Republic of China Navy (1947-2023)

History of the Chinese Republican Navy, recreated in Taiwan in 1947
The ROCN, or Republic of China Navy is facing today its equivalent the PLAN (PRC Navy), well under scrutiny today as invasion by default of another form of appropriation was publicly announced recently with a schedule some specialists points to 2027. The ROCN was naval branch created in 1949 with the new state of Taiwan (formely Formosa), appeared towards the end of the civil war between Mao's communists and Chang Kai Shek's Kuomintang, which government took refuge in Taiwan.

In this article, we will see the very origin of both the post-revolutionary Navy in 1911, origins and occupation of Formosa, the WW2 navy and civil war split, ships attributed by the allies to the KMT and PRC in 1948-49, actions and losses, and the fundation of the new ROCN or Republic of China Navy. The development of the fleet until today, difficult relations with the US, gradual sourcing outside the US and development of a local industry, current and future plans, organization and composition (including the Taiwanese Marines and Naval Air force). According to, the navy counts today 91 ships with a Global Rank of 12/34, to compare with the PLAN, 417 ships and 2/34 (world's second rank). #coldwar #taiwan #rocn #republicofchinanavy #taiwannavy

Introduction: China in Turmoil:

China was a great (periodically) maritime nation, introducing many innovative techniques, not least was the axial rudder, underwater compartimentation or the compass, to cite a few. Admiral Zheng He expedition in the 15th century probably reached China and featured the greatest fleet, with the largest ships ever seen in any ocean at that time. It was a peaceful "show the flag" expedition to create new trade links, later favorizing a Chinese lerchant "diaspora" to spread in Asia and the Indian Ocean.

However later Emperors focused on the threat on land, for good reasons, notably facing the Mongol invasion. Fast forward and the XIXth Century became the "century of humiliation" to this day resented by the actual PLAN or continental (communist) Navy. At the time of the revolt of the Boxers in 1900 it appeared clearly that the various provincial Chinese Navies were not ready to support each others and training and organization was lacking. The 1894 Sino-Japanese war followed by the great international expedition of 1900 made it all clear.

Imperial credibility to ensure the defence of the country, between court intrigues and corruption, and the start ofan industrial revolution in China generated new enlightened elites which aspired to a new form of nationalism, requiring a change of regime. The Chinese revolution started with multiple insurrections from 1907-1908 leading to a long period of troubles until the December 1911 proclamation of the Republic, under its first president Dr. Sun Yat-sen.

ROCS Hua Yang (cc) in the 1980s. She was part of the largest serie of destroyers of the Sumner class ever delivered to an allied nation of the US, some fifteen, between 1971 and 1983. They were modernized in several phases and all received SSMs and SAMs in the 1980s, kept active until 1999-2004.

This was followed by the warlord era and the rise of the communist influence and the appeites of the Empire of Japan, which after Korea, had views on the resources-rich Northern provinces of China perfect to fuel its own industrial revolution. In 1931, many incidents, the invasion of Mandchuria was followed by the January 28 "incident" of Shanghai, starting point of a full scale invasion of 1937 that some historians associated with the start of the second world war. WW2 was won with the help of the allies, supporting mostly southern Nationalist Forces but also communist forces in the north, under Mao. In 1937 the relatively large Chinese Navy was lost in combat or scuttling during the invasion, and subsequent operations became purely a land war.

For 12 years, Chinese Nationalists in the south and Communists in the North-east opposed the same enemy, Japan as occupying power, and despite their ideological opposition it seems to the allies, both movements could have been the start of a new China, independent from international pressions, especially as hoped by the white house, from USSR. Some also hoped the Chinese nationalist faction of Chiang Kai Tchek could win over the communists and in 1946, a reorientation of support when the civil war was raging, sealed the fate of China. The Nationalist Navy was reconstituted with a few gunboats transferred by the allies before 1942, and they became the very original of the ROCN and future "Taiwanese Navy".

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Taiwan (ex-Formosa)

A long story of Piracy

The island of Formosa, where Chinese Nationalists and the Kuomintang took refuge in 1948, known as such in Western literature had long being a feral "part of" China, inhabited by indigenous tribes, and later a hotspot of piracy during the Ming era. The Island was a danger for all vessels transiting into the strait, and several small scale expeditions or coastal bombardments had been done, notably by the Royal Navy, that is until the punitive Taiwan Expedition of 1867, by the United States against the Paiwan tribe. This was an early Marine landing supported by USS Hartford that was initially successful, until the tribe turned into a guerilla warfare that eventually led to a retirement. This was considered a failure and piracy resumed soon.

The Mudan Incident of 1871, saw Ryūkyūan sailors beheaded, answered by a Japanese Expedition of 1874 and this time, the Japanese Marines engaged Paiwan warriors in battle and defeated them for good. They even received compensation from the Qing government. Today the indigenous Paiwan only represent 2% of a population which is ethnically Chinese. The history of this island was not always of isolation: It was (partially) occupied by the Dutch in 1624–1662 (and the VOC encouraged Chinese migration to Taiwan), the Spanish in 1626–1642. Thousands of Chinese crossed the strait and became rice and sugar planters already in the XVIIth century. In fact the Chinese eventually were far more numerous than their Dutch overlords and Chinese rebellions reupted over taxation issues. "Taioan" became the Kingdom of Tungning in 1662–1683 under the Ming dynasty loyalist Zheng Chenggong ("Koxinga").

After he passed out, the island fell mostly under Qing rule between 1683 and 1895. These two centuries very much are the bedrock of continental China revendications about the island to this day. What followed were the Zheng Jing retreat to Taiwan, Revolt of the Three Feudatories (1670-73), gradual Sinicization, Qing invasion and Battle of Penghu in 1682, the Qing Annexation, Administrative expansion of 1796-1874, further Expansions after crisis in 1875-1895 and after the Japanese expedition, but by 1895 during the very short "Republic of Formosa" 2.5 million Chinese settlers lived here on the west coast, leaving the mountainous areas largely autonomous, and under the control of aborigines. Taiwan had a role during the Opium war and during the Sino-French War, the French invaded Taiwan in turn (Keelung Campaign, 1888).

Japanese Rule (1895-1945)

The Battle of Yalu and Japanese Victory, led the latter to occupy the island in 1895. Indeed, as part of the peace settlement, the Qing empire ceded Taiwan and Penghu to Japan on April 17, 1895 (Treaty of Shimonoseki) and this loss became later a rallying point for Chinese nationalist movements, fuelling the early 1900s uprisings leading to the 1911 revolution.

The acquisition of Taiwan by Japan under PM Itō Hirobumi's "southern strategy" saw Kabayama Sukenori becoming the first Japanese governor-general of Taiwan. This Japanese rule was divided into three periods, cammed the military suppression 1895–1915, dōka or "assimilation" in 1915–37, and kōminka or Japanization (1937–45) and a "special treatment" for aborigines. Assimilation policies were not welcome and led to Armed Resistance, partisan attacks continued from 1895 until 1902, followed by more Japanese troops landed and a "pacification". Later, a non-violent cultural movement was born in 1921. During the second phase, the country was gradually industrialized and developed, its population reaching new heights. However against aborigines, repression was sometimes fierce.

Taiwan in WW2

The war with China in 1937 saw Taiwan becoming the "first Japanese aircraft carrier" for this war, and its industrial capacity turned to war production. In 1939, it had exceeded agricultural production and the existing harbours were developed to serve as primary operation bases for the Imperial Japanese Navy. The "South Strike Group" HQ was in Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University) and the island was the main base for for the invasion of Guangdong in late 1938, and later the occupation of Hainan in February 1939.

The main south China HQ, with a large planning and logistical center was established in Taiwan and rose in importance even after Pearl Harbor, on 7 December 1941. This became the main base for Japanese naval and air attacks on Luzon (Philippines Campaign, May 1942) and the invasion later of Myanmar. From 1943, traffic off Taiwan suffered much of the presence of US Submarines, so much so that the local Japanese administration prepared to be cut off. Taiwan's industries and assets were regularly bombed by the USAAF in 1944 and in 1945, the USN, with increasing intensity, leaving about 16,000-30,000 casualities. A plan was ever drafted to invade the Island, but fortunately never implemented. Its government prepared for an expected invasion that never came. Instead Okinawa became the main focus, and the Japanese surrender was learned in August.

Helldiver and Avenger during the Air Battle of Formosa, 12-16 October 1944.

Return to China (1945)

In 1942, the Chinese KMT government renounced all treaties signed with Japan so plegding a return of Taiwan to China with Manchuria as main objectives. The Cairo Declaration of 1943 confrmed this to Chiang Kai Shek as well as the Pescadores. It was never however signed or ratified, but by 1945, Japan unconditionally surrendered and the island was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China, with the support of the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. The Allied Powers basically ordered Japanese forces in China-Taiwan to surrender to Chiang Kai-shek and by 25 October 1945, Rikichi Andō handed over his powers to Chen Yi of Taiwan Investigation Commission, and thus, Taiwan became a province of China but never with a full acceptance by Allied Powers of the ROC unilateral declaration of annexation. This complicated legal origin is what leads to a difficult cold war situation of the island, never formally recoignised, which also emboldened the PRC into revendicating the island.

The start of the Island under ROC's rule was pretty harsh: Taiwan fell under martial law with events such as the February 28 Incident and White Terror. October 25, 1945 became "Taiwan Retrocession Day" in which Japanese troops surrendered and still 309,000 Japanese lived in Taiwan, with 90% repatriated by force to Japan. The Kuomintang was repressive and corruption led to growing discontent in the population with a first serious incident on 28 February 1947, with tens of thousands killed or arrested. As the Communists gained full control of Mainland China in 1949, two million refugees from the lossing Nationalist faction fled to Taiwan. On October 1, 1949, the P.R.C. was founded while Chiang Kai-shek had settled the ROC capital in Taipei, repatriating the whole Nanjing government there. This retreat wa seen from the get go as a temporary one, prioritizing the military over economic development, which also in part fuelled the discontent. It's also the starting point for the ROC Navy. But let's see first some basic facts about Taiwan:

Taiwan: Geography, Economy and Resources

Taiwan is a 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi) island lying 180 kilometres (112 mi) across the Taiwan Strait, SW China. It is divided between a rugged mountain range (with peaks such as Yu Shan at 3,952 m (12,966 ft)) running parallel to the east coast, and gently rolling plains of the western third where is most of the population (23 millions today), so just facing continental China. This topography explains its climate, mildly sub-tropical and mountainous, hosting a large varity of endemic wildlife. Trekking in the south-east range is still quite popular and there are many parks and reserves. Agricultural lands on the northwest had to cope with the East Asian Monsoon.

Birth of the Republic of China Navy

In 1895, the island of Taiwan was placed under Japanese rule, with the Imperial Japanese Navy responsible for defending the waters of Taiwan and Penghu. After World War II, on 25 October 1945, the jurisdiction of Taiwan and Penghu was transferred to the Republic of China and the ROCN began its operation in that territory. Following the relocation of the ROC government to Taiwan, the ROCN was involved in a number of commando attack escorts, evacuation and transport of more displaced soldiers and later to provide patrols and resupply operations to Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait and South China Sea offshore islands.

The precursor to the modern ROC Navy created by the Ministry of the Navy, ROC's Provisional Government in 1911 was managed by Liu Guanxiong, a former Qing dynasty admiral. During the warlored era, the Navy remained loyal to the Kuomintang government of Sun Yat-sen and during the civil war with the Communist Party and after the 1937 Japanese invasion, concentrating mainly on riverine warfare. But it gradually expanded after WWII by the acquisition of Japanese destroyers, escorts and various ships, recovering gunboats or acquiring a large variety of US or in some case british vessels(see the list below). These transfers to the ROC Navy for each type were ofter doubled by another to the PRC as the White House tried to keep relations also with Mao's communists. The Civil War saw the ROCN protecting supply convoys and involved in ground support, troops transport. Despote of this, the disastrous land campaign saw the complete withdrawal of the ROC Government and a a million refugees to Taiwan in 1949. The bulk of the Navy went with it, and was reorganized entirely known the object of a popular Taiwanese song, "The New Navy".

The Civil War Chinese Navy (1947-1949)

The official government in 1945, as recoignised by the allies, the Kuomingtang of Generalissimo Chang Kai Shek ruled over Chungking, on the Yangtze. This faction ruled over the south-east half of the country, but did not included the major ports as the northeast and entire coastline was still under Japanese control while the north was in the hands of Mao Tse Tung army based in Yunnan, with partisans and sympathisers all over the country.

Eventually the Japanese pulled over out of inner Mongolia, Mandchuria, Hainan and Formosa in September 1945, and with massive US help, the Kuomintang manage to regain lost territory along the coast. Still, the countryside remained sympathetic to communists, and the fragile truce between the Kuomingtang and Communists in 1936 was now holding by a thread. By 1946 it evaporated, and the Kumomintang now was showing hostility when meeting a group of communist, such as in when they retook the city of Yunnan in March 1947. Nevertheless, thanks to a popular fervor, the Communists retook gradually the upper hand.

In between, by 4 November 1946, Mao and the US signed a treaty of Friendhip, and the latter disengaged gradually their support to the KMT, feeling a civil war erupting. Eventually the land campaign wages by the communists allowed them to retake many cities held by the KMT, until retaking on 1st September the North China China's People Republic based on all territories held. At last after a serie of major battle they also recaptured the Yangtze and all KMT cities, including Chungking. This was in April 1949, and several navies were watching the events unfolding, with some isolated incidents; In July, the KMT were on the run, eventually taking refuge in Taiwan, agreat evacuation across the strait, as well as other islands under their control. The evacuaction was complete by December this year. Meanwhile the PRC was proclaimed in Peking on the 1st October.

Ships obtained by Taiwan

Since the bulk of the Chinese Navy was sunk in 1937, both Taiwan and the PRC reconstituted their forces with captured Japanese ships mostly, complemented by US help in the case of KMT. This way, albeit defeated on land, the KMT dwarved the Communist Navy (future PLAN) in 1949, which prevented them to Invade Taiwan and finished off the KMT. The main deterrent were the cruiser Chungking and destroyer Tan Yang and Fen Yang (a Kagero and Akituski class vessel).

Cruiser Chung King

The ex-HMS Aurora of the Arethusa class, launched 1936, was sold at first to the KMT, taken to China with a crew of 682 after acquisition on 5 May 1948. While in Shanghai she defected to the PRC on 2 March 1949, renamed Huang Ho, she was claimed sunk by the KMT off Taku by an air attack. She was refloated after the civil war and repaired by the PRC, recommissioned in late 1951 and renamed again Pei Ching. However, inoperable and was laid up in 1954, used in several roles and eventually BU in the 1960s.

At the origin, sold on 19 May 1948 to the Chinese Navy as compensation for six Chinese custom patrol ships and one cargo seized in Hong Kong and lost, renamed after the capital Chongqing she became the flagship of the Republic of China Navy. During the winter 1948-1949, ROCS Chungking provided gunnery support to the nationalists off Tashan. However she would defect to the communists while in Shanghai (see later).

KMT Destroyers

Ex-Japanese: -Shen Yang Minekaze class, ex-Namikaze (BU 1960s)
-Tan Yang Kagero class ex-Yukikaze (BU 1971)
-Fen Yang Akitsuki class ex-Yoitsuki (BU 1963)
-Heng Yang & Hui Yang Matsu class, ex-Kaede, Sugi (Bu 1960s)
-Hsin Yang, Hua Yang Tachibana class, ex-Hatsuyume and Tsuta (BU 1960s)
Tai Kang and Tai Ping: US GMT type, BU 1972 for the 1st, the second was sunk on 14 November 1954.
Tai Chao class frigates: Tao Chao, Tao Ho, Tai Hu, Tai Tsang were ex USN "long hull" DET type destroyer escorts handed over by the USN in December 1948, refuged in Taiwan, stricken 1972-75.

KMT Frigates and Escorts

Fu Po was a Flower class corvette used by the KMT, ex- HMS Petunia. She sank due to a collision with a merchant vessel in the strait on 19 march 1947.
Lin Fu ex HMS Mandip, Hunt I class. Acquired 1948 but took refuge in Hong Kong, transferred to Taiwan, but returned to RN in 1949.

Taiwan obtained many ex-Japanese escorts as well:
Lin An (Erotofu class)
Wai Tai (later Hsueh Feng) of the Mikura or Type B escort, rearmed 1954 with two 120mm, 2x40mm, then renamed Cheng An, stricken 1963.
-The Type C or Kaibokan class Hsin An, Chao An, Jui An, Liao Hai (BU 1960s). The first was rearmed with 2x 76mm, 6x25mm AA, wrecked in September 1954 on the Pescadores. Chao An was modernized the same, sstricken 1963. Jui An received 2x 120mm guns, one 76mm and eight MGs. Liao Hai was assigned to the army. Hulked she was renamed Tsing Ai.

-The Type D Cheng An, Tai An and Tung An, were also stricken in 1963. Rearmed all with two 120mm, 11x 20mm Oerlikon, 2MG. They served as gunboats.

KMT Gunboats

-Hi Hsien (ex-IJN Atada, ex-Yat Sen, 1930, 1520t), stricken 1960s
-Chu Kuan of the Chu class (1907, 740 tons), stricken 1960s
-Hiung Hsiang of the Yung Feng class (1912, 530 tons), stricken 1950s

KMT Misc.

-Two ex Japanese Ch28 and Cha I class sub-chasers: Yai Lung and Fu Ling acquired 1948 and 1949
-Chieih 29 (Natsuhima class coastal minelayer) in 1947, BU 1960s
-Chiang Yung, Chiang of the Wa 1 class coastal minelayers, BU 1970s
-Hsieng Ning, ex-Okitsu, ex-Lepanto, minelayer of the Ostia class (acquired 1945), stricken 1956.
-Lu Shan (ex IJN landing ship T172), wrecked and BU 1954
-Yung Ching, ex-Saishu minelayer of the Hirashima class, BU 1964. She was rearmed with a 105mm, one 40mm, seven 25mm AA, one 20mm AA, and reclassified as a frigate.
-11 of around 30 ex-US LSTs transferred to the KMT in 1946-49.
-11 ex-US LSM transferred to the KMT out of 30, modernized 1960s, 13 extant in 1993.
-6 LCT(5) and LCT(6) were obtained by the KMT, modernized, extant in 1995.
-5 LCI were obtained by the KMT, discarded in the late 1980s. One LCI(M) and a LCI(M).
-11 ex-PC 173ft sub chasers were obtained by the KMT, the remainder went to the PRC. Known as the Chien Fang class, some were rebuilt as PGM types.
-10 ex SC 110 ft type sub-chasers. All sailed to Taiwan, discarded in the 1970s
-8 HDMLs from the Royal Navy, renamed Fang 1-8. Two sunk in 1950, the rest discarded 1970s.
-16 ex-US Admirable class minesweepers, Yung Ning class. The last two were PCE rebuilt. 8 remained in service in the 1960s, many modified for others roles, all discarded in the early 1970s.

Ships obtained by the PRC

The flagship, ROCS Chungking as she presented herself in 1948, modernized as shown by her tripod masts and radars. At the time she likely had for AA, two 40 mm Bofors quad AA guns, four 20 mm Oerlikon dual power-operated AA guns, three 20 mm Oerlikon single AA guns and two 0.5-inch Vickers quadruple machine guns, and as for radars, type 281, type 284, and type 285. No doubt the Soviet Navy was interested, when refloated by them for the PRC.

ROCS Chungking in 1948. Few photos exists of her.

On 25 February 1949 she defected and was renamed by the communist Tchoung King. It happened in a premeditated manner, while storing gold bars in Shanghai's financial district, claiming it was safer than bank vaults, before departing. Her attack by nationalist aviation on March 19, 1949 at the quay near the Taku forts, in the Tanggu district was performed by three B-24 Liberator successive raids.

Sunk in Huludao harbour, her salvage wad done with Soviet assistance (The chinese had no dedicated ship for this task) and so she was was raised in 1951 with the help of the Soviet Union, but with one catch: They indeed recovered all the light anti-aircraft armament, radars, optics and means of communication toi be reverse-engineers and studied in detail. It even went further, in fact she was returned stripped bare as "repayment". Her engines, removed, ended in the Shanghai Department of Electricity.

Instead she obtained engines from the scuttled Hai Yung, but was barely operable. But near empty she became an accommodation and warehouse ship, renamed Huang He in 1959, transferred to Shanghai on 27 October, converted as a salvage ship (cancelled), then retransferred to Tianjin in June 1965 and used as a barracks ship as "Pei Ching", but scrapped during the Cultural Revolution. Her bell is visible at Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution today.

PRC Escorts:

-Ku An of the Erotofu or Type A class, renamed Chang Pai, rearmed with three Soviet postwar 100mm and 3x 37mm and refitted as minelayer, stricken 1986 Type B escort Hui An, of the Urutu class, not renamed (apparently), rearmed 1960s and 70s with two 120mm, 6x 12.7mm AA and later three 100 mm, 4x 37mm for the East fleet, BU 1986 Type D escort Chieh 5, 6, 12 and 14, later renamed Wu Jang, Wai Hai, Jangsha, Shian, stricken circa 1986. They were rearmed with two Mk26 76mm guns, eight 37mm, four to eight 25mm in 1955. Two went with the North Fleet and two with the East Fleet.

PRC Gunboats:

-Chiang Yuan (1905, 550t), BU 1963
-Ming Cheun (1929, 420 tons), Memorial 1984.
-Yung Chi (ex-Hsai Hsing, ex-IJN Asuga, ex-Yung Chi, 1915, 860t. BU c1970
-Yung Sui (1929, 650t), stricken c1970
These vessels changed hands several times. Sunk or scuttled in 1937, raised and repaired by the Japanese, and then recaptured by Mao's forces. Yat Sen was the largest, she had her poop deck removed, and was rebuilt as a training ship, rearmed with a single 20mm, one 76mm, two twin 40mm Bofors AA, six 7.7mm MGs. She also received a radar and sonar.
Yung Chi and Sui were former KMT gunboats sunk by the Communists in April 1949 and later raised, repaired.

PRC Riverine Gunboats:

Ying Shan (Petrol class HMS Gannet), Ying Teh (HMS Falcon), Ying Hao (HMS Sandpiper), Tai Yuan and Mei Yuan of the Wake class. All were stricken c1960. They were not captured but formally transferred to the Chinese Navy at Chungking in February 1942. In addition, Wai Ning was a 400 tons customs vessel from 1934, IJN Bunsei in 1937, recaptured by the PRC in 1945, sunk by the Communists in 1949, raised and repaired, BU c1960.
-Kiang Kun (ex-Narumi, ex Ermano Carlotto)
-Yang Ch'i (ex Toba)
-An Tung (ex Ataka)
-Chang Teh (ex Seta)
-Yung Ping and Yung An (ex Ataka class, Atami, Futami)
-Kiang Shih, Nan Shang (ex Atami class Fushima, Sumida)
-Wu Feng (ex-Maiko, ex-Macao, Portuguese gunboat)
-Chang Chi (ex Uji, Hashidate class). She was rearmed with Skoryi class guns (2x 130, 6x 37mm) in the 1950s, renamed Nan Chang, served with the east fleet until 1986.

Misc. PRC vessels

-Two ex Japanese Cha-I class sub-chasers Kao Ming, Kuang Kuo acquired 1945 and 1947.
-N200 and 201 of the Wa 1 class coastal minelayers, BU 1976.
-13 of around 30 ex-US LSTs were transferred to the PRC, the remainder going to the KMT in 1946-49. Some were still extant in 1995.
-15 ex-US LSM were also transferred at that time out of 30, delivered to the PRC, all but six discarded in 1993.
-15 LCT(5) and LCT(6) were also passed onto both sides, the PRC obtaining ten of them, dsiscarded circa 1986
-25 LCI were also passed to China, all but five to the PRC. They were discarded in the 1980s.
-14 ex-PC 173ft sub chasers were obtained by the PRC, known as the Chien Fang class. Two were lost during the civil war, the rest discarded in rhe 1960s and the last in 1971.
-5 YMS type motor minesweepers. Seized by the PRC, one stricken 1963, the rest 1976.

Development of the ROCN

ROCS Hui Yang
ROCS Hui Yang, a former Sumner class transferred in 1970, comprehensively modernized in the 1980s and 1990. She stayed in sevrice until 2003, sunk as target.
After the failure to stop the Communist forces crossing the Yangtze in April 1949, the Kuomintang commanders met on 16 July and decided to evacuate their remaining troops and ships 90 miles from the mainland to Taiwan and the other offshore islands. This was completed by 8 December, to the tune of two million people, and, although Hainan Island fell to Lin Piao’s Communists in 1950, Quemoy and Matsu remained under Kuomintang (Natonalist) control with the help of the US Seventh Fleet. Since then Taiwan, from her capital Taipei, has never ceased to claim to be the lawful ruler of all China (similarly the mainland claims sovereignty over Tarsaan With Amencan help, Taiwan retained China’s seat at the United Nations and it was not until the American rapprochement with Peking that Taiwan was expelled from the UN and the People's Republic took her place on 26 October 1971.

Although about half the Chinese Navy ecither defected to the Communists or was captured by them, Taiwan retained all the larger ex-USN warships, and these formed the basis of her fleet for the early 1950s. Unlike the Communnists who rearmed all their ex-Japanese vessels, Taiwan only rearmed those in the best condition, and the others were left to rot until finally scrapped. A few ex British and Canadian vessels that had been demilitarised and sold to Chinese owners were also rearmed at this time.

A still tense situation

After the end of the Korean War, the Americans began building up the armed forces of their client states in the Far East, and Taiwan received several ex-Second World War US destroyers, destroyer escorts and smaller craft. Her amphibious forces were also built up at this time, so that they would be able to imvade the mainland if a suitable opportunity offered. There were a number of small clashes with the PRC Navy to the disadvantage of the ROCS, but the US 7th fleet was watchful of any major offensive. In 1958 for exemple, a second attempt to take the Quemoy islands and Matsu has the 7th fleet intervene as a deterrence. But its involvment from 1965 in Vietnam halted this support.

However the ROCs provided as much logistical support it could to the USN there, and gained an extra transfer of other ex-US warships in the following years, notably four Fletcher class in 1967-71 and Buckler/Rudderow class escorts in 1967-67. However after Vietnam, the US policy turned more towards China and started to develop relations that eventually cost the island its UN seat in the permanent security council. Also in 1978, the Carter administration not only withdrew dislomatic recoignition, but also abrogated the 1955 defence agreement. To counterbalance this diplomatic gesture however, the white house agreed on the other hand massive transfer of vintage new ships, vintage Sumner and Gearing class between 1969 and 1983, which were protested by the PRC.

Changing Providers

ROCS Chao Yang
ROCS Chao Yang, ex-USS Rowan, a modernized Gearing class transferred in 1977.
After Chiang Kai shek passed out, his soon took succession of the country, but with the more intense rapporchement of the US towards China and lack of reliability as ally, trigerred a change of policy, notably to seek out contracts outside of the US. But this was met with caution by these countries, mainly Europe, not to offend China, as in the early 1980s the PRC was now open to investments and seemed like a giant eldorado. Taiwan found a partner for military matters in Israel, notably to develop a local copy of the SSM Gabriel, as its first domestic antiship missile, the Hsiung Feng I. This was followed by another milestone in the 1990s with the Hsiung Feng II, an quivalent of the Harpoon. But Chinese pressure prevailed against other attemps like the discussed transfer in 1984 of the former Zwaardvis class ships from the Netherlands. France also in 1993 had to withdrew its proposal for Agosta class submarines.

All this time, the Taiwanese naval policy followed the strenght and weaknesses of the growing PLAN. Since its major asset was submarines, the ROCS increased its main doctrine on ASW, fearing a complete blockade of the country in the 1980s, now an industrial powerhouse, recoignised notably by its supraconductors and processors's leadership. In the late 1980s when the PLAN grew several fold, this time with its surface fleet, Taiwan accordingly increased its antiship potential, notably through the development of a fleet of FAC (Fast Attack Crafts) all armed with locally developed SSM. Nothing was forgotten, notably keeping a strong amphibious force and a suberbly trained Marine Corps in order to potentially retake any island invaded by the PRC. It was ultimately pushed to reach 37,000 active and 32,000 reservist personal, making it the world's second largest Marines Force after the USMC in 1995. Since the 2010s one of the PLAN's objectives had been to develop a superior Marines Force.

Post-cold war ROCN growth

Since the 1990s the Navy has grown in importance following the main objective of the ROC's military to counter an always possible PRC blockade, offshore engagement and even an invasion. Since Xi Jinping's clear mentions for the future anniversary of the PRC in 2049 of recovering the island, most experts nowadays points out 2027 as the most likely date for an invasion, the Chinese Navy ramping up its manoeuvers, exercizes and accepting new assets, locally sources as the US support is sometimes wavering. As of 2004 the ROCN started already to expand its capabilities, notably on one of the country's strongpoint, electronics, and in anti-submarine warfare, replacing antiquated warships and support vessels along the way. Slowly but surely, old foreign-designed vessels were gradually replaced by indigenous platforms, sensors, and weapons from the National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology.

In 2018, Lungteh Shipbuilding was awarded a contract for eleven Tuo Chiang Block II corvettes, four minelayers and it was only as start. In April 2020 after the COVID-19 pandemic cut short the Navy's semi-annual goodwill visit in South America, and the flotilla stayed 30 days in quarantine while back. In April 2020 Karmin International Co., Ltd. started to produce eighteen "special operations" watercraft, eight RIB tenders destined to the Cheng Kung-class frigates planned for the summer of 2022.

ROCN equipment from the United States, including for the main, elderly assets such as the Kidd class Destroyers and Knox class frigates, which succeeded to the WW2 destroyers, is slowly but surely updated with domestically built ships and systems, often under licence, or through domestic development, well supported by an high-end industry. The ROCN purchased eventually indirectly La Fayette-class frigates (A tailored version was built locally) from France and Zwaardvis-class submarines and refurbishing, extending service life and equipment always had been fustrated by massive pression from the PRC. If the U.S. has approved sales of eight new diesel-powered submarines, engines cannot be produced at home. To add insult to injury, the Legislative Yuan did not approved one important baval budget and slowed opportunities to procure better underwater defense capability.

On 12 September 2007 however, an arms notification to the US for the procurement of 12 P-3C Orion and 3 spares, plus 144 SM-2 Block IIIA surface-to-air missiles was granted, and awarded to Lockheed Martin, refurbishing the 12 patrol planes. In 2008, 26 August, another order camd for 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II missiles, to equip the 12 P-3Cs, some to be also installed on the Hai Lung-class submarines. On 29 January 2010 arms sales to the ROC was ramped up to US$6.392 billion, going with two Osprey-class minehunters (US$105 million) Link and terminals ships systems (US$340 million), as well as 12 Harpoon L/II (US$37 million). They came in addition to the 95 older Harpoon in inventory on the Knox-class frigates, and 22 RGM-84L (Kidd-class). To this were ordered 32 sub-launched Harpoon II (Hai Lung-class).

On 31 August 2010, the ROC expressed the desire to lease US Newport-class tank landing ships while the 900-ton stealth corvette was put on hold, but On 29 September, another Osprey-class minehunter was granted by the Congress. From an hinderance to US Policy in the 1980-90s, desilusions about the Chinese posture and agressive stance in the Spratleys and throught South China sea radically changed the US Policy this time against the PRC, seeing Taiwan like a now indispensible partner and ally in the region. No political alternance has changed this move so far.

Local upgrade program included the Ching Chiang class patrol ships, all now equipped with four HF-1 SSMs and from 2004, four HF-2/3 with W-160 fire control radar (Wu Chin III program) and the Honeywell H-930 MCS CDS retired from older ships. In 2010, CSIST is providing the new locally-built fire control radars. Thus, the Ching Chiang class had been considerably enhanced and modernized.

By December the same year, old assets are retired such as two LSTs, four Adjutant-class, and more in 2011, like the PCL of the 124th Fleet, two Lung Jiang-class guided missile patrol boats, and all ships dating back the 1980s are undergoing the same schedule. By June 2018, two new modernized Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, USS Taylor and Gary were transferred (US$177 million) along with the advanced AN/SQR-19 Multi-Function Towed array sonar. The idea is that these systems could be reproduced locally to modernize in turn the old Knox-class frigates, or be followed by more OHP class frigates, retired in the US since years and in the process of replacement by the new Constellation class. Taiwan has now ten of these OHP class vessels in service today.

The Taiwanese Navy Today

Could Taiwan stop a Chinese invasion ? After all, its the British Royal Navy that repeatedly defeated invasions, securing their place in history, despite all odds like against the Invincible Armada during Elisabeth's reign or Napoleon's combined Franco-Spanish Navy. The Navy as of today comprises: 4 Destroyers, 22 Frigates, 31 Missile FAC, 4 Submarines, 14 Corvettes, 13 Mine warfare vessels, 7 Amphibious tank landing, 10 Auxiliaries.

Among other programs, one which is quite interesting is the ROCS Landing Platform Dock, first Taiwanese Amphibious Assault Ship of the Yushan-class. It was conformed in September 2018, built by CSBC Corporation, with Four planned, the first commissioned in 2021. Another ambitious program is the Hsun Lien Project, a locally developed SAM to replace the obsolete Mark 26 standard of the 1970s. It was also raised the point of lacking a centralized air defense combat compatable to Aegis which past US administrations rejected to be sold, or Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.

ROCN Yung Chia (MHC-1302) shipped at N°7 east pier, Zuoying Naval Base

ROCN Yung Chia (MHC-1302) shipped at N°7 east pier, Zuoying Naval Base

Under the Bush administration instead, four older Kidd-class destroyers, deactivated at the time, were granted to Taiwan. Fast forward and by January 2019, the US government delivered two sets of Mk 41 VLS to Taiwan and plans were made to integrate it with the Tien-Kung III (Sky Bow III) missile system and Hsun Lien naval combat system equivalent to Aegis. Eventually Taowan also acquired the license for the MK 41 VLS launcher. The AN/SLQ-32 system (Kee Lung class) is currently upgraded, to be over by 2023. In November 2019 the Kao Hsiung (LCC-1) became a test ship for the Hsun Lien naval combat system, coupling a large phased array radar system and Mark 41 VLS. In January 2020 this was unveiled as the Tien-Kung III (Sky Bow III) system.

The other major program of the current decade is the Indigenous Defense Submarine (IDS):
In November 2020, President Tsai Ing-wen inaugurated a new submarine construction facility in Kaohsiung, planning eight submarines, started with a prototype built over 78 months and scheduled to enter service in 2025. The main submarine was to be of local design, but the US agreed in 2020-21 to export key systems to "fill" it, digital sonar, integrated combat and auxiliary equipment systems, notably periscopes.

This Soryu-class inspire design uses new battery technologies, probably lithium-ion, is rated to circa 2,500 tonnes (2,500 long tons; 2,800 short tons) for around 70 meters long, and using MK-48 Mod 6 Advanced Technology heavyweight torpedoes and UGM-84L sub-launched Harpoon Block II missiles, both approved for transfer by the Trump administration. The first (unnamed) was laid down on November 2021, and is expected for launch in September 2023. That would open many doors for Taiwan if that class is successful, notably as an export product. Competition for SSK is fierce though. look of the IDS

ROCN ATF-563 in port of Keelung

Here is a review of the ROCS as of today and analysis:

Organization of the ROCS

Command Headquarters
(Today headed by Admiral Liu Chih-pin with Vice Admiral Hu Zhan-Hao, and Tang Hua Deputy Commanding-Generals). It is subordinate to the General Staff and Minister of Defense under the ROC President, today Tsai Ing-wen.
Aviation Command:
P3C Orion. Photo of a Taiwanese example
Operates from Pingtung, Tsoying, and Hualien AB: *The Republic of China Navy obtained 12 P-3C under the US Foreign Military Sales program in 2007, modernized and refusbished for 15,000 flight hours. Three "spare" airframes for the EP-3E standard were also provided and in May 2014 Lockheed Martin was awared the modernization and overhaul of all these, completed by August 2015. **The S2T was the local variant of the Grumman S-2 Tracker. The ROC Air Force initially operated the S-2A in 1967 and by 1976, S-2Es started to be received the former ones later converted into target aircraft and decommissioned 1979-1992. In 1986, S-2Gs were purchased and were modernized that year in the S-2T configuration with two Garrett/Honeywell TPE-331-15AW turboprop engines (1,227 kW (1,645 shp) and four-blade propellers, the AN/AQS-92F digital sonobuoy processor, A/NARR-84 99-channel sonobuoy receiver, Litton AN/APS-504 radar, AN/ASQ-504 MAD and AN/AAS-40 FLIR.

Thes 27 S-2Ts fell under ROCN Aviation Command on 1 July 1999, 2013, the S-2s were transferred back intobut from 2013 back to ROCAF service, all discarded from May 2017. ✈ photo
The ROCN air park also includes Lockheed three EP-3E ARIES (Signals reconnaissance) plus three Spares and 29 NCSIST Albatross Reconnaissance UAV acquired in 2019.

ROCN S-70CM on display at Chengkungling in October 2011
Maintenance Group
The 1st, 2nd, 3rd Squadrons are located at Pingtung, Tsoying, and Hualien.
Marine Corps Command:
The ROCs Marines had an obvious connection to the USMC, starting with matériel, since in 1950, ROCS had 11 LSTs, 11 LSM, 5 LCT(5) and one LCT(6) and 5 LCI (one 1 LCI(M)). It was established in 1914 already and called ROCMC, now as an elite force, notably because of its gruelling "Road to Heaven" stage, and using the equivalent of "Semper Fidelis" as motto. ROC Marines trains regularly with the USMC.

It comprised a Marine Corps Command (centralized HQ) and a Corps HQ Battalion, from 2013, a Combat Support Group with various units: -There is an armoured component, the Amphibious Armor Group with 4 Amphibious Transport Squadrons (24 tracked vehicles each) (1st (AAV-7), 2nd (AAV-7), 3rd (LVT-5), 4th (LVT-5))and two Amphibious Artillery Squadrons in support with mortar teams carried by the 1st (LVT-5) and 2nd (LVT-5) squadrons.
-The Amphibious Reconnaissance and Patrol Unit, equivalent to the SEALs, 600 strong with helf being aboriginal Taiwanese.
-The Combat Support Group (Beach Logistics, Com, Information, EC Warfare Group, Corps HQ Battalion
-Wuchiu Garrison Command
-Armed Force Joint Operation Training Base
-Marine Corps Command (infantry, with the 66, 77, 99th brigades)

ROCA LVTP-5A1 (author's illustration)
Other Commands

Kee Lung-class missile destroyers (2003. 1979 Kidd class)

ROCS Kee Lung, Su Ao, Tso Ying, Ma Kong

These are basically some of the former Kidd-class destroyers (an improved version of the Sruance class) built in 1978. Originally built for the Imperial Iranian Navy and transferred (purchased) by Taiwan in 2003. Many upgrades are programmed so that they reaches gradually the level of the Arleigh Burke class. Armaments and systems are planned for a local upgrade in the current years.

Cheng Kung-class Frigates (Perry class)

ROCS Cheng Kung, Cheng Ho, Chi Kuang, Yueh Fei, Tzu I, Pan Chao, Chang Chien, Tian Dan, Ming Chuan, Feng Jia (PFG-1115)
The Oliver Hazard Perry defined a standard for Frigates (mainly tasked of ASW warfare) in the US with 71 built in 1975-1989, later exported as they were dedcommissioned without replacement in the USN to the Turkish, RAN, Royal Bahrain Naval Force, Egyptian, Pakistani, Polish, Spanish and Chilean Navies. The Chang Kung class were planned in 1990 for the ROC on demand, to be built at China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, in 1993-2004, plus two more in 2018, for a total of ten. Armament was standard USN but with OTO Melara fast guns, four Hsiung Feng II and four Hsiung Feng III SSM and the Sky Bow air defense system replacing the SM-1 and Mk 13 launchers in the 2020s. They are intended to serve FY2035 at the least.

Kang Ding-class (1994)

ROCS Kang Ding, Si Ning, Wu Chang, Di Hua, Kun Ming, Chen De
Taiwanese versions, tailored, of the French Lafayette class stealthy frigates. Commissioned in 1996-98, they are equipped with ASW weaponry, and for surface warfare first. In 2021 it was reported an upgrade program with the MIM-72 Chaparral SAM replaced by the locam Sky Sword II, and overhaul of the whole battle system as well as adoption as standard SAM the AMRAAM-class missiles quad-packed in a vertical launch system.

Chi Yang class (Knox class, transferred 1994)

ROCS Fong Yang, Fen Yang, Lan Yang, Hwai Yang, Ning Yang, Yi Yang

Although built in the 1960s, the Knox class were gradually decommissioned after the cold war, replaced by the OH Perry, and exported to the Egyptian, Hellenic, Mexican, Royal Thai and Turkish Navy, and from 1994, to the ROCN. However the latter had problems maintaining their steam plants and only budget concerns prevented their replacement by diesels. Assigned to the ROCN 168 Patrol Squadron, they were modernized in 2005, receiving systems from the retired Gearing class with the SM-1MR Standard (box launchers), H-930 modular combat system, DA-08 air/surface search radar, STIR-180 lighting radar and 10 SM-1 are installed in two forward twin box launchers, on top of the helicopter hanga, plus 2x3 box launchers between the stack and hangar. Chi Yang (FFG-932) was left in her previous state. ASW capability was pushed by the adoption of the original SQS-26 bow-mounted sonar, the new SQS-35(v) VDS, the SQR-18(v)1 passive TAS, and a MD500 ASW helicopter plus Mk-16 8-cell Harpoon/RUR-5 ASROC box launcher, four Mk46 324 mm (12.8 in) torpedoes. The box launcher usually carried both two Harpoon and six ASROCs. Upgrade to the Hsiung Feng III SSM is planned also for the 2020s

Ching Chiang-class corvettes (1998)

ROCS Dan Chiang, Sing Chiang, Tzeng Chiang, Kao Chiang, Jin Chiang, Hsiang Chiang, Tze Chiang, Po Chiang, Chang Chiang, Chu Chiang
The Ching Chiang-class patrol ship were one of the Taiwanese-built vessels of the post-cold war era. They were first planned in 1990 given the uncertain stance of the US, and are patrol ship rated as corvettes due to their ASW capabilities and armament, but are mostly glorified 500 tonnes FACs. Initially equipped with the HF-1 anti-ship missile, a single 40 mm, one 20 mm guns. Upgrades started in 2012 with the addition of four HF-3 supersonic SSM launchers and one OTO Melara 76 mm replacing the 40 mm.

Tuo Chiang class Corvettes (2020)

ROCS Tuo Chiang, Ta Chiang, Fu Chiang

Built in 2012-2014, these were the most modern ships built in Taiwan until then, bot stealthy and catamaran. They were noted by other navies. The program cost was stagerring for the prototype, at NT$5.4 billion (US$188 million), the second and third bring built with a modified hull. These fast (45 knots) and stealthy multi-mission corvettes were tailored for hit-and-run tactics when facing the PLAN, with a very clean upper structure design, pre-cooled engine exhaust and generally reduced visual signature. The first is armed with eight Hsiung Feng II, eight Hsiung Feng III, an OTO 76 mm gun, a Phalanx CIWS, 2x M2HB, and two Mark 32 triple torpedo launcher, emphasizing her mainly anti-surface role. From Ta Chiang the serie is planned to carry sixteen TC-2N missiles, eight and four Hsiung Feng II/III, and same as above less the TTs.

Kuang Hua VI-class FACs (2002) FACG-60-93

The bedrock of current Taiwanese coastal force. These are all missile armed, mainly for antiship missions.

Yung Feng-class Minehunters (1991)

The Yung Feng class are recent coastal minehunters used to track and identify, as well as dispose of moored and bottom naval mines, built in Germany (Abeking & Rasmussen) and commissioned in 1991. In addition, pending retirement, the original ROCS Yung Feng class is the remaining US Aggressive class ship, comprising the 735 tonnes ROCS Yung Tzu, Yung Ku, and Yung Teh the latter two decommissioned.

Yung Jin-class Minesweepers (1993)

ROCS Yung Jin, Yung An
ROCN_Yung_Jin_MHC-1310_Shipped_in_Zhongzheng_Naval_Base The new generation of Taiwanese Minesweepers. They are of the US Osprey class, built in Intermarine USA and Avondale Shipyard in the early 1990s. The ex-USS Oriole and Falcon (MHC-55 and 59) resold in 2006-2007. US Boats non sold were retired in 2007 and sold for BU in 2014, the remainder two, sold to Egypt.

Min Jiang-class minelayers (2020)

FMLB-1 to FMLB-5, all built in Lung Teh Shipbuilding, by 2020-2021. Referred to as the Min Jiang-class in the international sources, the ROCN class designation is not clear, as the first was designated FMLB-I (Fast Mine Laying Boat) and so possibly numbered instead of named. They are 347 tons FL in displacement for 14 knots, 41m long, 8.8m wide, 1.7m in draught. They used a precision automated minelaying system and could defend themselves with a T-75 cannon, and two T74 machine guns for AA defence. The first vessel was launched in August 2020 at Lung Teh (Yilan County), followed by another in September 2021, third and fourth in December. Until the, the rol was filled by converted amphibious landing crafts.

Ushan class LSD (2020)

Roughly similar to the USN San Antonio class but smaller, this new class is multirole, with a full hospital for humanitarian aid and fleet support, a well deck and full aviation facilities. The internal capacity authorized storage of extra wheeled vehicles in addition to the AA7Vs, and they can carry a full battalion of Marines. They had an OTO Melara 76 mm naval gun, a CIWS and two cal. 05 forward section, but counts mostly on the Hsiung Feng II and III SSM and cruise missiles, completed by the CS/MPQ-90 Bee Eye AESA radar. At 10,600 t, 153 m x 23 m they are the largest ships ever built in Taiwan, to be followed by more ambitious ones in the future.

Other ROCS amphibious ships

ROCS Chung (HO LST 232)

ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD 193)

ROCN Kao Hsuing LCC-1, Zhongzheng Naval Base

ROCS Chung Chien (LST-205)

To replace its WW2 amphibious fleet in the late cold war, Taiwan purchased new vessels in several batches.
-Newport class ROCS Chung Ho (LST-232), ROCS Chung Ping (LST-233)
-Chung Hai-class (Former LSTs) ROCS Chung Chien, Chung Chih, Chung Ming, Chung Ye
-ROCS Kao Hsiung (LCC-1) Command LST, ex-USS Dukes County (LST-735)
-ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD-193) the 13,700 tonnes ex-USS Pensacola (LSD-38) Anchorage-class DLS.
Still active: Two Chien Lung-class subs, ROCS Hai Lung (SS-793) and ROCS Hai Hu (SS-794) 2,660 tonnes modified Zwaardvis-class (1986).
To be retired: Two GUPPY III, ROCS Hai Shih (SS-791) and ROCS Hai Bao (SS-792) used for training, using the very old Arma gyrocompass, to be replaced by the IDS project

Support Ships and Auxiliaries

ROCS Wu Yi AOE-530
ROCN Da Hu in Keeling Harbor
2 Resplenishment ships: ROCS Pan Shi (AOE-532), ROCS Wu Yi (AOE-530). Research ship ROCS Ta Kuan (AGS-1601), two old rescue and salvage ship (ROCS Ta Hu and Ta Twen), and equally antiquated ROCS Ta Wan (ATF-551), Ta Tung, Ta Tai fleet tugs.



The Republic of China Navy: The World's Navies Volume 1 by Simon Beerbaum (English Edition)
A History of the Modern Chinese Navy, 1840–2020 By Bruce A. Elleman
Taiwan Straits: Crisis in Asia and the Role of the U.S. Navy (Global Flashpoints: A Series) by Bruce A. Elleman
The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy Enters the Twenty-first Century Bernard D. Cole, Naval Institute Press, 2001
Crossing the Strait: China’s Military Prepares for War with Taiwan - National Defense University Press. PDF


Taiwan Navy Launches Latest Stealth Corvette | TaiwanPlus News
Overview of Taiwanese Navy Warships
Taiwan's Navy Welcomes Newest Yushan Warship | TaiwanPlus News

The Cold War Taiwanese Navy (1949-1991)

Destroyer Tan Yang (1947)

ROCS Tan(Dan) Yang and other escorts alongside in 1949
On 6 July 1947, IJN Yukikaze, surrendered to the allies, was transferred to the Republic of China as war reparation in and renamed Dan Yang (丹陽), pennant DD-12. "Yang" ("virility") necame a staple of destroyer names in ROCS regardless of their origin. Largest ship ever of ROCS, she became de facto flagship, without her original armament, and so an unarmed training vessel until 1952. In 1953, she received three original Japanese twin Type 89 12.7 cm/40 dual guns, and eight (four twin) 25mm AA, as well as the original Type 98 10cm/65 dual mounts. -In 1956, Dan Yang saw this Japanese armament removed and replaced by three US 5"/38 cal., the torpedo tubes were landed and replaced by two 3"/50 and completed by seventeen Bofors 40 mm guns, plus new US pattern depth charge launchers. This change was more a matter of supply than anything else.

Dan Yang, source: ROC Navy Memorial Digital Archives, Academia Sinica Center for Digital Cultures

She visited Manila, being visited by some 50,000 overseas Chinese in August 1953 and spent most of her career patrolling the South China Sea, intercepting incoming vessels carrying wartime supplies into Shanghai. On 4 October 1953, she captured the Polish civilian oil tanker Praca in southeast of Taiwan, suspected to carry Soviet equipments and on 12 May 1954 shelled and captured another Polish freighter, Prezydent Gottwald. It carried machinery and medicine to China. On 23 June 1954, she captured the oil tanker Tuapse from Soviet Union, this time carrying kerosene close to the Balintang Channel, Philippines. Crews had various fates, some emprisoned for 35 years, released in 1988. She took part in many other warninf actions in the Taiwan Strait. The arrival of US destroyers forced the retirement of this first flagship, BU 1971 after a typhoon in 1969, so damaged repairs were never carried out. Japan meanwhile started to negociate her return to be converted as a museim ship, but only her rudder one anchor were repatriated as a good will gesture.

Lo Yang class destroyers (1954)

ROCS Lo Yang, Han Yang, Nan Yang, Hsien Yang
The date given are those of transfer for the first two, Benson and Hilary P. Jones, 1955 for USS Rodman and 1959 for USS Plunkett. New names above. The first two were presented to Taiwan whereas the last two were on loan, transferred in addition to the ex-Japanese Hatakaze and Asakaze; Although the Benson class was a prewar design, they shared the same weapons systems and general design as the later Fletcher class, which were planned for transfer in the future. They helped to create a first ROCN destroyer flotilla. Unfortunately by the time they arrived, Taiwan no longer had a cruiser, now in PRC hands.

The ex-Japanese destroyers were not even pressed into service and used for spare parts only. However Hatazaze later became a minesweepers, modified with the rear part modified, as the ex-Hatakaze. Nan Yang was the only one to retain her TTs. As the result of a survey made of her early in 1974, she was replaced by a namesake destroyer provided by the Navy on loan in 1975, former USS Taussig (DD-746). She was discarded in 1975 as the others, Hsien Yang in 1976. Similar to "stock" 1945 modernized Bensons, with four original guns, four Bofors and six Oerlikon, no TTs (but Nan Yang) and a DC radar, SG radar and Mk.4 sonar.

ROCS Han Yang
ROCS Han Yang

An Yang class destroyers (1967)

ROCS An Yang, Chiang Yang, Kun Yang, Kwei Yang

ROCS An Yang in the 1970s, src navsource.

In 1967 was transferred the first of modernized Fletcher class destroyers, USS Kimberly, followed in 1968 by USS Yarnell. In 1971, August and October were transferred the last two, USS Twining and Mullany. An Yang was commissioned on 1 June 1967. A fifth unit, USS Sprotson, was transferred in 1968 for cannibalisation and spares. Armament initially was the original one, with five 5-in/38, three twin Bofors, three twin oerlikon a quintuple TT bank, two Hedhehog Mk.2, but soon altered. Cinang Yong was transferred with four 5-in/38 instead, three twin of the new 76 mm in Q position between funnel, and modern triple 324mm ASW TTs Mk.48. had for electronnics, the SPS-10, SPS-12, Mk 25, Mk 37, Mk 56 and Mk 63 FCS radars.

Kwei Yang received a quadruple Sea Chaparral SAM in place of the 40cm mount between "Q" and "X". An Yang and Kua Yang had their 533mm TT replaced with ASW triple 324mm TT. In 1988 the class was equipped with three Heung Feng SSM (see below). Finally Kwei Yang and Chiang Yang had their "B" mount replaced by a 76mm OTO Mlara and had upgraded electronics.

On 5 January 1976, the class was overhauled (Liulong program) in a local Shipyard. ROCS An Yang was fitted wit the new Wuyi fire control and command system, Mark 35 fire-control radar and AN/SPS-6C air-search radar as well as the HR-76C fire-control radar, SPSlOV air-search radar, AN/SPS-58C air-search radar, ARGO-681 electronic interception machine, and DSQS2lCZ hull sonar. Armament was reduced to two single 5-in, a single OTO 76mm gun added, only two twin Bofors 40mm retained, and the Mark 10 hedgehog, but the addition of a CR-201 Trainable Chaff Rocket Launcher. Most important they became missile destroyers with the addition of a Hsiung Feng I missile launcher on her after superstructure. She also had two triple ASW Mark 32 torpedo tubes. Pennant was changed to DD-997 and DDG-918 in the mid-1980s, but Hsiung Feng I missiles were not implemented before 29 June 1981. The lead ship was decommissioned on 16 September 1999, sunk as a target in October 2003. Technically all her sisters were discarded in 1994.

Hua Yang class destroyers (1969)

ROCS Hen Yang, Hsiang Yang, Hua Yang, Huei Yang, Lo Yang, Nan Yang, Po Yang, Yuen Yang
ROCS Hsiang Yang, date unknown (src navsource)
ROCS Hsiang Yang, date unknown (src navsource).
Certainly a great technological leap, Taiwan was granted the more modern (but still WW2 stock) Sumber class destroyers.
The class included the following:
DD876 HENG YANG Bethlehem Feb 1970 Stricken (ex-Samuel N Moore) stricken 1993
DD986 HSIANG YANG Bethlehem, 9.12.69 Suricken (ex-Brush) Staten Island 1984
DD988 HUA YANG Bethlehem, San 9.12.69 Stncken (ex-Bristol) Pedro 1993
DD972 HUEI YANG Federal, Kearny 11.8.70 Extant (ex-English) 1995
DD949 LO YANG Bethlehem, 6.5.74 Stricken (ex-Taussig) Staten Island 1994
DD954 NAN YANG Bethlehem, San 6.5.74 Extant (ex-Fohn W Francisco 1995 Thomason)
DD928 PO YANG Bath Iron Wks 67.72 Stricken (ex-Maddox) 1985
DD944 YUEN YANG Federal, 1250 Suicken (ex-Haynsworth) Keamey 1993

These ex-USN Sumner class units had been modified m the 1950s with 76mm guns, ASW TTs, and improved sensors. Lo Yang and Nan Yang were converted to FRAM II configuration in September 1962 and January 1961 respectively, giving improved ASW capability. They had been equipped with Hughes 500 ASW helicopters small enough to use the existing DASH ASW drone helicopter landing pad and hangar. In 1985, they were further modified with 1-76mm OTO Melara replacing "B" turret, and five Hsiung Feng I SSM in a triple arrangement replacing "X" 127mm turret, two being placed on after superstructure, and a quadruple Sea Chaparral SAM launcher right aft. Their hull-mounted sonar in 1995 was a Krupp Adas DSQS-21CZ. Radars were the SPS-58A and SPS-29. The other six ships were transferred with the weapons and equipment below:

Huey Yang had "B" 5-in turret later replaced by a 76mm OTO Melara and fitted with five Hsiung Feng I SSM and a Sea Chaparral SAM, but retained her after turret as the SAM launcher was mounted atop the aft superstructure. The remaining five ships all received the "Tien Shi" modernisation programme with two triple IAI Gabriel and later Hstung Feng I SSM were mounted, plus Sea Chaparral aft, replacing the 76mm OTO and after 5-in turret. They also retained their Hedgehog Mk 2, had two triple 324mm Mk 32 ASW TT and DCs. Sensors comprised the ECM WLR-1, 4 chaff RL, Radar SPS-10, SPS-6C, Mk 25 and Sonar SQS-29.

Fu Yang class destroyers (1971)

ROCS Fu Yang, Han Yang, Dang Yang, Chien Yang, Lao Yang, Liao Yang, Kai Yang, Chao Yang, Shen Yang, Te Yang, Lai Yang, Yun Yang, Chien Yang, Shao Yang, Tsu Yang

ROCS Suei Yang 04.06.1969 (Coll. Van Ginderen via Conways)

ROCS Te Yang 11.06.1969 (Coll. Van Ginderen via Conways)

ROCS Fa Yong bad been converted as a radar picket in 1952 and with a FRAM II conversion in August 1961. Her SPS-30 radar was removed prior to transfer. On arrival in Taiwan she was fitted with eigt bofors and four cal 0.5 M2HB, and later further with triple Gabriel SSM, and "Y" turret became a 76mm OTO Melara, while Hsung Feng SSM replaces later the Gabriel and Sea Chaparral SAM. The SPS-10 radar was replaced wrth SPS-58 and she had all her updated equipment fitted, extant by 1995, stricken 1999.

ROCS Dang Yang wa completed as a special ASW destroyer and received the FRAM I mod in 1961, then transfemed to Taiwan m 1972. She had a Hughes 100 ASW helicopter using her DASH dome pad and hanger and later received a 76mm OTO Melara, same SSM as her sister. Her electronics suite was also completely modernized. The remaining twelve ships had been converted to FRAM I. Han Yang however was a NBCW test ship prior transfer.

It's interestng to note that Chien, Lao and Liao Yang has been first proposed to the Spaniards, which rejected them based on poor condition. They were all extensively modernized. They all operates a Hugue Helicopters and Raytheon DE-1991 sonar. Four had the OTO Melara in B position, five SSMs, two Bofors, two triple ASW TTs. Sui Yang was loke others had ASROC. They also received the Israeli NTICC combat system. (Naval Tactical Command and Control System) as part of the same refit. The remaining seven had thior aft 5-in removed, the 76mm OTO Melara mounted on ‘A’ position.

They are armed with the Standard SM-1 SAM also able to engage surface targets. Two Launchers are mounted forward of the bridge and two more launchers aft with a 20mm Phalanx CIWS between them. Sensors included the rardars SPS-SSA, HSA DAOS 2, HSA STIR-18 missile control system and HW-100 control, sonar. Pennant in were as follow: Chin Yang 912, Han Yang 915, Lao Yang 920, Liao Yang 921, Chao Yang 973, Kai Yang 924, Te Yang 925, Shen Yang 926, Yun Yang 927, Chen Yang 928, Shao Yang 328, Tsu Yang 930. They were discarded between 1999 and 2004. Now the fleet rests on four missiles destroyers, the ex-Kidd.


ROCS Shao Yang in 1991 and 2004 (scr navsource)

Te An class Frigates (1951)

These were ones of the rare RCN origin vessels: Two Castle class frigates of the BPF, HCMS Pembroke and Edingham castle. They were sold as merchant vessels to China, renamed Orangeville and Tullonsburg, and rearmed, renamed Ta Tsung and Ta Ting, then Hsi Ling and Chui Chin and finally Te An and Kao An. They were rearmed with a 120mm, a 76mm, two twin 40mm, two twin 20mm AA, on 1st June 1951. Oddly, the PRC also rearmed their own two Castle class vessels. They were discarded in 1963 and 1971.

Tai Kang Chan class Frigates (GMT type 1949)

Thirteen US-built WW2 stocks destroyer escorts were transferred in the 1960s, preceded by two in 1949: Tai Kang (ex-DE6 Wyffels)1949 (stricken 1975) and Tai Ping (ex-DE47 Decker), sunk 14.11.1954. They were of the GMT (Evarts) type, leased to China, escaping to Taiwan in 1949, having their armament strengthened. On 14.11.1954 Tai Ping was torpedoed and sunk by Communist Motor torpedo boats off Tachen Islands.

Tai Ho class Frigates (DET type 1949)

Next are four DET (Cannon class) escorts, Tai Ho] (ex-Thomas), transferred in 2.1949, stricken 1972, Tai Hu (ex-Breeman), transferred 2.1949, stricken 1975, Tai Tsang (ex-Bostwick) also 2.1949, stricken 1973 and Tai Chao (ex-Carter) also on 2.1949 ans stricken 1973. Threy were asll armed with the four original 3-in or 76mm/50, seven single 20mm/70 Oerlikon AA, eight DCT; but also they received two 5-in or 127mm/38 Mk 30 and four 40mm/60 Mk 3, and two triple 324mm TT, plus a 24-rocket 178mm Hedgehog Mk 11 ASWRL.

Hua Chan class Frigates (TE/TEV type 1965)

ROCS Fu Shan
They were the ROCS Tien Shan (ex-Kleinsmith), tr. 5.1960, stricken 1993; Yu Shan, tr. 4.1965, stricken mid-1997; Hua Shan (ex-Donald W. Wolf), tr. 5.1965, stricken 5.1995; Wen Shan, tr. 5.1966 and stricken 1991; Chang Shan (ex-Truxton) or Fu Shan, tr. 3.1966, stricken 1996; Lu Shan tr. 8.1966, stricken 5.1995; Ao Shan (ex-Kline) or Shou Shan, tr. 3.1966, stricken mid-1997; Tai Shan (ex-Register) tr. 10.1966, stricken 1991; Heng Shan (ex-Raymond W. Herndon) tr. 10.1966, stricken 1976; Kang Shan (ex-George W. Ingram) tr. 7.1967, stricken 1978; Chung Shan (ex-Blessman) tr. 7.1967, stricken 5.1995; Lung Shan (ex-Schmitt) tr. in 2.1969 and stricken 1976. There was also the case of the ex-Walter B. Cobb, foundered on 21.4.1966 on her way, before commission and thus unnamed. They were rearmed with a single 127mm/38 Mk 30 forward, three twin 40mm/60 Mk 1 Bofors and four single 20mm/70 Mk 10, and two triple 324mm TT plus 2 DCR. Others had a 178mm Hedgehog Mk 11 ASWRL. Tien Shan and Tan Shan were however former AVP conversions, and so they had a deck cargo for 2 LCVP and single 127mm/38 Mk 30 forward. Obsolete in 1991, they were all converted as offshore patrol vessels (OPV), armed with a single 40mm/60 Mk 1 and discarded in the following years.

Chi Yuan class Frigates (1992)

ROCS Fong Yang, Fen Yang, Lan Yang, Hwai Yang, Ning Yang, Yi Yang

A radical upgrade over WW2 stock DEs, these were at last modern, large ASW Frigates entering the Taiwanese inventory. But they arrived a bit late, post-cold war, to be exact transferred from 1992 onwards in several batches. They were the following:
Chih Yang (ex-Robert E. Peary) transferred in 6.10.1993, stricken 5.2015
Feng Yang (ex-Brewton) in 6.10.1993, in service as of 2022.
Fen Yang (ex-Kirk) transferred 6.10.1993, in service
Lan Yang (ex-Joseph Hewes) transferred 4.8.1995, in service
Hae Yang (ex-Cook) transferred 4.8.1995, stricken in May 2015
Hwai Yang (ex-Barbey) transferred 4.8.1995, in service
Ning Yang (ex-Aylwin) transferred 18.10.1999, in service
Yi Yang (ex-Valdez) trasnferred 18.10.1999, in service
Originally the class was armed with a single Mk-16 8 cell missile launcher for RUR-5 ASROC and Harpoon missiles, single Mk-42 5-inch/54 caliber gun forward, four single tubes Mark 46 torpedoes for ASW warfare and a single Mk-25 BPDMS launcher for Sea Sparrow missiles or Phalanx CIWS depending on their upgrade and a single SH-2 Seasprite (LAMPS I) helicopter aft. The typical electronics suite comprised the SPS-64(v)9, SPS-10F, SPS-40B, SPG-53F, Mk 90 radars, SQS-26CX, SQS-35, SQR-18A sonars, SLQ-32(v)1/2 ECM suite, two Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, a single Mk 6 Fanfare torpedo decoy and FFISTS CCS (Central Combat System).

However in Taiwanese service, they were modernized with the following: They received two triple and two twin Standard SM-1MR SSM/SAM (10 RIM-66A), two M2HB and the DA-08/2, STIR-1.8 radars plus the SQR-18A(v)2 sonar and H930 mod.3 CCS. There are modernization programs likely to the 2020s, unless they are retired and replaced.

Cheng Kung class Frigates (1991)

Instead of transferring Oliver Hazard Perry class ships, the government acquiesced for a technology transfer in order that these ships, the largest built in Taiwan to that point, be completed there, with US weapons systems and sensors, but many changed later to Taiwanese systems. The Cheng Kung-class were guided-missile frigates buill by the China Shipbuilding Corporation in Kaohsiung under license, as part of the Kuang Hua I project. They were soon reinforced by the Keelung (Kidd)-class destroyers in 2005. Designated PFG (Patrol Frigate, Guided missile) they are considered the very last iteration of the OHP, now being replaced in the USN by the Constellation class (and decommissioned). Construction rythm is slow. The very last of the class was commissioned in 2004. Two these, two more OHP classn this time ex-US ships were transferred, ROCS Ming-chuan (PFG-1112), ex-USS Taylor on November 8, 2018 as well as Feng Jia (PFG-1115), ex-USS Gary.

Modernization planned are for the addition of the "Taiwanese AEGIS" or Sky Bow air defense system and replacement of the SM-1, Mk 13 launcher. They will be the object of a dedicated article.

⚙ Cheng Kung class specifications

Displacement4,103 long tons (4,169 t) full load
Dimensions453 x 46.95ft (138 x 14.31 m)
Propulsion2 GM LM2500-30 gas turbines 41,000 shp, 2 APU 350 hp
Speedover 29 knots (54 km/h)
ArmamentMk 13 SAM (40 RIM-66 Standard MR), 2x3 Mark 32 TTs, OTO Melara 76 mm/62, 2 Bofors, 1 CIWS, 4 Hsiung Feng II, 4 Hsiung Feng III SSM
SensorsRadars AN/SPS-49, AN/SPS-55, Mk 92 FCS, SQS-56 hull-mounted sonar
EW, DecoysSLQ-32(V)2, Mark 36 SRBOC, AN/SLQ-25 Nixie
On board aviation2 × S-70C(M)-1/2 helicopters

Kang Ding (La Fayette) class Frigates (1993)

Kang Ding, Hsi Ning, Kun Ming, Di Hua, Wu Chang, Chen De
ROCS Wu Chang at Zhongzheng Naval Base
ROCS Wu Chang at Zhongzheng Naval Base
Kwang Hua II Program. A French tailor-made Lafayette class Frigate, and first "sleath frigate" in service with the ROCN. Built not in Taiwan, but in France at DCN (now Naval Group) in Lorient. The attribution process was been marred by a corruption affair and the rest of the 14 planned had been cancelled. The class comprised the Kang Ding launched 12.3.1994, comm. 24.5.1996, Hsi Ning (comm. 12.10.1996, Kun Ming (26.2.1997), Di Hua (8.8.1997), Wu Chang (16.12.1997), Chen De (19.3.1998) so relatively quickly built and in service.

Integrates the same stealthy solutions as for the Lafayette class, with a diesel propulsion mounted in pairs on isolation platforms, superstructure slanted and covered with radar-absorbent GRP-resin compound and built of GRP. There is a thermal reduction system and degaussing equipment, plus an extensive NBC protection. There is special armor, notably kevlar, provided for the magazines and likely CCS. The French SAMAHE helicopter deck proved incompatible with the S-70C(M)1 helicopter and was modified. In 2021 it was reported an upgrade, started in 2022 for the SAM system followed by a new decoy launching system. A dedicated article is to be done of these in the future.

CIWS and Bofors onboard ROCS Du Hua. Specifications as follows:

⚙ Kung class specifications

Displacement3000 standard, 3800 FL
Dimensions115.0/124.2m oa x 15.4/13.8m wl, draught 4/5.50m max
Propulsion2 shafts, 4 SEMT-Pielstick 12 PA 6 V280 STC diesels 21,000 shp
Speed25 kts, Endurance 7000nm at 15 kts
Armament2x4 Hsiung Feng II SSM, 1x4 Sea Chaparral SAM, 76mm/62 OTO; 2 Bofors, CIWS, 2x3 324mm Mk 32 TTs
SensorsRacal-Decca 20V90, Jupiter, Triton G, Castor IIC, Mk 90, Najir directors, Spherion B sonar, TAVITAC-2000 CCS
EW, DecoysDR 3000S ECM suite, 2x Dagaie decoy RL
On board aviation1x S-70C Thunderhawk helicopter

ROCN Submarines

Hai Shih class (GUPPY II) (1973)

Tench class
ROCS never receivd any submarine before a 1973 transfer, a bit late for WW2 stock GUPPY converted boats. Hai Shih was the ex USS Cutlass, a Tench class (pennant S91 and in 1983, 791) launched originally in November 1944 and completed in March 1945 and ROCS Hai Pao (ex-Tusk), pennant S92 and 792. The latter was commissioned in 1946.

Both were transferred on 12 april 1973 and 18 October respectively. They were both converted to GUPPY II standard in 1948. (increased battery capacity, streamlined fin, bow, better sonar). See the GUPPY article for more. Before the transfer, to not be accused by the PRC of providing Taiwan two "active" submarines, the US asked for them to be used only for ASW training, shipped woth their TT sealed up. Of course, the ROCN sooon returned them fully operationally, freeing the tubes, and adopting modern Italian torpedoes (of a compatible model with the US tubes), supplied in 1976, so just three years afterwards. Although scheduled to be replaceed by Dutch built submarines, dipolmatic tensions had the order delayed for many years, forcing the ROCN to keep them operational, despite being obsolete.

However, even once the Zzaardvis were built and delivered to the ROCN, the latter maintained the Hai Shih class active, in their original intended role of training submarines. So they were still active in 2019 amazingly, the oldest GUPPY still in service worldwide. Better, they were modernized in 2012 and are still in service today (2022) with the only remaining working Arma gyrocompass, and planned to be retired at last when the IDS programme is complete. In case of an invasion it's likely they would be pressed in combat too, making them the oldest WW2 relics to ever fight a modern war !


Hai Lung class submarines (Zwaardvis, 1986)

SS 793 Submarines
The Chien Lung class, or Hai Lung (Sea Dragon) depending on the source, were built on order of the ROCN in the Netherlands, for the Republic of China as a modified version of the Dutch Zwaardvis class, derived from the late US SSK of the Barbel class. Hai Lung (Sea Dragon) pennant SS-793 was built in Wilton-Fijenoord, laid down on 15 December 1982, launched on 6 October 1986 and completed on 9 October 1987.

Hai Hu (Sea Tiger) pennant SS-794 from the same yard, was laid down in December 1982, launched on 10 December 1986 and completed on 9 April 1988. Construction had been delayed for many years first ordered in 1980 with vivid protests from mainland China, ultimately greenlighted after many tractations in 1983. These were the first new major warships built for Taiwan since 1949, but completion was delayed by financial difficulties. However it was considered more advanced even than the Zwaardvis class, highly automated, silent and modern. Later, further two were ordered, and two more in option, turned down by the Netherlands government in 1984, due again to intense Chinese pressure.

Later the Taiwanese asked for a transfer of technology for these to be built in Taiwan, following the power station components and gas liquifaction plants already delivered, but again this was denied. From this, and given the refusal of either France, Germany, Japan or the US to provide some, was the main incentive behind the IDS: They are to be replaced, as the Hai Shih class, by the new Indigenous Defense Submarine (ISD) program in the 2020s. However in 2013 both received the ability to launch Sub Harpoon missiles as well as Mk 48 Mod.3/4 torpedoes and to 4 UGM-84 Sub-Harpoon Block I or II, the US remaining evasive about their origin.

This class will be the object of a standalone post. Quick specs: 2375/2660 tonnes, 66.9 x 8.40 x 6.70m, 1 shaft, 3 Brons-Werkspoor ORUB 215-12V diesel-generators, 1 Holec electric motor 1400/5100 hp, 11/20 kts, 310 tons diesel oil, 10,000nm at 9 kts, six 533mm TT (20 SUT and Mk 37 torpedoes), Sonar Elodone Octopus with SIASS Z sonar suite, Type 20026 towed array, DUUX-5 Elbit TIMNEX 4CH(V2) electronic support measures (ESM) system, ZW-06 radar, Argo AR-700 ECM, Gipsy Central Combat System. Crew 67, can dive at 240m.

Amphibious assault ships

Chung Cheng class LS (1960)

(To come in a future update)

Chang Hai class LST (1946)

(To come in a future update)

Mai Chin class LS (1946)

(To come in a future update)

Men Chien class LSIL/LSSL (1954)

(To come in a future update)

Ho Chung class LCT(6) (1958)

(To come in a future update)

Ho Shan class LCU 1466 (1955)

(To come in a future update)

Minor Landing Crafts

(To come in a future update)

Small Surface Combatants

(To come in a future update)

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☸ To read for a better understanding of this website

❢ Abbreviations & acronyms
    AAW// warfare
    AASAmphibious Assault Ship
    AEWAirbone early warning
    AGAir Group
    AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
    AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
    APArmor Piercing
    APCArmored Personal Carrier
    ASMAir-to-surface Missile
    ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
    ASROCASW Rockets
    ASWAnti Submarine Warfare
    ASWRLASW Rocket Launcher
    ATWahead thrown weapon
    avgasAviation Gasoline
    awAbove Waterline
    AWACSAirborne warning & control system
    bhpbrake horsepower
    BLBreach-loader (gun)
    BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
    BUBroken Up
    CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
    CalCaliber or ".php"
    CGMissile Cruiser
    CICCombat Information Center
    C-in-CCommander in Chief
    CIWSClose-in weapon system
    CECompound Expansion (engine)
    ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
    CLCruiser, Light
    CMBCoastal Motor Boat
    CMSCoastal Minesweeper
    CNOChief of Naval Operations
    CpCompound (armor)
    COBCompound Overhad Beam
    CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
    CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
    COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
    COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
    COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
    CRCompound Reciprocating
    CRCRSame, connecting rod
    CruDivCruiser Division
    CPControlled Pitch
    CTConning Tower
    CTLconstructive total loss
    CTOLConv. Take off & landing
    CTpCompound Trunk
    CVAircraft Carrier
    CVA// Attack
    CVE// Escort
    CVL// Light
    CVS// ASW support
    DADirect Action
    DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
    DCDepht Charge
    DCT// Track
    DCR// Rack
    DCT// Thrower
    DEDouble Expansion
    DEDestroyer Escort
    DDE// Converted
    DesRonDestroyer Squadron
    DFDouble Flux
    DPDual Purpose
    DUKWAmphibious truck
    EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
    ECMElectronic Warfare
    ESMElectronic support measure
    FCSFire Control System
    fpsFeet Per Second
    FYFiscal Year
    GMMetacentric Height
    GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
    GRTGross Tonnage
    GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
    HAHigh Angle
    HCHorizontal Compound
    HCR// Reciprocating
    HCDA// Direct Acting
    HCDCR// connecting rod
    HDA// direct acting
    HDAC// acting compound
    HDAG// acting geared
    HDAR// acting reciprocating
    HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
    H/FHigh Frequency
    HF/DF// Directional Finding
    HMSHer Majesty Ship
    HNHarvey Nickel
    HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
    HPHigh Pressure
    HRHorizontal reciprocating
    HRCR// connecting rod
    HSHarbor Service
    HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
    HSET// trunk
    HTHorizontal trunk
    HTE// expansion
    ICInverted Compound
    IDAInverted direct acting
    IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
    ihpindicated horsepower
    IMFInshore Minesweeper
    KCKrupp, cemented
    KNC// non cemented
    LALow Angle
    LCLanding Craft
    LCA// Assault
    LCAC// Air Cushion
    LFC// Flak (AA)
    LCG// Gunboat
    LCG(L)/// Large
    LCG(M)/// Medium
    LCG(S)/// Small
    LCI// Infantry
    LCM// Mechanized
    LCP// Personel
    LCP(R)/// Rocket
    LCS// Support
    LCT// Tanks
    LCV// Vehicles
    LCVP/// Personal
    LCU// Utility
    locolocomotive (boiler)
    LSCLanding ship, support
    LSD// Dock
    LSF// Fighter (direction)
    LSM// Medium
    LSS// Stern chute
    LST// Tank
    LSV// Vehicle
    LPlow pressure
    lwllenght waterline
    MA/SBmotor AS boat
    MGMachine Gun
    MGBMotor Gunboat
    MLMotor Launch
    MMSMotor Minesweper
    MTMilitary Transport
    MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
    HMGHeavy Machine Gun
    MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
    MLMuzzle loading
    MLR// rifled
    MSOOcean Minesweeper
    NCnon condensing
    nhpnominal horsepower
    nmNautical miles
    NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
    NSNickel steel
    NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
    NyDNaval Yard
    OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
    PCPatrol Craft
    PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
    psipounds per square inch
    PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
    QFQuick Fire
    QFC// converted
    RAdmRear Admiral
    RCRreturn connecting rod
    RFRapid Fire
    RPCRemote Control
    rpgRound per gun
    SAMSurface to air Missile
    SARSearch Air Rescue
    SBShip Builder
    SCSub-chaser (hunter)
    SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
    SESimple Expansion
    SET// trunk
    shpShaft horsepower
    SHsimple horizontal
    SOSUSSound Surv. System
    SPRsimple pressure horiz.
    SSSubmarine (Conv.)
    SSMSurface-surface Missile
    sfsteam frigate
    SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
    spfsteam paddle frigate
    STOVLShort Take off/landing
    SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
    tton, long (short in bracket)
    TACANTactical Air Nav.
    TBTorpedo Boat
    TBD// destroyer
    TCTorpedo carriage
    TETriple expansion
    TER// reciprocating
    TFTask Force
    TGBTorpedo gunboat
    TGTask Group
    TLTorpedo launcher
    TLC// carriage
    TSTraining Ship
    TTTorpedo Tube
    UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
    UHFUltra High Frequency
    VadmVice Admiral
    VCVertical compound
    VCE// expansion
    VDE/ double expansion
    VDSVariable Depth Sonar
    VIC/ inverted compound
    VLFVery Low Frequency
    VQL/ quadruple expansion
    VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
    VTE/ triple expansion
    VTOLVertical take off/landing
    VSE/ Simple Expansion
    WTWireless Telegraphy
    xnumber of
    BuShipsBureau of Ships
    DBMGerman Navy League
    GBGreat Britain
    DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    FAAFleet Air Arm
    FNFLFree French Navy
    MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
    MSAMaritime Safety Agency
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    RANRoyal Australian Navy
    RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
    R&DResearch & Development
    RNRoyal Navy
    RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
    ussrUnion of Socialist Republics
    UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
    UNUnited Nations Org.
    USNUnited States Navy
    WaPacWarsaw Pact

⛶ Pre-Industrial Eras

☀ Introduction
☀ Neolithic to bronze age
⚚ Antique
⚜ Medieval
⚜ Renaissance
⚜ Enlightenment

⚔ Naval Battles

⚔ Pre-Industrial Battles ☍ See the page
  • Salamis
  • Cape Ecnomus
  • Actium
  • Red Cliffs
  • Battle of the Masts
  • Yamen
  • Lake Poyang
  • Lepanto
  • Vyborg Bay
  • Svensksund
  • Trafalgar
  • Sinope
⚔ Industrial Era Battles ☍ See the page
⚔ WW1 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page
⚔ WW2 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page

⚔ Crimean War

Austrian Navy ☍ See the page
French Navy ☍ See the page
    Screw Ships of the Line
  • Navarin class (1854)
  • Duquesne class (1853)
  • Fleurus class (1853)
  • Montebello (1852)
  • Austerlitz (1852)
  • Jean Bart (1852)
  • Charlemagne (1851)
  • Napoleon (1850)
  • Sailing Ships of the Line
  • Valmy (1847)
  • Ocean class (1805)
  • Hercules class (1836)
  • Iéna class (1814)
  • Jupiter (1831)
  • Duperré (1840)
  • Screw Frigates
  • Pomone (1845)
  • Isly (1849)
  • Bellone (1853)
  • D’Assas class (1854)
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Primauguet class (1852)
  • Roland (1850)
Royal Navy ☍ See the page
  • Duke of Wellington
  • Conqueror (1855)
  • Marlborough (1855)
  • Royal Albert (1854)
  • St Jean D’Acre (1853)
  • Waterloo (1833
  • Sailing ships of the Line
  • Sailing Frigates
  • Sailing Corvettes
  • Screw two deckers
  • Screw frigates
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Screw guard ships
  • Paddle frigates
  • Paddle corvettes
  • Screw sloops
  • Paddle sloops
  • Screw gunboats
  • Brigs

⚑ 1870 Fleets

Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola ☍ See the Page
  • Numancia (1863)
  • Tetuan (1863)
  • Vitoria (1865)
  • Arapiles (1864)
  • Zaragosa (1867)
  • Sagunto (1869)
  • Mendez Nunez (1869)
  • Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
  • Frigate Tornado (1865)
  • Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
  • Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
  • Dannebrog (1863)
  • Peder Skram (1864)
  • Danmark (1864)
  • Rolf Krake (1864)
  • Lindormen (1868)

  • Jylland CR (1860)
  • Tordenskjold CR (1862)
  • Dagmar SP (1861)
  • Absalon class GB (1862)
  • Fylla class GB (1863)
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Basileos Giorgios (1867)
  • Basilisa Olga (1869)
  • Sloop Hellas (1861)
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine 1870
  • Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
  • De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
  • Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
  • Buffel class turret rams (1868)
  • Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
  • Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
  • Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
  • Adder class Monitors (1870)
  • A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
  • A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
  • Djambi class corvettes (1860)
  • Amstel class Gunboats (1860)
Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
  • Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
  • Screw Frigates (1849-59)
  • Conv. sailing frigates
  • Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
  • Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
  • Paddle Frigates
  • Paddle Corvettes
  • screw sloops
  • screw gunboats
  • Sailing ships of the line
  • Sailing frigates
  • Sailing corvettes
  • Sailing bricks

  • Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
  • Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
  • Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
  • Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
  • Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
  • Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864)
  • Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
  • Taureau arm. ram (1865)
  • Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
  • Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
  • Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

  • Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
  • Talisman cruisers (1862)
  • Resolue cruisers (1863)
  • Venus class cruisers (1864)
  • Decres cruiser (1866)
  • Desaix cruiser (1866)
  • Limier class cruisers (1867)
  • Linois cruiser (1867)
  • Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
  • Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
  • Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
  • Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

  • Curieux class sloops (1860)
  • Adonis class sloops (1863)
  • Guichen class sloops (1865)
  • Sloop Renard (1866)
  • Bruix class sloops (1867)
  • Pique class gunboats (1862)
  • Hache class gunboats (1862)
  • Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
  • Etendard class gunboats (1868)
  • Revolver class gunboats (1869)
Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
  • Barrozo class (1864)
  • Brasil (1864)
  • Tamandare (1865)
  • Lima Barros (1865)
  • Rio de Janeiro (1865)
  • Silvado (1866)
  • Mariz E Barros class (1866)
  • Carbal class (1866)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864)
  • Assari Tewfik (1868)
  • Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
  • Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
  • Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
  • Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
  • Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
  • Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
  • Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
  • Abdul Kadir Battleships (project)

  • Frigate Ertrogul (1863)
  • Selimieh (1865)
  • Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
  • Mehmet Selim (1876)
  • Sloops & despatch vessels
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Marina Do Peru
  • Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
  • CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
  • Turret ship Huascar (1865)
  • Frigate Apurimac (1855)
  • Corvette America (1865)
  • Corvette Union (1865)
Portuguese Navy 1870 Marinha do Portugal
  • Bartolomeu Dias class (28-guns) steam frigates
  • Sagris (14 guns) steam corvette
  • Vasco Da Gama (74 guns) Ship of the Line
  • Dom Fernando I e Gloria (50) Sailing Frigate
  • Dom Joao I class (14 guns) Sailing corvettes
  • Portuguese Side-wheel steamers
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun 1870
  • Ironclad Ruyjo (1868)
  • Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
  • Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
  • Frigate Kasuga (1863)
  • Corvette Asama (1869)
  • Gunboat Raiden (1856)
  • Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
  • Teibo class GB (1866)
  • Gunboat Mushun (1865)
  • Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine 1870
  • Prinz Adalbert (1864)
  • Arminius (1864)
  • Friedrich Carl (1867)
  • Kronprinz (1867)
  • K.Whilhelm (1868)
  • Arcona class Frigates (1858)
  • Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
  • Augusta class Frigates (1864)
  • Jäger class gunboats (1860)
  • Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot 1870
  • Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
  • Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
  • Ironclad Smerch (1864)
  • Pervenetz class (1863)
  • Charodeika class (1867)
  • Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
  • Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
  • Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
  • Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
  • S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
  • S3D Sinop (1860)
  • S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
  • Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
  • Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
  • Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
  • Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
  • Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
  • Almaz class Sloops (1861)
  • Opyt TGBT (1861)
  • Sobol class TGBT (1863)
  • Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
  • Ericsson class monitors (1865)
  • Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
  • Frigate Stockholm (1856)
  • Corvette Gefle (1848)
  • Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
  • Skorpionen class (1866)
  • Frigate Stolaf (1856)
  • Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
  • Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
  • Frigate Vanadis (1862)
  • Glommen class gunboats (1863)
Union Union Navy ☍ See the Page
Confederate Confederate Navy ☍ See the Page
Union 'Old Navy'(1865-1885) ☍ See the Page
  • Dunderberg Bd Ironclad (1865)
  • Wampanoag class frigates (1864)
  • Frigate Chattanooga & Idaho (1864)
  • Frigate Idaho (1864)
  • Java class frigates (1865)
  • Contookook class frigates (1865)
  • Frigate Trenton (1876)
  • Swatara class sloops (1865)
  • Alaska class sloops (1868)
  • Galena class sloops (1873)
  • Enterprise class sloops (1874)
  • Alert class sloops (1873)
  • Alarm torpedo ram (1873)
  • Intrepid torpedo ram (1874)

⚑ 1890 Fleets

Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
  • Parana class (1873)
  • La Plata class (1875)
  • Pilcomayo class (1875)
  • Ferre class (1880)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
  • Custoza (1872)
  • Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
  • Kaiser (1871)
  • Kaiser Max class (1875)
  • Tegetthoff (1878)

  • Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
  • SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
  • SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

  • Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
  • Saida (1878)
  • Fasana (1870)
  • Aurora class (1873)
Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
  • Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
  • Skjold (1896)
  • Cruiser Fyen (1882)
  • Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)
Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Spetsai class (1889)
  • Nauarchos Miaoulis (1889)
  • Greek Torpedo Boats (1881-85)
  • Greek Gunboats (1861-84)
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
  • Gunboat St Michael (1970)
  • Gunboat "1804" (1875)
  • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
  • Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
  • Konigin der Netherland (1874)
  • Draak, monitor (1877)
  • Matador, monitor (1878)
  • R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
  • Evertsen class CDS (1894)
  • Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
  • Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
  • Banda class Gunboats (1872)
  • Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
  • Gunboat Aruba (1873)
  • Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
  • Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
  • Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
  • Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
  • Combok class Gunboats (1891)
  • Borneo Gunboat (1892)
  • Nias class Gunboats (1895)
  • Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
  • Dutch sloops (1864-85)
Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
  • Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
  • Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
  • Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
  • Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
  • Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
  • Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
  • Marceau class barbette ships (1888)

  • Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
  • Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
  • Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
  • Tonnant ironclad (1880)
  • Furieux ironclad (1883)
  • Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Jemmapes class (1892)
  • Bouvines class (1892)

  • La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
  • Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
  • Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
  • Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
  • Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
  • Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
  • Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
  • Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
  • Troude class Cruisers (1888)
  • Alger class Cruisers (1891)
  • Friant class Cruisers (1893)
  • Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
  • Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
  • Linois class Cruisers (1896)
  • D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
  • Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

  • R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
  • Cruiser Tourville (1876)
  • Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
  • Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
  • Villars class Cruisers (1879)
  • Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
  • Cruiser Naiade (1881)
  • Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
  • Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
  • Cruiser Milan (1884)

  • Parseval class sloops (1876)
  • Bisson class sloops (1874)
  • Epee class gunboats (1873)
  • Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
  • Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
  • Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
  • G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
  • Inconstant class sloops (1887)
  • Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
  • Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
  • Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Marinha do Portugal 1898 Marinha do Portugal
Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
  • GB Indipendencia (1874)
  • GB Democrata (1875)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
  • Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
  • Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
  • Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
  • Turkish TBs (1885-94)
Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina
  • Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
  • Caio Duilio class (1879)
  • Italia class (1885)
  • Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
  • Carracciolo (1869)
  • Vettor Pisani (1869)
  • Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
  • Flavio Goia (1881)
  • Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
  • C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
  • Pietro Micca (1876)
  • Tripoli (1886)
  • Goito class (1887)
  • Folgore class (1887)
  • Partenope class (1889)
  • Giovanni Bausan (1883)
  • Etna class (1885)
  • Dogali (1885)
  • Piemonte (1888)
  • Staffeta (1876)
  • Rapido (1876)
  • Barbarigo class (1879)
  • Messagero (1885)
  • Archimede class (1887)
  • Guardiano class GB (1874)
  • Scilla class GB (1874)
  • Provana class GB (1884)
  • Curtatone class GB (1887)
  • Castore class GB (1888)
Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
  • Ironclad Fuso (1877)
  • Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

  • Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
  • Cruiser Takao (1888)
  • Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
  • Cruiser Chishima (1890)
  • Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
  • Cruiser Miyako (1898)

  • Frigate Nisshin (1869)
  • Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
  • Kaimon class CVT (1882)
  • Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
  • Sloop Seiki (1875)
  • Sloop Amagi (1877)
  • Corvette Jingei (1876)
  • Gunboat Banjo (1878)
  • Maya class GB (1886)
  • Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine
  • Ironclad Hansa (1872)
  • G.Kurfürst class (1873)
  • Kaiser class (1874)
  • Sachsen class (1877)
  • Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

  • Ariadne class CVT (1871)
  • Leipzig class CVT (1875)
  • Bismarck class CVT (1877)
  • Carola class CVT (1880)
  • Corvette Nixe (1885)
  • Corvette Charlotte (1885)
  • Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
  • Bussard class (1890)

  • Aviso Zieten (1876)
  • Blitz class Avisos (1882)
  • Aviso Greif (1886)
  • Wacht class Avisos (1887)
  • Meteor class Avisos (1890)
  • Albatross class GBT (1871)
  • Cyclop GBT (1874)
  • Otter GBT (1877)
  • Wolf class GBT (1878)
  • Habitch class GBT (1879)
  • Hay GBT (1881)
  • Eber GBT (1881)
  • Rhein class Monitors (1872)
  • Wespe class Monitors (1876)
  • Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
  • Lima class Cruisers (1880)
  • Chilean TBs (1879)
Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
  • Lindormen (1868)
  • Gorm (1870)
  • Odin (1872)
  • Helgoland (1878)
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy 1898
  • Hotspur (1870)
  • Glatton (1871)
  • Devastation class (1871)
  • Cyclops class (1871)
  • Rupert (1874)
  • Neptune class (1874)
  • Dreadnought (1875)
  • Inflexible (1876)
  • Agamemnon class (1879)
  • Conqueror class (1881)
  • Colossus class (1882)
  • Admiral class (1882)
  • Trafalgar class (1887)
  • Victoria class (1890)
  • Royal Sovereign class (1891)
  • Centurion class (1892)
  • Renown (1895)

  • HMS Shannon (1875)
  • Nelson class (1876)
  • Iris class (1877)
  • Leander class (1882)
  • Imperieuse class (1883)
  • Mersey class (1885)
  • Surprise class (1885)
  • Scout class (1885)
  • Archer class (1885)
  • Orlando class (1886)
  • Medea class (1888)
  • Barracouta class (1889)
  • Barham class (1889)
  • Pearl class (1889)
  • 1870-90 Torpedo Boats
  • Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
    • Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

    • Aragon class (1879)
    • Velasco class (1881)
    • Isla de Luzon (1886)
    • Alfonso XII class (1887)
    • Reina Regentes class (1887)
    • Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
    • Emperador Carlos V (1895)
    • Cristobal Colon (1896)
    • Princesa de Asturias class (1896)

    • Destructor class (1886)
    • Temerario class (1891)
    • TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
    • De Molina class (1896)
    • Furor class (1896)
    • Audaz class (1897)
    • Spanish TBs (1878-87)
    • Fernando class gunboats (1875)
    • Concha class gunboats (1883)
    US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy US Navy 1898☍ See the Page
    • USS Maine (1889)
    • USS Texas (1892)
    • Indiana class (1893)
    • USS Iowa (1896)

    • Amphitrite class (1876)
    • USS Puritan (1882)
    • USS Monterey (1891)

    • Atlanta class (1884)
    • USS Chicago (1885)
    • USS Charleston (1888)
    • USS Baltimore (1888)
    • USS Philadelphia (1889)
    • USS San Francisco (1889)
    • USS Newark (1890)
    • USS New York (1891)
    • USS Olympia (1892)
    • Cincinatti class (1892)
    • Montgomery class (1893)
    • Columbia class (1893)
    • USS Brooklyn (1895)

    • USS Vesuvius (1888)
    • USS Katahdin (1893)
    • USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
    • GB USS Dolphin (1884)
    • Yorktown class GB (1888)
    • GB USS Petrel (1888)
    • GB USS Bancroft (1892)
    • Machias class GB (1891)
    • GB USS Nashville (1895)
    • Wilmington class GB (1895)
    • Annapolis class GB (1896)
    • Wheeling class GB (1897)
    • Small gunboats (1886-95)
    • St Louis class AMC (1894)
    • Harvard class AMC (1888)
    • USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
    • USN Armed Yachts


    ☉ Entente Fleets

    US ww1 US Navy ☍ See the Page
    British ww1 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww1 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Japan ww1 Nihhon Kaigun ☍ See the Page
    Russia ww1 Russkiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Italy ww1 Regia Marina

    ✠ Central Empires

    German Navy 1914 Kaiserliche Marine
    austria-hungary ww1 KuK Kriesgmarine
    turkey ww1 Osmanli Donmanasi
    • Barbarossa class battleships (1892)
    • Yavuz (1914)
    • Cruiser Mecidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Hamidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Midilli (1914)
    • Namet Torpedo cruisers (1890)
    • Sahahani Deria Torpedo cruisers (1892)
    • Destroyers class Berk-Efshan (1894)
    • Destroyers class Yarishar (1907)
    • Destroyers class Muavenet (1909)
    • Berk i Savket class Torpedo gunboats (1906)
    • Marmaris gunboat (1903)
    • Sedd ul Bahr class gunboats (1907)
    • Isa Reis class gunboats (1911)
    • Preveze class gunboats (1912)
    • Turkish WW1 Torpedo Boats
    • Turkish Armed Yachts (1861-1903)
    • Turkish WW1 Minelayers

    ⚑ Neutral Countries

    Argentinian navy Argentina
    Brazilian Navy Brazil
    Chilean Navy 1914 Chile
    Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
    • Gunboat Baire (1906)
    • Gunboat Patria (1911)
    • Diez de octubre class GB (1911)
    • Sloop Cuba (1911)
    Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti
    • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
    • GB Toussaint Louverture (1886)
    • GB Capois la Mort (1893)
    • GB Crete a Pierot (1895)
    Mexican Navy Mexico
    • Cruiser Zatagosa (1891)
    • GB Plan de Guadalupe (1892)
    • Tampico class GB (1902)
    • N. Bravo class GB (1903)
    Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
    • Almirante Grau class (1906)
    • Ferre class subs. (1912)
    Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
    • Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
    • Drski class TBs (1906)
    Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
    • Skjold class (1896)
    • Herluf Trolle class (1899)
    • Herluf Trolle (1908)
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Hekla class cruisers (1890)
    • Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
    • Fyen class crusiers (1882)
    • Danish TBs (1879-1918)
    • Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
    • Danish Minelayer/sweepers
    Greek Royal Navy Greece
    Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
    • Eversten class (1894)
    • Konigin Regentes class (1900)
    • De Zeven Provincien (1909)
    • Dutch dreadnought (project)
    • Holland class cruisers (1896)
    • Fret class destroyers
    • Dutch Torpedo boats
    • Dutch gunboats
    • Dutch submarines
    • Dutch minelayers
    Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
    • Haarfarge class (1897)
    • Norge class (1900)
    • Norwegian Monitors
    • Cr. Frithjof (1895)
    • Cr. Viking (1891)
    • DD Draug (1908)
    • Norwegian ww1 TBs
    • Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
    • Sub. Kobben (1909)
    • Ml. Fröya (1916)
    • Ml. Glommen (1917)
    Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
    • Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
    • Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
    • Sao Gabriel class (1898)
    • Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
    • Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
    • Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
    • Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
    • Portuguese ww1 Gunboats
    Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
    Spanish Armada Spain
    Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
    Chinese navy 1914 China
    Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
    • Maha Chakri (1892)
    • Thoon Kramon (1866)
    • Makrut Rajakumarn (1883)

    ⚏ WW1 3rd/4th rank navies

    ✈ WW1 Naval Aviation

    US naval aviation USN
    • Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
    • Aeromarine 39 (1917)
    • Curtiss H (1917)
    • Curtiss F5L (1918)
    • Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
    • Curtiss NC (1918)
    • Curtiss NC4 (1918)
    • Short 184 (1915)
    • Fairey Campania (1917)
    • Felixtowe F2 (1916)
    • Felixtowe F3 (1917)
    • Felixtowe F5 (1918)
    • Sopwith Baby (1917)
    • Fairey Hamble Baby (1917)
    • Fairey III (1918)
    • Short S38 (1912)
    • Short Admiralty Type 166 (1914)
    • Short Admiralty Type 184 (1915)

    • Blackburn Kangaroo
    • Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter
    • Sopwith Pup
    • Sopwith Cuckoo 1918
    • Royal Aircraft Factory Airships
    German Imperial naval aviation Marineflieger
    • Albatros W.4 (1916)
    • Albatros W.8 (1918)
    • Friedrichshafen Models
    • Gotha WD.1-27 (1918)
    • Hansa-Brandenburg series
    • L.F.G V.19 Stralsund (1918)
    • L.F.G W (1916)
    • L.F.G WD (1917)
    • Lübeck-Travemünde (1914)
    • Oertz W series (1914)
    • Rumpler 4B (1914)
    • Sablatnig SF (1916)
    • Zeppelin-Lindau Rs series
    • Kaiserlichesmarine Zeppelins
    French naval aviation French Naval Aviation
    • Borel Type Bo.11 (1911)
    • Nieuport VI.H (1912)
    • Nieuport X.H (1913)
    • Donnet-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA (1913)
    • Donnet-Denhaut (1915)
    • Borel-Odier Type Bo-T(1916)
    • Levy G.L.40 (1917)
    • Blériot-SPAD S.XIV (1917)
    • Hanriot HD.2 (1918)
    • Zodiac Airships
    Italian naval aviation Italian Naval Aviation
    • Ansaldo SVA Idro (1916)
    • Ansaldo Baby Idro (1915)
    • Macchi M3 (1916)
    • Macchi M5 (1918)
    • SIAI S.12 (1918)
    Russian naval aviation Russian Naval Aviation
    • Grigorovich M-5 (1915)
    • Grigorovich M-9 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-11 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-15 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    ✠ K.u.K. SeeFliegkorps
    • Lohner E (1914)
    • Lohner L (1915)
    • Oeffag G (1916)
    IJN Aviation IJN Air Service
    • IJN Farman 1914
    • Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1917)
    • Yokosuka Igo-Ko (1920)


    ✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

    US ww2 US Navy
    British ww2 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww2 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Soviet ww2 Sovietskiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Koninklije Marine, Dutch Navy ww2 Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    Chinese Navy Chinese Navy 1937 ☍ See the Page

    ✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

    Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    italy ww2 Regia Marina ☍ See the Page
    German ww2 Kriegsmarine ☍ See the Page

    ⚑ Neutral Navies

    Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Armada de Chile Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    Søværnet Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    • Danish ww2 submarines
    • Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers
    Merivoimat Finnish Navy ☍ See the Page
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Greek ww2 Destroyers
    • Greek ww2 submarines
    • Greek ww2 minelayers
    Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser ORP Dragon
    • Cruiser ORP Conrad
    • Brislawicka class Destroyers
    • Witcher ww2 Destroyers
    • Minelayer Gryf
    • Wilk class sub.
    • Orzel class sub.
    • Jakolska class minesweepers
    • Polish Monitors
    Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Douro class DDs
    • Delfim class sub
    • Velho class gb
    • Albuquerque class gb
    • Nunes class sloops
    Romanian Navy Romanian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Romanian ww2 Destroyers
    • Romanian ww2 Submarines
    Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret ☍ See the Page
    • Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    Spanish Armada Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Sverige class CBBs (1915)
    • Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
    • Interwar Swedish CBB projects

    • Tre Kronor class (1943)
    • Gotland (1933)
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    • Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
    • Psilander class DDs (1926)
    • Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
    • Romulus class DDs (1934)
    • Göteborg class DDs (1935)
    • Mode class DDs (1942)
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    • Öland class DDs (1945)

    • Swedish ww2 TBs
    • Swedish ww2 Submarines
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    Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kocatepe class Destroyers
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    Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser Dalmacija
    • Dubrovnik class DDs
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    • Gunboat Beli Orao
    Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Taksin class
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    • Sri Ayuthia class
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    minor navies Minor Navies ☍ See the Page

    ✈ Naval Aviation

    Latest entries | WW1 | Cold War
    US naval aviation USN aviation ☍ See the Page
    Fleet Air Arm ☍ See the Page
    IJN aviation ☍ See the Page
    • Mitsubishi 1MF (1923)
    • Nakajima A1N (1930)
    • Nakajima A2N (1932)
    • Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" (1935)
    • Nakajima A4N (1935)
    • Mitsubishi A6M "zeke" (1940)
    • Nakajima J1N Gekko "Irving" (1941)
    • Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "George" (1942)
    • Nakajima J5N Tenrai (1944)

    • Aichi S1A Denko* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi A7M reppu* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui* (1945)
    • Mitsubishi J8M2 Shusui-kai* (1945)
    • Kyushu J7W Shinden* (1945)
    • Nakajima J9Y Kikka* (1945)

    • Mitsubishi 1MT (1922)
    • Mitsubishi B1M (1923)
    • Mitsubishi B2M (1932)
    • Kugisho B3Y (1932)
    • Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
    • Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi B5M "Mabel" (1937)
    • Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
    • Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
    • Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
    • Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
    • Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1942)
    • Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
    • Kawanishi P1Y Ginga "Frances" (1943)
    • Kyushu Q1W Tokai "Lorna" (1943)
    • Tachikawa Ki-74 "Patsy" (1944)
    • Nakajima G8N Renzan "Rita" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Nakajima C2N1 (1931)
    • Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
    • Nakajima L1N1 (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K2/4-L (1938)
    • Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
    • Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
    • Mitsubishi L4M1 (1942)
    • Nakajima G5N Shinzan "Liz" (1942)
    • Yokosuka L3Y "Tina" (1942)
    • Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna"(1943)
    • Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
    • Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945)

    • Hiro H1H (1926)
    • Yokosuka E1Y (1926)
    • Nakajima E2N (1927)
    • Aichi E3A (1929)
    • Yokosuka K4Y (1930)
    • Nakajima E4N (1931)
    • Nakajima E8N "Dave" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E7K "Alf" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E11K1 (1937)
    • Aichi E11A "Laura" (1938)
    • Watanabe E9W (1938)
    • Watanabe K8W* (1938)
    • Mitsubishi F1M "pete" (1941)
    • Nakajima E14Y "Glen" (1941)
    • Aichi E13A "Jake" (1941)
    • Aichi H9A (1942)
    • Nakajima A6M2-N (1942)
    • Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" (1943)
    • Aichi E16A "Zuiun" (1944)
    • Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1945)

    • Kawanishi E11K* (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" (1938)
    • Kawanishi K6K* (1938)
    • Kawanishi H6K3 (1939)
    • Kawanishi K8K (1940)
    • Kawanishi H8K "Emily" (1942)
    • Yokosuka H5Y "Cherry" (1936)

    • Mitsubishi 2MR (1923)
    • Yokosho K1Y (1924)
    • Yokosuka K2Y (1928)
    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Hitachi LXG1 (1934)
    • Kyushu K10W "Oak" (1943)
    Italian Aviation ☍ See the Page
    French Aeronavale ☍ See the Page
    • Levasseur PL5/9 (1924)
    • Wibault 74 (1926)
    • CAMS 37 (1926)
    • Gourdou-Leseurre GL.300 series (1926-39)
    • Levasseur PL7 (1928)
    • Levasseur PL10 (1929)
    • Latécoere 290 (1931)
    • Breguet 521/22/23 (1931)
    • Leo H257 bis (1932)
    • Latécoere 300 series (1932)
    • Morane 226 (1934)
    • Dewoitine 376 (1934)
    • Latécoere 321 (1935)
    • Potez 452 (1935)
    • Latécoere 38.1 (1936)
    • Loire 210 (1936)
    • Leo H43 (1936)
    • Levasseur PL107 (1937)
    • Loire 130 (1937)
    • Dewoitine HD.730 (1938)
    • Latecoere 298 (1938)
    • LN 401 (1938)
    Soviet Naval Aviation
    Luftwaffe (Naval) ☍ See the Page
    • Arado 197 (1937)
    • Fieseler Fi-167 (1938)
    • Junkers Ju-87C (1938)
    • Messerschmitt Me 109T (1941)
    • Messerschmitt 155 (1944)

    • Heinkel HE 1 (1921)
    • Caspar U1 (1922)
    • Dornier Do J Wal (1922)
    • Dornier Do 16 ‘Wal’ (1923)
    • Heinkel HE 2 (1923)
    • Junkers A 20/Ju 20 (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro II (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro III (1924)
    • Dornier Do D (1924)
    • Dornier Do E (1924)
    • Junkers G 24 (1924)
    • Rohrbach Ro IV (1925)
    • Heinkel HD 14 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 25 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 26 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 24 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 4 (1926)
    • Junkers W 33/34 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 5 (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro VII Robbe (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro V Rocco (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 31 (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 8 (1927)
    • Arado W II (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 9 (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 16 (1928)
    • Heinkel He 55 (1929)
    • Heinkel He 56 (1929)
    • Arado SSD I (1930)
    • Junkers Ju 52w (1930)
    • Heinkel HE 42 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 50 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 59 (1931)
    • Arado Ar 66 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 58 (1932)
    • Junkers Ju 46 (1932)
    • Klemm Kl 35bW (1932)
    • Heinkel He 62 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 60 (1933)
    • Heinkel He 51w (1933)
    • Arado Ar 95 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 196 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 199 (1939)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 139 (1936)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 138 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 140 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 222 (1938)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 238 (1942)
    • Dornier Do 24/318 (1937)
    • Dornier Do 18 (1935)
    • Dornier Do 26 (1938)
    • Dornier Do 22 (1938)
    • DFS Seeadler (1936)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 58W (1935)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 62 (1937)
    • Heinkel He 114 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 115 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 119 (1936)
    Dutch Naval Aviation
    • Fokker W.3 (1915)
    • Fokker T.II (1921)
    • Fokker B.I/III (1922)
    • Fokker B.II (1923)
    • Fokker T.III (1924)
    • Fokker T.IV (1927)
    • Fokker B.IV (1928)
    • Fokker C.VII W (1928)
    • Fokker C.VIII W (1929)
    • Fokker C.XI W (1934)
    • Fokker C.XIV-W (1937)
    • Fokker T.VIII-W (1939)

    ☢ The Cold War


    Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot ☍ See the Page
    Warsaw Pact cold war navy Warsaw Pact Navies ☍ See the Detail
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • Volksmarine East Germany
    • Parchim class corvettes (1985)
    • Hai class sub-chasers (1958)
    • Volksmarine's minesweepers
    • Volksmarine's FAC
    • Volksmarine's Landing ships
    • ORP Warzsawa (1970)
    • ORP Kaszub (1986)
    • Polish Landing ships
    • Polish FACs
    • Polish Patrol ships
    • Polish Minesweepers
    • Missile Destroyer Muntenia (1982)
    • Tetal class Frigates (1981)
    • Romanian river patrol crafts

    ✦ NATO

    bundesmarine Bundesmarine ☍ See the Page
    Dutch Navy Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)
    • Frigate Beskytteren (1976)
    • Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)
    • Thetis class frigates (1989)
    • Bellona class corvettes (1955)
    • Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

    • Delfinen class submarines (1958)
    • Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

    • Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)
    • Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)
    • Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)
    • Soloven class Torpedo Boats (1962)
    • Willemoes class FAC (1976)
    • Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)
    • Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)
    • Danish Minelayers
    • Danish Minesweepers
    Dutch Navy Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    • CV Karel Doorman (1948)
    • De Zeven Provinciën class cruisers (1945)
    • Holland class DDs (1953)
    • Friesland class DDs (1953)
    • Roodfier class Frigates (1953)
    • Frigate Lynx (1954)
    • Van Speijk class Frigates (1965)
    • Tromp class Frigates (1973)
    • Kortenaer class frigates (1976)
    • Van H. class Frigates (1983)
    • K. Doorman class Frigates (1988)
    • Dolfijn clas sub. (1959)
    • Zwaardvis class subs. (1970)
    • Walrus class subs. (1985)
    • ATD Rotterdam (1990s)
    • Dokkum class minesweepers (1954)
    • Alkmaar class minesweepers (1982)
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hydra class FFs (1990)
    • Greek cold war Subs
    • Greek Amphibious ships
    • Greek MTBs/FACs
    • Greek Patrol Vessels
    Eire Irish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eithne class PBs (1983)
    • Cliona class PBs
    • Deidre/Emer class PBs
    • Orla class fast PBs
    Marina Militare Marina Militare ☍ See the Page
      Aircraft Carriers
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1983)
    • Conte di Cavour (2004)*
    • Trieste (2022)*
    • Cruisers
    • Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)
    • Doria class H. cruisers (1962)
    • Vittorio Veneto (1969)
    • Destroyers

    • Impetuoso class (1956)
    • Impavido class (1957)
    • Audace class (1971)
    • De La Penne class (1989)
    • Orizzonte class (2007)*
    • Frigates
    • Grecale class (1949)
    • Canopo class (1955)
    • Bergamini class (1960)
    • Alpino class (1967)
    • Lupo class (1976)
    • Maestrale class (1981)
    • Bergamini class (2013)*
    • Thaon di Revel class (2020)*
    • Corvettes (OPV)
    • Albatros class (1954)
    • De Cristofaro class (1965)
    • Minerva class (1987)
    • Cassiopeia class (1989)
    • Esploratore class (1997)*
    • Sirio class (2003)*
    • Commandanti class (2004)*
    • Submarines
    • Toti class (1967)
    • Sauro class (1976)
    • Pelosi class (1986)
    • Sauro class (1992)*
    • Todaro class (2006)*
    • Attack/Amphibious ships
    • San Giorgio LSD (1987)
    • Gorgona class CTS (1987)
    • Italian Landing Crafts (1947-2020)
    • Misc. ships
    • Folgore PB (1952)
    • Lampo class PBs (1960)
    • Freccia class PBs (1965)
    • Sparviero class GMHF (1973)
    • Stromboli class AOR (1975)
    • Anteo SRS (1980)
    • Etna class LSS (1988)
    • Vulcano AOR (1998)*
    • Elettra EWSS (2003)*
    • Etna AOR (2021)*
    • Mine warfare ships
    • Lerici class (1982)
    • Gaeta class (1992)*
    Marine Française Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    • Jean Bart (1949)
    • Aircraft/Helicopter carriers
    • Dixmude (1946)
    • Arromanches (1946)
    • Lafayette class light carriers (1954)
    • PA 28 class project (1947)
    • Clemenceau class (1957)
    • Jeanne d'Arc (1961)
    • PA 58 (1958)
    • PH 75/79 (1975)
    • Charles de Gaulle (1994)

    • Cruisers
    • De Grasse (1946)
    • Chateaurenault class (1950)
    • Colbert (1956)

    • Destroyers
    • Surcouf class (1953)
    • Duperre class (1956)
    • La Galissonniere class (1960)
    • Suffren class (1965)
    • Aconit (1970)
    • Tourville class (1972)
    • G. Leygues class (1976)
    • Cassard class (1985)

    • Frigates
    • Le Corse class (1952)
    • Le Normand class (1954)
    • Cdt Riviere class (1958)
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Lafayette class (1990)

    • Corvettes
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Floreal class (1990)

    • Submarines
    • La Creole class (1940)
    • Narval class (1954)
    • Arethuse class (1957)
    • Daphne class (1959)
    • Gymnote test SSBN (1964)
    • Le Redoutable SSBN (1967)
    • Agosta SSN (1974)
    • Rubis SSN (1979)
    • Amethyste SSN (1988)
    • Le Triomphant SSBN (started 1989)

    • Amphibian Ships
    • Issole (1958)
    • EDIC class (1958)
    • Trieux class (1958)
    • Ouragan lass (1963)
    • Champlain lass (1973)
    • Bougainville (1986)
    • Foudre class (1988)
    • CDIC lass (1989)

    • Misc. ships
    • Le Fougueux class (1958)
    • La Combattante class (1964)
    • Trident class (1976)
    • L'Audacieuse class (1984)
    • Grebe class (1989)
    • Sirius class (1952)
    • Circe class (1972)
    • Eridan class (1979)
    • Vulcain class (1986)
    RCAN RCAN ☍ See the Page
    • HCMS Bonaventure (1957)
    • St Laurent class DDE (1951)
    • Algonquin class DDE (1952)
    • Restigouche class DDs (1954)
    • Mackenzie class DDs (1961)
    • Annapolis class DDH (1963)
    • Iroquois class DDH (1970)

    • River (mod) 1955
    • Tribal class FFs (Pjct)
    • City class DDH (1988)

    • Ojibwa class sub. (1964)
    • Kingston class MCFV (1995)
    Royal Navy Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cold War Aircraft Carriers
    • Centaur class (1947)
    • HMS Victorious (1957)
    • HMS Eagle (1946)
    • HMS Ark Royal (1950)
    • HMS Hermes (1953)
    • CVA-01 class (1966 project)
    • Invincible class (1977)

    • Cold War Cruisers
    • Tiger class (1945)

    • Destroyers
    • Daring class (1949)
    • 1953 design (project)
    • Cavendish class (1944)
    • Weapon class (1945)
    • Battle class (1945)
    • FADEP program (1946)
    • County class GMD (1959)
    • Bristol class GMD (1969)
    • Sheffield class GMD (1971)
    • Manchester class GMD (1980)
    • Type 43 GMD (1974)

    • British cold-war Frigates
    • Rapid class (1942)
    • Tenacious class (1941)
    • Whitby class (1954)
    • Blackwood class (1953)
    • Leopard class (1954)
    • Salisbury class (1953)
    • Tribal class (1959)
    • Rothesay class (1957)
    • Leander class (1961)
    • BB Leander class (1967)
    • HMS Mermaid (1966)
    • Amazon class (1971)
    • Broadsword class (1976)
    • Boxer class (1981)
    • Cornwall class (1985)
    • Duke class (1987)

    • British cold war Submarines
    • T (conv.) class (1944)
    • T (Stream) class (1945)
    • A (Mod.) class (1944)
    • Explorer class (1954)
    • Strickleback class (1954)
    • Porpoise class (1956)
    • Oberon class (1959)
    • HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
    • Valiant class SSN (1963)
    • Resolution class SSBN (1966)
    • Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
    • Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
    • Upholder class (1986)
    • Vanguard class SSBN (started)

    • Assault ships
    • Fearless class (1963)
    • HMS Ocean (started)
    • Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
    • Sir Galahad (1986)
    • Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
    • Brit. LCVPs (1963)
    • Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

    • Minesweepers/layers
    • Ton class (1952)
    • Ham class (1947)
    • Ley class (1952)
    • HMS Abdiel (1967)
    • HMS Wilton (1972)
    • Hunt class (1978)
    • Venturer class (1979)
    • River class (1983)
    • Sandown class (1988)

    • Misc. ships
    • HMS Argus ATS (1988)
    • Ford class SDF (1951)
    • Cormorant class (1985)
    • Kingfisger class (1974)
    • HMS Jura OPV (1975)
    • Island class OPVs (1976)
    • HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
    • Castle class OPVs (1980)
    • Peacock class OPVs (1982)
    • MBT 538 class (1948)
    • Gay class FACs (1952)
    • Dark class FACs (1954)
    • Bold class FACs (1955)
    • Brave class FACs (1957)
    • Tenacity class PCs (1967)
    • Brave class FPCs (1969)
    Armada de espanola - Spanish cold war navy Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    • Dédalo aircraft carrier (1967)
    • Principe de Asturias (1982)

    • Alava class DDs (1946)
    • Audaz class DDs (1955)
    • Oquendo class DDs (1956)
    • Roger de Lauria class (1967)

    • Baleares class FFs (1971)
    • Descubierta class FFs (1978)
    • Numancia class FFs (1987)

    • Pizarro class gunboats (1944)
    • Artevida class Cvs (1952)
    • Serviola class Cvs (1990)
    • Spanish cold-war submarines
    • Spanish FACs
    • Spanish Minesweepers
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Tre Kronor class (1946)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)
    • Halland class DDs (1952) (1945)
    • Ostergotland class DDs (1956)
    • Spica III class Corvettes (1984)
    • Goteborg class Corvettes (1989)

    • U1 class subs (mod.1963)
    • Hajen class subs (1954)
    • Sjoormen class subs (1967)
    • Nacken class subs (1978)
    • Vastergotland class subs (1986)
    • Gotland class subs (1995)

    • T32 class MTBs (1951)
    • T42 class MTBs (1955)
    • Plejad class FACs (1951)
    • Spica I class FACs (1966)
    • Spica II class FACs (1972)
    • Hugin class FACs (1973)
    • Swedish Patrol Boats
    • Swedish minesweepers
    • Swedish Icebreakers
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters
    Turkish Navy Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Berk class FFs (1971)
    • Atilay class sub. (1974)
    • Cakabey class LST
    • Osman Gazi class LST
    • Turkish Fast Attack Crafts
    • Turkish Patrol Boats
    US Navy USN (cold war) ☍ See the Page

    ☯ ASIA

    Chinese Navy ☍ See the Page
    Indian Navy Indian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Vikrant class CVs (1961)
    • Viraat class CVs (1986)

    • Cruiser Delhi (1948)
    • Cruiser Mysore (1957)
    • Raja class DDs (1949)
    • Rajput class DDs (1980)
    • Delhi class DDs (1990)

    • Khukri class FFs (1956)
    • Talwar class FFs (1958)
    • Brahmaputra class FFs (1957)
    • Nilgiri class FFs (1968)
    • Godavari class FFs (1980)

    • Kusura class subs (1970)
    • Shishumar class subs (1984)
    • Sindhugosh class subs (1986)

    • Indian Amphibious ships
    • Indian corvettes (1969-90)
    • Khukri class corvettes (1989)
    • SDB Mk.2 class PBs (1977)
    • Vikram class OPVs (1979)
    • Sukanya class OPVs (1989)
    Indonesia Indonesian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Fatahilla class Frigates (1977)
    • Pattimura class corvettes (1956)
    • Indonesian Marines
    • Indonesian Mine Vessels
    • Indonesian FAC/OPVs
    JMSDF JMSDF ☍ See the Page
      JMSDF Destroyers
    • Harukaze class DD (1955)
    • Ayanami class DD (1957)
    • Murasame class DD (1958)
    • Akizuki class DD (1959)
    • Amatukaze missile DD (1963)
    • Yamagumo class DDE (1965)
    • Takatsuki class DD (1966)
    • Minegumo class DDE (1967)
    • Haruna class DDH (1971)
    • Tachikaze class DD (1974)
    • Shirane class DDH (1978)
    • Hatsuyuki class DDs (1980)
    • Hatakaze class DDs (1984)
    • Asigiri class DDs (1986)
    • Kongo class DDs (started 1990)

    • JMSDF Frigates
    • Akebono class FFs (1955)
    • Isuzu class FFs (1961)
    • Chikugo class FFs (1970)
    • Ishikari class FFs (1980)
    • Yubari class FFs (1982)
    • Abukuma class FFs (1988)

    • JMSDF submarines
    • Oyashio class Sub. (1959)
    • Hayashio class Sub. (1961)
    • Natsushio class Sub. (1963)
    • Oshio class Sub. (1964)
    • Uzushio class Sub. (1970)
    • Yushio class Sub. (1979)
    • Harushio class Sub. (1989)

    • JMSDF Misc. ships
    • Japanese Landing Ships
    • Japanese Large Patrol Ships
    • Japanese Patrol Crafts
    • Japanese Minesweepers
    • Japanese Sub-chasers
    North Korean Navy North Korean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Najin class Frigates
    • Experimental Frigate Soho
    • Sariwan class Corvettes

    • Sinpo class subs.
    • Sang-O class subs.
    • Yono class subs.
    • Yugo class subs.

    • Hungnam class LCM
    • Hante class LST
    • Songjong class HVC
    • Sin Hung/Ku Song FACs
    • Anju class FACs
    • Iwon class FACs
    • Chaho class FACs
    • Hong Jin class FAC-G
    • Sohung class MTBs
    • Sinpo class MTBs
    • Nampo class FALC
    Philippines Navy Philippines Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Datu Kalantian class Frigates (1976)
    • Bacolod City class LS(L)
    • Philippino Patrol Crafts
    Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN ☍ See the Page
    • Ulsan class frigates (1980)
    • Pohang class corvettes (1984)
    • Dong Hae class corvettes (1982)
    • Han Kang class patrol corvettes (1985)
    • Chamsuri (PKM 268) PBs (1978)
    • ROKS coast guard vessels
    • Paek Ku class FAC (1975)
    • Kang Keong class minehunters (1986)
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters


    Israeli Navy IDF Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eilat class Corvettes (1993)
    • SAAR 5 Project
    • SAAR 1 FAC
    • SAAR 4 FAC
    • SAAR 4.5 FAC
    • Dvora class FAC
    • Shimrit class MHFs
    • IDF FACs/PBs
    • Etzion Geber LST
    • Ash class LCT
    Iranian Navy Iranian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Destroyer Artemiz (1965)
    • Bayandor class FFs (1963)
    • Alvand class FFs (1969)
    • Khalije Fars class DDs (2016)*


    Australian Navy RAN ☍ See the Page
    • HMAS Sydney (1948*)
    • HMAS Melbourne (1955*)
    • Tobruk class DDs (1947)
    • Voyager class DDs (1952)
    • Perth class MDD (1963)
    • Quadrant class FFs (1953)
    • Yarra class FFs (1958)
    • Swan class FFs (1967)
    • Adelaide class MFFs (1978)
    • Anzac class MFFs (1990s)
    • Oxley class subs (1965)
    • Collins class subs (1990s)
    • Australian Amphibious ships
    • Fremantle class PBs
    RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy ☍ See the Page
    • HMNZS Royalist (1956)
    • Pukaki class patrol Crafts (1974)
    • Moa class patrol crafts (1983)
    • HMNZS Aotearoa (2019)*

    ☩ South America

    Armada de argentina Argentina ☍ See the Page
    • ARA Independencia (1958)
    • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (1968)
    • Belgrano class cruisers (1951)
    • Almirante Brown class Frigates (1981)
    • Mantilla class corvettes (1981)
    • Espora class corvettes (1982)
    • Salta class submarines (1972)
    • Santa Cruz class submarines (1982)
    Brazilian Navy Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Minas Gerais aircraft carrier (1956)
    • Cruiser Barroso (1951)
    • Cruiser Tamandare (1951)
    • Acre class destroyers (1945)
    • Niteroi class Frigates (1974)
    • Ihnauma class Frigate (1986)
    • Tupi class submarines (1987)
    • Brazilian patrol ships
    Chilean Navy Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • O'Higgins class cruisers
    • Lattore Cruiser (1971)
    • Almirante class destroyers (1960)
    • Prat class M. Destroyers (1982)
    • Almirante Lynch class Frigates (1972)
    • Thomson class subs (1982)
    • Small surface combatants
    Peruvian Navy Peruvian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Almirante Grau(ii) class
    • Almirante Grau(iii) class
    • Abtao class sub.
    • PR-72P class corvettes
    • Velarde class OPVs

    ℣ AFRICA

    Egyptian Navy Egyptian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • October class FAC/M (1975)
    • Ramadan class FAC/M (1979)
    SADF South African Navy ☍ See the Page
    ☫ Minor cold war/modern Navies Algerian NavyAzerbaijani NavyBangladesh NavyBarheini NavyBolivian NavyCambodian NavyComoros NavyCosta Rica NavyCroatian NavyCuban NavyDjibouti NavyDominican Republic NavyEquadorian NavyEstonian NavyEthiopian NavyFinnish NavyGeorgian NavyHaitian NavyHonduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

    ✚ MORE

    ⚔ Cold War Naval Events
    • ⚔ Indochina War naval ops
    • ⚔ Korean War naval ops
    • ⚔ 1956 intervention in Suez
    • ⚔ 1960 Cuban crisis
    • ⚔ 1960 US/Soviet compared strenghts
    • ⚔ 1963-69 Algerian war naval ops
    • ⚔ Naval warfare in Vietnam
    • ⚔ Middle East naval fights
    • ⚔ 1980 Falkland wars
    • ⚔ 1990 Gulf War
    ⚔ Modern Navies
    ✈ Cold War Naval Aviation See the full section
    • Grumman Mallard 1946
    • Edo OSE-1 1946
    • Short Solent 1946

    • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
    • Grumman Albatross 1947
    • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
    • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
    • Short Sealand 1947

    • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
    • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
    • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
    • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
    • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949

    • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
    • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
    • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
    • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)

    • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
    • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955

    • Ikarus Kurir H 1957

    • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
    • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
    • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
    • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
    • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
    • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
    • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984

    • Patrol Planes
    • ATR 42 MP Surveyor (Italy, 1984)
    • ATR 72 MP (Italy 1988)

    • ATR 72 ASW (France, 1988)
    • Breguet Atlantic (France 1965)
    • Nord 1402 Noroit (France 1949)

    • Avro Shackleton (UK 1949)
    • BAE Nimrod MRA4 (UK 2004)
    • Britten-Norman Defender/Islander (UK 1970)
    • Fairey Gannet (UK 1949)
    • Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod (UK 1967)

    • Beechcraft King Air (USA 1963)
    • Basler BT-67 (USA 1990)
    • Boeing 737 Surveiller (USA 1967)
    • Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA 2009)
    • Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA, 1945)
    • Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA 1959)
    • Martin P4M Mercator (USA 1946)
    • Convair P5Y (USA 1950)
    • Douglas/BSAS Turbo Dakota (USA 1991)

    • Bombardier DHC-8 MPA/MSA (Can 2007)
    • Canadair CP-107 Argus (Can 1957)

    • CASA C-212 MPA (Spain 1971)
    • CASA/IPTN CN-235 MPA/HC-144 Ocean Sentry (Spain 1983)
    • CASA C-295 MPA (Spain 1997)

    • Diamond DA42 Guardian (Austria 2002)

    • Dornier 228 (Germany 1981)

    • Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante (Brazil 1968)
    • Embraer R-99 (Brazil 2001)
    • Embraer P-99 (Brazil 2003)

    • Fokker F27 200-MAR (NL 1955)
    • Fokker F27 Maritime Enforcer (NL 1955)

    • IAI 1124N Sea Scan (Israel 1977)

    • Kawasaki P-1 (Japan 2007)
    • Kawasaki P-2J (Japan 1966)

    • Saab Swordfish (Sweden 2016)
    • Shaanxi Y-8F,Q,X (China 1984)
    • Short Seavan (UK 1976)

    • Beriev Be-8 1947
    • Beriev Be-6 1949
    • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
    • Beriev Be-10 1956
    • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
    • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986
    • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
    • Ilyushin Il-38 'May' (USSR 1967)
    • Myasishchev 3M/3MD (USSR 1956)
    • Tupolev Tu-16T/PL/R/RM/SP (USSR 1952)
    • Tupolev Tu-95MR (USSR 1961)
    • Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR 1968)

    • Carrier Planes
    • Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
    • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
    • Douglas A2D Skyshark
    • Douglas AD Skyraider
    • Douglas F3D Skynight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Grumman A-6 Intruder
    • Grumman AF Guardian
    • Grumman C-1 Trader
    • Grumman C-2 Greyhound
    • Grumman E-1 Tracer
    • Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
    • Grumman EA-6B Prowler
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F9F Panther
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat ➚
    • Grumman S-2 Tracker
    • Lockheed Martin F-35B
    • Lockheed S-3 Viking ➚
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
    • McDonnell FH Phantom
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
    • McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
    • North American A-5 Vigilante
    • North American AJ Savage
    • North American FJ Fury
    • North American T-2 Buckeye
    • North American T-28 Trojan
    • Vought A-7 Corsair
    • Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Vought F6U Pirate
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    • Boeing EA-18G Growler
    • RN
    • Blackburn Buccaneer
    • Boulton Paul Sea Balliol
    • BAe Sea Harrier
    • de Havilland Sea Vampire
    • de Havilland Sea Venom
    • de Havilland Sea Vixen
    • Fairey Gannet
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Short Seamew
    • Westland Wyvern
    • Marine Nationale
    • Breguet Alizé
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Étendard
    • Dassault Rafale M
    • Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr M
    • SNCASE Aquilon
    • Soviet Navy
    • Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP
    • Sukhoi Su-33
    • Yakovlev Yak-38

    Navy Helicopters
      Chinese PLAN:
    • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
    • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
    • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
    • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
    • Italy:
    • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
    • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
    • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
    • India:
    • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
    • France:
    • Alouette II (1955)
    • Alouette III (1959)
    • Super Frelon (1965)

    • Cougar ()
    • Panther ()
    • Super Cougar H225M ()
    • Fennec ()
    • MH-65 Dolphin ()
    • UH-72 Lakota ()
    • Germany:
    • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
    • NHIndustries NH90
    • Japan:
    • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
    • Poland:
    • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
    • Romania:
    • IAR 330M (1975)
    • United Kingdom:
    • Westland Lynx (1971)
    • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
    • Westland Sea King (1969)
    • Westland Wasp (1962)
    • Westland Wessex (1958)
    • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
    • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
    • USA:
    • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
    • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
    • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
    • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
    • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
    • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
    • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
    • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
    • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
    • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
    • ussr:
    • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
    • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
    • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
    • Ka-31 (1987)
    • Ka-35 (2015)
    • Ka-40 (1990)
    • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
    • Mil Mi-4 (1952)
    Civilian ♆ WW1 US Shipping Board
    MORE !