)
    • Eridan class (1979)
    • Vulcain class (1986)
    RCAN RCAN ☍ See the Page
    • HCMS Bonaventure (1957)
    • St Laurent class DDE (1951)
    • Algonquin class DDE (1952)
    • Restigouche class DDs (1954)
    • Mackenzie class DDs (1961)
    • Annapolis class DDH (1963)
    • Iroquois class DDH (1970)

    • River (mod) 1955
    • Tribal class FFs (Pjct)
    • City class DDH (1988)

    • Ojibwa class sub. (1964)
    • Kingston class MCFV (1995)
    Royal Navy Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cold War Aircraft Carriers
    • Centaur class (1947)
    • HMS Victorious (1957)
    • HMS Eagle (1946)
    • HMS Ark Royal (1950)
    • HMS Hermes (1953)
    • CVA-01 class (1966 project)
    • Invincible class (1977)

    • Cold War Cruisers
    • Tiger class (1945)

    • Destroyers
    • Daring class (1949)
    • 1953 design (project)
    • Cavendish class (1944)
    • Weapon class (1945)
    • Battle class (1945)
    • FADEP program (1946)
    • County class GMD (1959)
    • Bristol class GMD (1969)
    • Sheffield class GMD (1971)
    • Manchester class GMD (1980)
    • Type 43 GMD (1974)

    • British cold-war Frigates
    • Rapid class (1942)
    • Tenacious class (1941)
    • Whitby class (1954)
    • Blackwood class (1953)
    • Leopard class (1954)
    • Salisbury class (1953)
    • Tribal class (1959)
    • Rothesay class (1957)
    • Leander class (1961)
    • BB Leander class (1967)
    • HMS Mermaid (1966)
    • Amazon class (1971)
    • Broadsword class (1976)
    • Boxer class (1981)
    • Cornwall class (1985)
    • Duke class (1987)

    • British cold war Submarines
    • T (conv.) class (1944)
    • T (Stream) class (1945)
    • A (Mod.) class (1944)
    • Explorer class (1954)
    • Strickleback class (1954)
    • Porpoise class (1956)
    • Oberon class (1959)
    • HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
    • Valiant class SSN (1963)
    • Resolution class SSBN (1966)
    • Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
    • Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
    • Upholder class (1986)
    • Vanguard class SSBN (started)

    • Assault ships
    • Fearless class (1963)
    • HMS Ocean (started)
    • Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
    • Sir Galahad (1986)
    • Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
    • Brit. LCVPs (1963)
    • Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

    • Minesweepers/layers
    • Ton class (1952)
    • Ham class (1947)
    • Ley class (1952)
    • HMS Abdiel (1967)
    • HMS Wilton (1972)
    • Hunt class (1978)
    • Venturer class (1979)
    • River class (1983)
    • Sandown class (1988)

    • Misc. ships
    • HMS Argus ATS (1988)
    • Ford class SDF (1951)
    • Cormorant class (1985)
    • Kingfisger class (1974)
    • HMS Jura OPV (1975)
    • Island class OPVs (1976)
    • HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
    • Castle class OPVs (1980)
    • Peacock class OPVs (1982)
    • MBT 538 class (1948)
    • Gay class FACs (1952)
    • Dark class FACs (1954)
    • Bold class FACs (1955)
    • Brave class FACs (1957)
    • Tenacity class PCs (1967)
    • Brave class FPCs (1969)
    Armada de espanola - Spanish cold war navy Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    • Dédalo aircraft carrier (1967)
    • Principe de Asturias (1982)

    • Alava class DDs (1946)
    • Audaz class DDs (1955)
    • Oquendo class DDs (1956)
    • Roger de Lauria class (1967)

    • Baleares class FFs (1971)
    • Descubierta class FFs (1978)
    • Numancia class FFs (1987)

    • Pizarro class gunboats (1944)
    • Artevida class Cvs (1952)
    • Serviola class Cvs (1990)
    • Spanish cold-war submarines
    • Spanish FACs
    • Spanish Minesweepers
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Tre Kronor class (1946)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)
    • Halland class DDs (1952) (1945)
    • Ostergotland class DDs (1956)
    • Spica III class Corvettes (1984)
    • Goteborg class Corvettes (1989)

    • U1 class subs (mod.1963)
    • Hajen class subs (1954)
    • Sjoormen class subs (1967)
    • Nacken class subs (1978)
    • Vastergotland class subs (1986)
    • Gotland class subs (1995)

    • T32 class MTBs (1951)
    • T42 class MTBs (1955)
    • Plejad class FACs (1951)
    • Spica I class FACs (1966)
    • Spica II class FACs (1972)
    • Hugin class FACs (1973)
    • Swedish Patrol Boats
    • Swedish minesweepers
    • Swedish Icebreakers
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters
    Turkish Navy Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Berk class FFs (1971)
    • Atilay class sub. (1974)
    • Cakabey class LST
    • Osman Gazi class LST
    • Turkish Fast Attack Crafts
    • Turkish Patrol Boats
    US Navy USN (cold war) ☍ See the Page

    ☯ ASIA

    Chinese Navy ☍ See the Page
    Indian Navy Indian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Vikrant class CVs (1961)
    • Viraat class CVs (1986)

    • Cruiser Delhi (1948)
    • Cruiser Mysore (1957)
    • Raja class DDs (1949)
    • Rajput class DDs (1980)
    • Delhi class DDs (1990)

    • Khukri class FFs (1956)
    • Talwar class FFs (1958)
    • Brahmaputra class FFs (1957)
    • Nilgiri class FFs (1968)
    • Godavari class FFs (1980)

    • Kusura class subs (1970)
    • Shishumar class subs (1984)
    • Sindhugosh class subs (1986)

    • Indian Amphibious ships
    • Indian corvettes (1969-90)
    • Khukri class corvettes (1989)
    • SDB Mk.2 class PBs (1977)
    • Vikram class OPVs (1979)
    • Sukanya class OPVs (1989)
    Indonesia Indonesian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Fatahilla class Frigates (1977)
    • Pattimura class corvettes (1956)
    • Indonesian Marines
    • Indonesian Mine Vessels
    • Indonesian FAC/OPVs
    JMSDF JMSDF ☍ See the Page
      JMSDF Destroyers
    • Harukaze class DD (1955)
    • Ayanami class DD (1957)
    • Murasame class DD (1958)
    • Akizuki class DD (1959)
    • Amatukaze missile DD (1963)
    • Yamagumo class DDE (1965)
    • Takatsuki class DD (1966)
    • Minegumo class DDE (1967)
    • Haruna class DDH (1971)
    • Tachikaze class DD (1974)
    • Shirane class DDH (1978)
    • Hatsuyuki class DDs (1980)
    • Hatakaze class DDs (1984)
    • Asigiri class DDs (1986)
    • Kongo class DDs (started 1990)

    • JMSDF Frigates
    • Akebono class FFs (1955)
    • Isuzu class FFs (1961)
    • Chikugo class FFs (1970)
    • Ishikari class FFs (1980)
    • Yubari class FFs (1982)
    • Abukuma class FFs (1988)

    • JMSDF submarines
    • Oyashio class Sub. (1959)
    • Hayashio class Sub. (1961)
    • Natsushio class Sub. (1963)
    • Oshio class Sub. (1964)
    • Uzushio class Sub. (1970)
    • Yushio class Sub. (1979)
    • Harushio class Sub. (1989)

    • JMSDF Misc. ships
    • Japanese Landing Ships
    • Japanese Large Patrol Ships
    • Japanese Patrol Crafts
    • Japanese Minesweepers
    • Japanese Sub-chasers
    North Korean Navy North Korean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Najin class Frigates
    • Experimental Frigate Soho
    • Sariwan class Corvettes

    • Sinpo class subs.
    • Sang-O class subs.
    • Yono class subs.
    • Yugo class subs.

    • Hungnam class LCM
    • Hante class LST
    • Songjong class HVC
    • Sin Hung/Ku Song FACs
    • Anju class FACs
    • Iwon class FACs
    • Chaho class FACs
    • Hong Jin class FAC-G
    • Sohung class MTBs
    • Sinpo class MTBs
    • Nampo class FALC
    Philippines Navy Philippines Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Datu Kalantian class Frigates (1976)
    • Bacolod City class LS(L)
    • Philippino Patrol Crafts
    Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN ☍ See the Page
    • Ulsan class frigates (1980)
    • Pohang class corvettes (1984)
    • Dong Hae class corvettes (1982)
    • Han Kang class patrol corvettes (1985)
    • Chamsuri (PKM 268) PBs (1978)
    • ROKS coast guard vessels
    • Paek Ku class FAC (1975)
    • Kang Keong class minehunters (1986)
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters


    Israeli Navy IDF Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eilat class Corvettes (1993)
    • SAAR 5 Project
    • SAAR 1 FAC
    • SAAR 4 FAC
    • SAAR 4.5 FAC
    • Dvora class FAC
    • Shimrit class MHFs
    • IDF FACs/PBs
    • Etzion Geber LST
    • Ash class LCT
    Iranian Navy Iranian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Destroyer Artemiz (1965)
    • Bayandor class FFs (1963)
    • Alvand class FFs (1969)
    • Khalije Fars class DDs (2016)*


    Australian Navy RAN ☍ See the Page
    • HMAS Sydney (1948*)
    • HMAS Melbourne (1955*)
    • Tobruk class DDs (1947)
    • Voyager class DDs (1952)
    • Perth class MDD (1963)
    • Quadrant class FFs (1953)
    • Yarra class FFs (1958)
    • Swan class FFs (1967)
    • Adelaide class MFFs (1978)
    • Anzac class MFFs (1990s)
    • Oxley class subs (1965)
    • Collins class subs (1990s)
    • Australian Amphibious ships
    • Fremantle class PBs
    RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy ☍ See the Page
    • HMNZS Royalist (1956)
    • Pukaki class patrol Crafts (1974)
    • Moa class patrol crafts (1983)
    • HMNZS Aotearoa (2019)*

    ☩ South America

    Armada de argentina Argentina ☍ See the Page
    • ARA Independencia (1958)
    • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (1968)
    • Belgrano class cruisers (1951)
    • Almirante Brown class Frigates (1981)
    • Mantilla class corvettes (1981)
    • Espora class corvettes (1982)
    • Salta class submarines (1972)
    • Santa Cruz class submarines (1982)
    Brazilian Navy Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Minas Gerais aircraft carrier (1956)
    • Cruiser Barroso (1951)
    • Cruiser Tamandare (1951)
    • Acre class destroyers (1945)
    • Niteroi class Frigates (1974)
    • Ihnauma class Frigate (1986)
    • Tupi class submarines (1987)
    • Brazilian patrol ships
    Chilean Navy Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • O'Higgins class cruisers
    • Lattore Cruiser (1971)
    • Almirante class destroyers (1960)
    • Prat class M. Destroyers (1982)
    • Almirante Lynch class Frigates (1972)
    • Thomson class subs (1982)
    • Small surface combatants
    Peruvian Navy Peruvian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Almirante Grau(ii) class
    • Almirante Grau(iii) class
    • Abtao class sub.
    • PR-72P class corvettes
    • Velarde class OPVs

    ℣ AFRICA

    Egyptian Navy Egyptian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • October class FAC/M (1975)
    • Ramadan class FAC/M (1979)
    SADF South African Navy ☍ See the Page
    ☫ Minor cold war/modern Navies Algerian NavyAzerbaijani NavyBangladesh NavyBarheini NavyBolivian NavyCambodian NavyComoros NavyCosta Rica NavyCroatian NavyCuban NavyDjibouti NavyDominican Republic NavyEquadorian NavyEstonian NavyEthiopian NavyFinnish NavyGeorgian NavyHaitian NavyHonduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

    ✚ MORE

    ⚔ Cold War Naval Events
    • ⚔ Indochina War naval ops
    • ⚔ Korean War naval ops
    • ⚔ 1956 intervention in Suez
    • ⚔ 1960 Cuban crisis
    • ⚔ 1960 US/Soviet compared strenghts
    • ⚔ 1963-69 Algerian war naval ops
    • ⚔ Naval warfare in Vietnam
    • ⚔ Middle East naval fights
    • ⚔ 1980 Falkland wars
    • ⚔ 1990 Gulf War
    ⚔ Modern Navies
    ✈ Cold War Naval Aviation See the full section
    • Grumman Mallard 1946
    • Edo OSE-1 1946
    • Short Solent 1946

    • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
    • Grumman Albatross 1947
    • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
    • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
    • Short Sealand 1947

    • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
    • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
    • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
    • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
    • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949

    • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
    • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
    • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
    • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)

    • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
    • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955

    • Ikarus Kurir H 1957

    • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
    • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
    • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
    • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
    • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
    • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
    • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984

    • Patrol Planes
    • ATR 42 MP Surveyor (Italy, 1984)
    • ATR 72 MP (Italy 1988)

    • ATR 72 ASW (France, 1988)
    • Breguet Atlantic (France 1965)
    • Nord 1402 Noroit (France 1949)

    • Avro Shackleton (UK 1949)
    • BAE Nimrod MRA4 (UK 2004)
    • Britten-Norman Defender/Islander (UK 1970)
    • Fairey Gannet (UK 1949)
    • Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod (UK 1967)

    • Beechcraft King Air (USA 1963)
    • Basler BT-67 (USA 1990)
    • Boeing 737 Surveiller (USA 1967)
    • Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA 2009)
    • Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA, 1945)
    • Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA 1959)
    • Martin P4M Mercator (USA 1946)
    • Convair P5Y (USA 1950)
    • Douglas/BSAS Turbo Dakota (USA 1991)

    • Bombardier DHC-8 MPA/MSA (Can 2007)
    • Canadair CP-107 Argus (Can 1957)

    • CASA C-212 MPA (Spain 1971)
    • CASA/IPTN CN-235 MPA/HC-144 Ocean Sentry (Spain 1983)
    • CASA C-295 MPA (Spain 1997)

    • Diamond DA42 Guardian (Austria 2002)

    • Dornier 228 (Germany 1981)

    • Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante (Brazil 1968)
    • Embraer R-99 (Brazil 2001)
    • Embraer P-99 (Brazil 2003)

    • Fokker F27 200-MAR (NL 1955)
    • Fokker F27 Maritime Enforcer (NL 1955)

    • IAI 1124N Sea Scan (Israel 1977)

    • Kawasaki P-1 (Japan 2007)
    • Kawasaki P-2J (Japan 1966)

    • Saab Swordfish (Sweden 2016)
    • Shaanxi Y-8F,Q,X (China 1984)
    • Short Seavan (UK 1976)

    • Beriev Be-8 1947
    • Beriev Be-6 1949
    • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
    • Beriev Be-10 1956
    • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
    • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986
    • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
    • Ilyushin Il-38 'May' (USSR 1967)
    • Myasishchev 3M/3MD (USSR 1956)
    • Tupolev Tu-16T/PL/R/RM/SP (USSR 1952)
    • Tupolev Tu-95MR (USSR 1961)
    • Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR 1968)

    • Carrier Planes
    • Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
    • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
    • Douglas A2D Skyshark
    • Douglas AD Skyraider
    • Douglas F3D Skynight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Grumman A-6 Intruder
    • Grumman AF Guardian
    • Grumman C-1 Trader
    • Grumman C-2 Greyhound
    • Grumman E-1 Tracer
    • Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
    • Grumman EA-6B Prowler
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F9F Panther
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat ➚
    • Grumman S-2 Tracker
    • Lockheed Martin F-35B
    • Lockheed S-3 Viking ➚
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
    • McDonnell FH Phantom
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
    • McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
    • North American A-5 Vigilante
    • North American AJ Savage
    • North American FJ Fury
    • North American T-2 Buckeye
    • North American T-28 Trojan
    • Vought A-7 Corsair
    • Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Vought F6U Pirate
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    • Boeing EA-18G Growler
    • RN
    • Blackburn Buccaneer
    • Boulton Paul Sea Balliol
    • BAe Sea Harrier
    • de Havilland Sea Vampire
    • de Havilland Sea Venom
    • de Havilland Sea Vixen
    • Fairey Gannet
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Short Seamew
    • Westland Wyvern
    • Marine Nationale
    • Breguet Alizé
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Étendard
    • Dassault Rafale M
    • Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr M
    • SNCASE Aquilon
    • Soviet Navy
    • Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP
    • Sukhoi Su-33
    • Yakovlev Yak-38

    Navy Helicopters
      Chinese PLAN:
    • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
    • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
    • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
    • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
    • Italy:
    • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
    • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
    • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
    • India:
    • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
    • France:
    • Alouette II (1955)
    • Alouette III (1959)
    • Super Frelon (1965)

    • Cougar ()
    • Panther ()
    • Super Cougar H225M ()
    • Fennec ()
    • MH-65 Dolphin ()
    • UH-72 Lakota ()
    • Germany:
    • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
    • NHIndustries NH90
    • Japan:
    • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
    • Poland:
    • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
    • Romania:
    • IAR 330M (1975)
    • United Kingdom:
    • Westland Lynx (1971)
    • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
    • Westland Sea King (1969)
    • Westland Wasp (1962)
    • Westland Wessex (1958)
    • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
    • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
    • USA:
    • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
    • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
    • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
    • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
    • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
    • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
    • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
    • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
    • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
    • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
    • ussr:
    • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
    • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
    • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
    • Ka-31 (1987)
    • Ka-35 (2015)
    • Ka-40 (1990)
    • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
    • Mil Mi-4 (1952)
    Civilian ♆ WW1 US Shipping Board
    MORE !