Cold War USN Aicraft Carriers

US Navy Flag Circa 85 ships 1945-today

Cold War USN Carriers:
Essex SBC-27 class | Midway class | USS United States | Forrestal class | Kitty Hawk class | USS Enterprise | Nimitz class | Gerald Ford class | Iwo Jima class | Tarawa class | Wasp class | America class | SCS class | VSS class

The bulwark of the "free world"

uss nimitz canada
For 43 years, NATO's safety and strength rested on the shoulders of US Navy task forces, centered around its mighty aircraft carriers. By their numbers and size, they dictated the composition, procurements, doctrine, strategy of the surface fleet alongside the SSBN deterrent force from the 1960s. They were the supreme projection of power, nin-nuclear deterrence complement and an essential tool in the White House's displomacy for decades, and still is today.

In the 1950s were developed "supercarriers" better suited for jets, after the numerous Essex-class were rebuilt and modernized, used well into the late 1970s, the record being granted to the USS Midway, in service by 1945 and retired in 1990. The Forrestal and Kitty Hawk classes were conventional super-carriers, USS Enterprise the first nuclear aircraft carrier, followed by the Nimitz class, which carried out new task forces until after the end of the cold war, and the next generation, Gerald Ford class.

However this is not only about the ships themselves. Around these fantastic vessels, the mightiest, largest ever built, were nothing without a whole ecosystem, their own escort, operative concepts around these, and of course development of naval aviation. This part will be seen in the second part of this article.

Battle_Group_Alpha_Midway_Iowa_underway_1987 Battle Group Alpha Midway Iowa underway 1987

Nomenclature of aircraft carriers

US Navy ww2 Essex class aircraft carriers (1942)

The Essex class was a class of aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy during World War II and the post-war era. These carriers were designed to replace the earlier Yorktown class and were the largest class of carriers built by the United States during World War II.

The Essex class carriers were approximately 872 feet long and had a displacement of about 27,000 tons. They were powered by eight boilers and four steam turbines, which gave them a top speed of over 30 knots. The carriers had a crew of around 2,600 and could carry up to 100 aircraft.

The Essex class carriers were instrumental in the Pacific theater of World War II, participating in many major battles such as the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. They also saw service in the Korean War and were used as training carriers in the post-war period. Several Essex class carriers were also modernized and converted to serve as amphibious assault ships during the Vietnam War. Overall, the Essex class was a highly successful and influential class of aircraft carriers, which size and number was well capitalized on in the following decades.

The Essex class were modernized in two phases to stay active during the cold war, some reaching 40 years of service or more: Indeed both them and the Midway-class sustained the USN air power until the late 1950s, through the Korean War and practically until the end of the Vietnam War, as "only" the four Forrestal and four Kitty Hawk were completed in between. The larger Midways soldiering until the gulf war. Their spacious hangars was good enough for ealry jets and their various modifications saw fifteen if them keeping up with their evolution like jet-blast deflectors (JBDs) as well as a far greater aviation fuel capacity and stronger decks, stronger elevators, the British optical landing system, new steam catapults and of course the new angled flight deck. It should be added that they diverged also between the "long" and "short" hulls, the latter being the earlier versions which flight deck was separated from the prow, unlike the "long" that were given a hurricane bow. In the end all were modified wich such a bow.

Eight of the last nine ships stayed on active duty and with three Midways from this postwar backbone, although under the Truman administration's budget cuts, five went into mothballs in 1949, recommissioned during the Korean War and all but two short-hulls, plus thirteen long-hulls saw active Cold War service.


USS Oriskany (unfinished at the end of the war) was completed to an improved design until September 1950 with a new straight but reinforced flight deck, reconfigured island, and showed the first evolution of the type, retrofitted to eight earlier carriers. The Oriskany design was known as the SCB-27A program in the early 1950s.


Six more of the earlier ships were later rebuilt to the improved 27C design (see later), seen as the last stage of the SCB-27 program, with steam catapults instead of the original hydraulic ones, but still the same original straight flight deck and reworked island.


The USS Antietam received an experimental 10.5-degree angled deck in 1952, which added to the enclosed "hurricane bow" became the trademark of the SCB-125 program, done along the last three 27C conversions. Thus later saw all the former SBC 27A and 27C ships (except Lake Champlain) ported to the new 125 standard. USS Shangri-La became the first operational angled deck carrier in 1955 but Oriskany, last angled-deck conversion received the SCB-125A refit, which equated the 27C standard plus with more powerful steam catapults and reinforced aluminum flight deck.

All in all, twenty-two of the twenty-four original Essex saw extensive service with modernizations and refits, the exception being the WW2 badly wounded veterans USS Bunker Hill and Franklin. The survived kamikaze strikes but were so damaged the commission estimated it was better to consider them as total constructive loss. They were never recommissioned.

CVS conversions

In 1955 seven unconverted Essexes were "converted" as anti-submarine warfare carrier (CVS) from August 1953. They could keep their straight flight deck but operated helicopters during the Korean War and received minor modifications for their operations. The eight SBC 27A conversions also were later designated "CVS", replacing the original seven unconverted ships which were pushed out of service in the late 1950s, sparing the cost of a long overhaul. Two SBC 27C conversions also bevame "CVS" in 1962 but CVS-11 USS Intrepid became an attack carrier in Vietnam, and two more followed in 1969.


In the end, all seven angle-deck 27As and one 27C were at last tailored for their role of CVS, being drydocked to have a bow-mounted SQS-23 sonar (SCB-144 program) in the early 1960s and they stayed operative until the 1970s and with the eight supercarriers making them obsolete, retired upt to the mid-1970s. However USS Lexington was kept until 1991 as a training ship, seeng many generations of planes and helicopters aboard. She was the only one active not only in WW2 and also the whole of the cold war. She was preserved as well as USS Yorktown, Intrepid, and Hornet. USS Oriskany survived into the 1980s but she was ultimately scuttled as an artificial reef off Florida in 2006.

SPH conversions

Three unmodernized Essexes (USS Boxer, Princeton, and Valley Forge) were redesignated Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) donated to the USMC as amphibious assault ships, carrying helicopters for support and airborne assault and used in Vietnam, until the mid-1970s. Later they were reclassified as aircraft transports (AVT). On of these was also offered to the Royal Australian Navy in 1960 to replace HMAS Melbourne but declined due to compatibility issues and cost.

US Navy ww2 Midway class aircraft carriers (1945)

Original design

The Midway class was a class of aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy during the Cold War era. The class consisted of three ships: USS Midway (CV-41), USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42), and USS Coral Sea (CV-43).
The Midway class carriers were built to be larger and more capable than the previous Essex class carriers. They were approximately 1,000 feet long and had a displacement of about 70,000 tons. They were powered by four steam turbines and could achieve a top speed of around 33 knots. The carriers had a crew of around 4,500 and could carry up to 80 aircraft. The Midway class carriers saw extensive service during the Cold War, participating in various conflicts and operations such as the Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Southern Watch.

They also served as flagship vessels and played a key role in projecting American power across the globe. After their retirement from active duty, the Midway class carriers were converted into museum ships. Today, the USS Midway is a museum ship in San Diego, California, while the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt was scrapped and the USS Coral Sea was sold for scrap.

SCB-110 reconstruction

During the 1950s, USS Midway and Franklin D. Roosevelt underwent the SCB-110 modernization program, similar to the Essex SCB-125 (reinforced angled deck, steam catapults, mirror landing system, stronger lifts and more avgas capacity, allowing them to operate heavy naval jets. USS Coral Sea was modernized later under the SCB-110A (angled deck at 3° more). The carriers saw actuion in Vietnam War but by the late 1960s, their size prevented their scrapping. Still valuable as training aircraft, USS Midway was the first to undergo an extensive modernization called SCB 101.66 program. It became so controversial and expensive at 202 instead of the $82 million budgeted (Construction of JF Kennedy costed $277 million) this was not repeated on the other two. This enabled Midway to see the Gulf War and the end of the cold war, the last to be retired and later converted as museum ship.

US Navy ww2 Saipan class aircraft carriers (1945)

The Saipan class was a class of aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy during the Cold War era. The class consisted of two ships: USS Saipan (CVL-48) and USS Wright (CVL-49). The Saipan class carriers were smaller than the Midway class carriers and were designed to serve as light carriers. They were approximately 600 feet long and had a displacement of around 14,500 tons. They were powered by four steam turbines and could achieve a top speed of around 33 knots. The carriers had a crew of around 1,200 and could carry up to 45 aircraft.

The Saipan class carriers saw service during the Korean War and the early years of the Vietnam War. They were also used for various other operations, including anti-submarine warfare and training exercises. The Saipan class carriers were eventually replaced by the larger and more capable Forrestal class carriers. Both USS Saipan and USS Wright were decommissioned in the 1970s and subsequently sold for scrap.

Forrestal class aircraft carriers (1954)

These four ships (USS Forrestal, Saratoga, Ranger and Independence) were built at Newport News and New York Dockyard in 1952-55, accepted into service in 1955-59. They were the first major aircraft carriers since the three Midways of 1945-47, and first "supercarriers". They incorporated early lessons learned from the Korean War and drew a lot from the cancelled USS United States (1949) but much smaller in size. The Senate specified indeed a tonnage below 60,000 tonnes. Nevertheless, they had to integrate four new steam catapults capable of launching a new generations of Navy jets, and store twice as much fuel than the Midway. They were initially equipped with twin 3-in AA mounts, partly eliminated due to their sponsons causing excessive spray in heavy weather. Two Sea Sparrow launchers were eventually installed in 1972-77.

These ships had a busy life, notably soldering in Viet-nâm. USS Forrestal became sadly famous for a tragedy that occurred in June 1967 when during operations, while running out of ammunition, she was delivered with old WW2s stocks "Comp-B" model bombs. Unsecured, and with the oppressive heat, a short circuit caused the departure of a Zuni rocket from one parked Phantom II, striking at full force an A4 Skyhawk about to be catapulted with such vintage bombs underwing. The latter imediately caught fire, the bombs cooked off and exploded, while the pilot managed to escape. The devastating blaze swept over the other bomb-laden parked aircraft on deck, and turned into an inferno visible from dozens of miles around. A serie of nine devastating explosions spread through the hangars on the lower deck.

The crew, poorly trained for this type of that kind of disaster had trouble dealing with it, as available means proved insufficient. Finally at the cost of thousands of liters of seawater, Forrestal escaped total destruction. But the fire caused 132 dead and 62 badly burned. This remains a trauma in the US Navy, to such an extent that all aircraft carriers were equipped afterwards with much more substantial fire fighting means, and training became extremely extensive, better even than WW2 standards. Apart the tragedy of USS Enteprise, no such event ever happened again.

uss forrestal
Author's rendition of the Forrestal class

Characteristics (original):

Displacement: 61 163t, 78 509t FL.
Dimensions: 316.7 x 76.2 x 10.3 m
Propulsion: 4 HP turbines, 8 Babcock boilers, 4 propellers, 280,000 hp. and 33 knots max.
Crew: 2764 + 1912 (officers and sailors, air personnel)
Electronics: Radars SPS-8, 12. SPS58 (Sea Sparrow)
Armament: 8x1 76 mm AA, air group of 80-90 aircraft.
Armament (after modernization): 60 aircraft.

US Navy ww2 Kitty Hawk class aircraft carriers (1960)

The Kitty Hawk class was a class of aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy during the Cold War and post-Cold War eras. The class consisted of four ships: USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), USS Constellation (CV-64), USS America (CV-66), and USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67).

The Kitty Hawk class carriers were larger and more capable than the Midway class carriers they replaced. They were approximately 1,050 feet long and had a displacement of around 80,000 tons. They were powered by two nuclear reactors and could achieve a top speed of over 30 knots. The carriers had a crew of around 5,500 and could carry up to 90 aircraft. The Kitty Hawk class carriers saw extensive service during the Cold War, participating in various conflicts and operations such as the Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Enduring Freedom. They also served as flagship vessels and played a key role in projecting American power across the globe.

The USS Kitty Hawk was decommissioned in 2009 and was replaced by the USS George Washington (CVN-73), while the USS Constellation was decommissioned in 2003 and was scrapped in 2015. The USS America was decommissioned in 1996 and was sunk as a target in 2005. The USS John F. Kennedy was decommissioned in 2007 and is currently awaiting scrapping.

USS America underway in the Indian Ocean 1983

uss forrestal
Author's rendition of the Kitty Hawk class

Characteristics (original):

Displacement: 61,163t, 78,509t FL.
Dimensions: 316.7 x 76.2 x 10.3 m
Propulsion: 4 HP turbines, 8 Babcock boilers, 4 propellers, 280,000 hp. and 33 knots max.
Crew: 2764 + 1912 (officers and sailors, air personnel)
Electronics: Radars SPS-8, 12. SPS58 (Sea Sparrow)
Armament: 8x1 76 mm AA, air group of 80-90 aircraft.
Armament (after modernization): 60 aircraft.

USS Enterprise CVAN-65 (1960)

The Nuclear aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (1960), probably the most famous ship of the contemporary US Navy, was also in its time the largest ship in the world, overtaken only by Super-tankers with the 1973-1979 oil crisis, and still remains the largest warship ever built. She was the first to adopt a nuclear propulsion experimented already on USS nautilus submarine (1957) and USS Long beach (1959) but on the much larger scale.

Technically, however, she followed the logical and evolutionary continuation of the Kitty Hawk and Forrestal, but was also was provided with a double ballast hull containing aviation fuel and sea water, with dimensions allowing to accommodate the largest modern jet park ever. She received a combination of the latest radars, including the SPS 32 giving it its imposing radome. Started at Newport News in February 1958, she was launched in 1960 and accepted into service in November 1961. At that time while completing she confirmed the US as the world's dominant naval superpower. She was planned to be fitted with Terrier missiles, but the latter, heavy and expensive, were never mounted, and instead by 1967 she received Sea Sparrows. Career Her career was well filled since he participated in the Mercury program, serving as a relay station for the capsule containing Astronaut John Glenn during his flight in 1962, he was then assigned to the Mediterranean, then participated in the case of missiles from Cuba, then returned to the Mediterranean and made with TF1 (Task-Force One, also including the Long Beach and the Bainbridge) a world tour in 1964 (see below). The "Big E" was engaged in Viet-nâm, its aircraft carrying out attack missions by the Viet-Cong forces on Bien Hôa in 1965. In 1968 an accidental missile explosion killed 27 men but the fire was brought under control. After overhaul at Pearl Harbor she returned to Tonkin, operating with the TF71. It will carry out still other exits until 1972 on this sector. In 1973 she underwent major works to receive the new F-14 Tomcat fighter. In 1975 he set up helicopters to save civilians in Saigon before the arrival of the Khmer Rouge.

She was implemented an integrated central tactical ASCAC system and satellite antennas from 1976. In addition to her Sea Sparrows she was equipped with three fast Phalanx guns. In 1991, USS Enterprise went through a major overhaul. She received new radars, a third Sea Sparrow launcher, a new NTDS, a TFCC, and her reactor core was replaced. Since then, USS Enterprise (name retaked in the Star Trek series) saw service in the Med and Persian Gulf, participated in operations such as Enduring Freedom against Iraq in 200 and served as a test bed for the Nimitz, the next generation. She was placed in reserve in 2014-2015.

uss enterprise
Author's rendition of the Enterprise class

The USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) was a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier in the United States Navy. She was the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear the name Enterprise. Commissioned in 1961, the USS Enterprise served for over 50 years before being decommissioned in 2012. During her long service, she played a significant role in the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, and the Global War on Terror. The Enterprise was 1,123 feet long and had a displacement of around 94,000 tons. She was powered by eight nuclear reactors, which gave her a top speed of over 30 knots. The carrier had a crew of around 4,600 and could carry up to 90 aircraft.

The USS Enterprise underwent several major overhauls and modernization programs during her service, including the addition of an angled flight deck, steam catapults, and an island superstructure. She also served as a test platform for various naval aviation technologies, including the first carrier-based launch and recovery of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The USS Enterprise was decommissioned in December 2012 and was officially inactivated in February 2017. Despite various efforts to preserve the ship as a museum, she was eventually dismantled and recycled.

Characteristics (original):

Displacement: 61 163t, 78 509t PC.
Dimensions: 316.7 x 76.2 x 10.3 m
Propulsion: 4 HP turbines, 8 Babcock boilers, 4 propellers, 280,000 hp. and 33 knots max.
Crew: 2764 + 1912 (officers and sailors, air personnel)
Electronics: Radars SPS-8, 12. SPS58 (Sea Sparrow)
Armament: 8x1 76 mm AA, air group of 80-90 aircraft.
Armament (after modernization): 60 aircraft.

US Navy ww2 Nimitz class aircraft carriers (1972)

These nuclear powered carriers currently form the backbone of the US Navy. In 1990, when the USSR fell, there were five in service: USS Nimitz, Dwight D Eisenhower, Carl Vinson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. Three more were under construction, five more would be built in total.

Five years had passed since the entry into service of the USS Enterprise, the first nuclear aircraft carrier, when it was decided in 1968 to start construction of the first of this new series, based on much more compact A4W reactors. Consequently, these shorter, but wider and heavier vessels were also paradoxically more spacious and incorporated an effective ASM protection modeled on that of the USS Kennedy. Giving up the massive radome of the SPS-32/33 fixed antenna, they preferred the SPS-43A and 48 mobile antennas. Their aerial complement was also 90 aircraft, and their configuration of catapults, landing strip and elevators remained classic. Their close defense against planes was ensured by sea Sparrow launchers.

Their armor was reinforced with Kevlar in many places, with the navy attesting that they were able to survive damage three times greater than that received by the Essex-class aircraft carriers in 1944-45. Their fuel load was also much higher and these ships were equipped with the ASM ASCAC fight coordination system. From USS T. Roosevelt, armor and protection were even reinforced, to the detriment of the fuel load. These aircraft carriers, of which the last, USS George H.W. Bush CVN-77 (comp. 2009), succeeding John C. Stennis, Harry Truman and Ronald Reagan, are currently deployed in all sensitive sectors assigned by the United States government. Since the early 2000s, several projects were under study for the replacement of the old Forrestal and Kitty Hawk by more modest ships, studies taking into account the observation of the last aircraft carriers built in Europe and cancelled, but recycled into the Principe de Asturias type. Eventually it was back to a brand new supercarrier design, even larger, the Gerald Ford class.

uss Nimitz
Author's rendition of the Nimitz class

The Nimitz class is a class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy. It is named after the legendary World War II naval commander, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. The Nimitz class is currently composed of ten active carriers: USS Nimitz (CVN-68), USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70), USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), USS George Washington (CVN-73), USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74), USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75), USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), and USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77). The Nimitz class carriers are the largest warships in the world and are considered the backbone of the United States Navy's carrier strike groups. They are approximately 1,100 feet long and have a displacement of around 100,000 tons. They are powered by two nuclear reactors and can achieve a top speed of over 30 knots. The carriers have a crew of around 6,000 and can carry up to 90 aircraft.

The Nimitz class carriers have seen extensive service since the commissioning of the lead ship, USS Nimitz, in 1975. They have participated in various conflicts and operations, including the Gulf War, the Iraq War, and Operation Enduring Freedom. They have also served as flagship vessels and played a key role in projecting American power across the globe. Despite their age, the Nimitz class carriers remain the most powerful warships in the world and are expected to remain in service until the 2050s, with a planned service life of 50 years. The USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), the lead ship of the new Gerald R. Ford class of aircraft carriers, has been commissioned and is expected to replace the older Nimitz class carriers in the coming years.

Characteristics (original):

Displacement: 74 000t standard, 92 000t PC
Dimensions: 331,7 x 78,5 (LF 40,8) x 11,5 m.
Propulsion: 4 shafts HP turbines nuclear 260,000 hp. 32 knots.
Crew: 5620 (officers and sailors, air personnel)
Electronics: Radar SPS-43A, SPS-48.
Armament: 3x8 Sea Sparrow AA (24 v), 3-4 x 20 mm Vulcan-Phalanx CIWS AM, 90 planes.

US Navy ww2 Gerald R. Ford class: Design process and ships

Gerald R Ford class
The Gerald R. Ford class is a new class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy. The lead ship, USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), was commissioned in 2017, and the second ship, USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79), is expected to be commissioned in 2024.

The Gerald R. Ford class carriers are the most advanced aircraft carriers ever built, featuring many new technologies and design changes compared to the older Nimitz class. The carriers are approximately 1,100 feet long and have a displacement of around 100,000 tons. They are powered by two nuclear reactors and can achieve a top speed of over 30 knots. The carriers have a crew of around 4,500 and can carry up to 75 aircraft.

One of the most significant changes in the Gerald R. Ford class carriers is the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS), which replaces the older steam-powered catapults used on the Nimitz class carriers. The new system uses electromagnetic fields to launch aircraft, which is more efficient, reduces wear and tear on the aircraft, and allows for more precise control over the launch process.

The Gerald R. Ford class carriers also feature advanced radar systems, improved weapons systems, and a new island superstructure design that improves visibility and allows for a smaller crew. The carriers also have enhanced flight deck operations, including the use of autonomous aircraft handling and advanced aircraft launch and recovery systems. The Gerald R. Ford class carriers are expected to remain in service for at least 50 years, and they will play a vital role in projecting American military power across the globe. The third ship of the class, USS Enterprise (CVN-80), is currently under construction and is expected to be commissioned in the late 2020s.


Displacement: 61 163t, 78 509t PC.
Dimensions: 316.7 x 76.2 x 10.3 m
Propulsion: 4 HP turbines, 8 Babcock boilers, 4 propellers, 280,000 hp. and 33 knots max.
Crew: 2764 + 1912 (officers and sailors, air personnel)
Electronics: Radars SPS-8, 12. SPS58 (Sea Sparrow)
Armament: 8x1 76 mm AA, air group of 80-90 aircraft.

Evolution of cold war USN aircraft carriers

WW2 Rebuilts

The old guard vs. the new one: USS Enterprise (CV-6) awaiting disposal at the NY Naval Shipyard close to USS Independence (Forrestal class) fitting out on 22 June 1958 Of the 8 interwar aicraft carriers (USS Langley, Lexington class, Ranger, Yorktown class, Wasp), for 4 losses, none was considered fit for longer service. It's a shame however that a ship so remarkable as USS Enterprise (CV-6) was not kept as museum ship, but back in 1958 when it was decided to scrap her, that was not yet a priority.

USS Oriskany as completed in 1950. She was the blueprint for subsequents modernizations and was the very last Essex in service (1990).

However in WW2, from the numerous Essex hulls laid down (32 planned, 24 completed, 8 cancelled), two were write-offs following kamikaze attacks, and the rest underwent a serie of modernizations, with retrofits as detailed beforehand. They were large enough to be of some use, and most saw both the Korean and Voetnam war, either to carry helicopters for assault or ASW patrols, and the ones most modified operated light jets of the intermediate generation (the typical park comprised the A4 Skyhawk and A1 Skyraiders - see air groups).

The only one with a significant air park, and most modernized of the whole serie, USS Oriskany had in 1973 the following: 24 F-8J Crusader fighters, 36 A-7B Corsair attack aicraft, 4 RF-8G Crusader (recce), 4 E-1B Tracer (ASW), 3 EKA-3B Skywarrior (EW), 4 SH-3G Sea King (SAR/ASW). The USMC LPH conversion, forerunner of the assault carrier and later LPD, carried 30-40 helicopters of the HUP, HO4S/HRS Chickasaw, HO5S, HUS Seahorse, and HR2S Mojave types.

USS Ticonderoga (CVS-14) passing htough the sunds strait on 24 April 1971
USS Ticonderoga (CVS-14) passing htough the sunds strait on 24 April 1971. This was her last appearance as she was Sold to DRMS and scrapped in September 1975.

The case of the Midways is more interesting. This later generation also built in WW2 but completed too late, were the first true armoured carriers of the USN, designed to face kamikaze attacks. Between their immense size and reinforced deck, catapults and lifts, they proved perfectly able to do the postwar conversion to jets, seeing for USS Midway, the only one truly modernized twice, the capability to operate all generations of jets in the USN, but not the largest aircraft in the park, like the A5 Vigilante.

During the gulf war in 1991, her last deployment, USS Midway operated the following: 36 F/A-18 Hornet fighters, 12 A-6E/KA-6D Intruder attackers, 8 EA-6B Intruder, 4 E-2C Hawkey, 3 C-2A Greyhound transport, 4 SH-3H Sea King ASW/SAR helicopters.

Were there the US taxpayer's money most efficient ships ? In some way, yes by their career, but no, concerning USS Midway. Her SBC 101.66 modernuzation was almost as costly as a newly built carrier, and not ported to her two sister as initially planned. The Essex were not as cheaply modernized either as some had three successive reconstructions and only one survived to the 1980s. Compared to them, the first eight conventional supercarriers were in service longer without much upgrades, and at a construction cost well below the CVNs.

USS Midway (CVB-41) in the firth of forth, 1952
USS Midway (CVB-41) in the firth of forth, 1952

The first supercarriers

Every carrier was class was very specific. The Lexingtons in the 1920s were the first fleet carriers and ships conversions, the Ranger was an exploratory design to see if a very low tonnage vessel could use a practicable carrier group, the three Yorktown were mature fleet carriers, Wasp was a "demi-fleet carrier" designed to "spend" remaining peacetime tonnage. The Essex were wartime fleet carriers, freed from treaties and the Midways were the first armoured carriers.

Artists impression of the USS United States (see later)

Next, the USS United States was an unbuild "atomic delivery" carrier, designed to carry navy bombers atomic strikes, until the Air Force won the contest and had the ship scrapped. Instead, the navy recentered in what were her first post-WW2 designs, the conventional eight "supercarriers" of the 1950s: The Forrestals and Kitty Hawks. The USS Enteprrise was a prototype nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the following Nimitz, a smaller, more rational and cheaper class of the same (CVNs). Until the Gerald Ford, the design changed little since the 1970s. The USN today is still sysnonimous with her fleets posted around the world, all centered around such supercarrier, and numerous escorts, both national and international, through NATO and under other partnerships.

The term "supercarrier" was coined by the press in the 1950s as a way to distinguish these new constructions from the already colossal Midway class by their unprecedented tonnage (75,000 tons). It never was used officially. In fact their indicative was not changed to mark any difference, still CV. It evolved however for the unbuilt United States, as "CVA", with the last letter standing for "atomic" (capabilities). It was different from the CVN of USS Enterprise, which still used the follow-up numeration, and went on with the next Nimitz class, the "N" standing for nuclear (power). The Navy eventually get back some atomic capabilities under some conditions in the 1970s.

The trademark of the supercarrier was, apart its enormous scale, tailored to carry and operate modern jets, larger and heavier than previous piston-engine models, and integrate all the latest in carrier innovations between the angle deck, side deck lifts, more powerful capatults, more fuel, more hangar space... They did not required much alterations but in electronics and armament over their long service years, sporting all the exiting park of USN aircraft and helicopters from the 1950s to the 1990s. They were still valid for extra service years but the post-cold war budget cust pressed their end. It was true also for the USS Enteprise, which served for three decades but was too costly to operate.

Artist Impression of the Nimitz class aircraft carriers

The Nimitz class were still no longer called "supercarriers", but only in some circles as a way to compare them to other nation's carriers, between Russia, France or Britain, certainly smaller. The latest Gerald R. Ford are not much different than the Nimitz, but with experience, had a well streamling deck operation scheme, better electric catapults, better electronics with advanced communication as well as C&C facilities than ever before, everything needed to coordonate the perfect integration in combat and answer to any threat by a multinational fleet.

The more conservative part is the aviation, which still sports today more or less the same models as in the 1990s, so thirty years before: Notably the F-18 Hornet, F-2 Hawkeye, Prowler and others, as well as experimenting with large naval drones. Given the number of Gerald Ford ships already in construction or in future schedule, as a per-one basis, despite hypersonic missiles and other new threats, it seems the USN firmly believes in the Aircraft Carrier of the centerpiece of its doctrine for the foreseeable future.

Some authors dared to say the tank was died in Ukraine recently, but the aircraft carrier is certainly not seen as a dying type as the battleship was. Internationally, new nations are building new carriers. In Europe, after the two large conventional carriers of Britain, France is gearing towards a large CATOBAR nuclear carrier, closer to the "supercarrier" standard. China is going the same way and India is studying a ship to catch-up also. Even in Japan, the taboo about large aircraft carriers seems lifted, and its officially large "helicopter destroyers" are everything but. This new arms race is the fruit of growing tensions in the China Sea.

Naval carrier-borne Aviation

This category is specific and recoups also helicopters. Indeed, if the past and current aircraft carriers called CATOBAR (no ramp, but catapults) could operate a large variety of models, operating at full load, smaller specialized carriers such as the LPH-LPD used for amphibious operations as shown in Korea and Vietnam, possesses also both helicopters and aircraft (VTOL like the AV-8B Harrier 2 and now F-35), but also converted types like the V-22 Osprey. Together, they offers a wide variety of possibilities to the USMC, the Marine Corps. The Av8B could provide some air defence, as its military payload is limited to support operations. The F-35 will largely do better in all areas.

"Legacy" WW2 models were still flying in the 1950s, like this Grumman TBM-3W Avenger completely redesigned for ASW warfare. It was replaced by the Guardian, Tracker and finally jet-powered Viking. Today these missions are performed by helicopters.(author's)

F9F-2 uss oriskany Sept. 1953
The Grumman F9F Panther (first flight 1947) represented the early jet generation. They were much lighter than most 1960s models such as the F4 Phantom. The Panther was used in the USN until 1958. Here an F9F-2 from uss oriskany Sept. 1953, Korean War -the one in "bridge of toko-ri" (author's)

The twin-seat, twin engine, heavy payload McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II (1st flight 1958) carried the bulk of operations in Vietnam and into the late 1970s for the USN. Versions were also operated by the Royal Navy on its own CATOBAR carriers. It represented the new generation of radar/missile platforms first, in contrast to the earlier F-8 Crusader, dubbed "the last dogfighter". Here a F4J from VF-92, USS Constellation -Kitty Hawk class (Tom Cooper).

North American A5A Vigilante
Author's rendition of the North American A5A Vigilante, VAH-7 "Peacemakers", CVAN-65, 1962. The largest carrier jet operated by any nation. (author's)

F14A from VF-33, USS America. First and only swing-wing figher in the USN, this last "pure Grumman" model first flew on 1970, and represented the US Superiority Figher for three decades, until the 1990s, winning over the competing "sea eagle" (Tom Cooper).

McDonnell Douglas FA-18C Hornet from VFA-81, USS Saratoga. The last generation of fighter bombers of the USN and absolutely central to today's air operations. The Hornet first flew in 1978, and is still currently in service after 45 years, and many, many upgrades. The current Boing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet (1995) is schedule to serve at least until the mid-2030s (production stop in 2025). Plans to replace it by the F-35B are ongoing (Tom Cooper).

Of course these models only represents the "sexiest" of the bunch, the USN heavily depends on less glamorous but necessary models for other missions: Attack (with models such as the Vought Corsair II) ASW (anti-sub marine warfare), EW (Electronic warfare) and electronic surveillance, transport, and SAR (search and rescue).

Grumman E1B Tracer. This model first flew in 1958 and served until replacement by the E2 Hawkeye from 1964. So it had a short service span, but brought to the Navy a long range airborne early warning capability, well beyond the range of radars.

SAN DIEGO, Calif. (April 24, 2008) "The Raptors" of HSM-71 fires off the first of four live Hellfire shots by a deployable squadron. Prior to this event, the only Romeo Hellfire shot was at the test and evaluation squadron VX-1. The AGM-114 series Hellfire missile is a laser-guided precision air-to-surface missile. The army originally developed the missile as an anti-tank weapon, and the Navy currently uses in order both water and land as a stand off attack weapon. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Mark A. Leonesio (RELEASED)

Since the floatplanes are long gone, helicopters are devoluted the SAR, liaison and ASW role. The HRS, HUP, HSS, HUS, HOK, HUK, HUL, and HR2S helicopters were always part of these aircraft carrier's park, always two to six or more. Today, the Sikorsky SH-60 is the mainstay of rotary-wing parks across Navy Carriers. Models are different on assault ships (see later) as they are owned and operated by the USMC.

USN Assault Carriers

uss iwo jima
The USMC already used aircraft carriers during the WW2 Pacific Campaign: They were however operated by the USN. These were small escort carriers, such as those of the Casablanca and Commencement Bay classes, which limited air group was tasked of ASW patrol around the landing area as well as reconnaissance, CAP (air defence) and ground support. But the amphibious operations were made by completely different ships, assault transport bristling with landig crafts under davits and other types.

Experimentations went on and the best types in operations appeared to have been the LSTs on one hand and the LSDs (Landing Ship Dock) on the other. The first were tailored to land heavy hardware on the beach, the second to land troops in a faster and less tiedous way than traditional assault transports: The landing crafts were inside a built-in "drydock" enabling their quick departure at sea level instead of the long process of lowering these under davits and use nettings to allow the infanty to embark, always a dangerous situation. What relation to aviation ?

Some in the 1950s speculated that the helicopter was a new asset than can land and depart from any deck, even the smallest, and if the early Iwo Jima were pure helicopter carriers for heliborne assault, ready for Vietnam (operated by the USMC), and inspired by converted Essex-class carriers, the following ships were combination of both the LPH and LSD, with large decks for heliborne assault comleting the beach assault by landing crafts. The following classes were tailored over time to operate VTOL aicraft as well as helicopters, and thus, qualifies in my book as "aircraft carriers" even though they are specialized assault vessels.

US Navy ww2 Iwo Jima class (1960)

uss iwo jima
The Iwo Jima class was a class of amphibious assault ships (LPH) used by the United States Navy in the 1960s and 1970s. The class consisted of two ships: USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) and USS Okinawa (LPH-3).

The Iwo Jima class was developed to support amphibious operations during the Cold War, particularly in response to the growing threat of communist expansion in Southeast Asia. The ships were designed to transport and deploy troops, equipment, and helicopters to support amphibious landings and other operations. They were also capable of providing medical support and operating as a mobile command center.

The ships had a displacement of approximately 18,300 tons and were powered by steam turbines, which gave them a top speed of around 22 knots. They had a crew of around 1,200 and could carry up to 3,000 troops, as well as up to 30 helicopters. The ships were armed with a variety of weapons, including 20mm and 40mm anti-aircraft guns and 5-inch/54 caliber guns. The Iwo Jima class ships saw extensive service during the Vietnam War, where they played a vital role in transporting troops, supplies, and helicopters. They also participated in a variety of other operations and exercises throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

Both ships were eventually decommissioned in the 1990s and replaced by the Wasp class amphibious assault ships. However, the Iwo Jima class played an important role in the development of modern amphibious warfare ships and helped establish the United States Navy's ability to support amphibious operations around the world.

US Navy ww2 Tarawa class (1973)

The Tarawa class was a class of amphibious assault ships (LHA) used by the United States Navy in the 1970s and 1980s. The class consisted of five ships: USS Tarawa (LHA-1), USS Saipan (LHA-2), USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3), USS Nassau (LHA-4), and USS Peleliu (LHA-5). The Tarawa class was developed as a replacement for the Iwo Jima class and was designed to transport and deploy troops, equipment, and helicopters to support amphibious landings and other operations. They were also capable of providing medical support and operating as a mobile command center.

The ships had a displacement of approximately 39,000 tons and were powered by steam turbines, which gave them a top speed of around 24 knots. They had a crew of around 2,000 and could carry up to 1,800 troops, as well as up to 31 helicopters and a variety of amphibious vehicles. The ships were armed with a variety of weapons, including Phalanx close-in weapon systems, 20mm and 40mm anti-aircraft guns, and 5-inch/54 caliber guns.

The Tarawa class ships saw extensive service during the Gulf War, where they played a vital role in transporting troops, supplies, and helicopters to support the coalition forces. They also participated in a variety of other operations and exercises throughout the 1980s and 1990s.

uss wasp class
All five ships were eventually decommissioned in the early 2000s and replaced by the larger and more advanced Wasp class amphibious assault ships. However, the Tarawa class played an important role in the development of modern amphibious warfare ships and helped establish the United States Navy's ability to support amphibious operations around the world.

US Navy ww2 Wasp class (1987)

The Wasp class is a class of amphibious assault ships (LHD) used by the United States Navy. The class consists of eight ships: USS Wasp (LHD-1), USS Essex (LHD-2), USS Kearsarge (LHD-3), USS Boxer (LHD-4), USS Bataan (LHD-5), USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD-6), USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7), and USS Makin Island (LHD-8).

The Wasp class was designed to replace the aging Tarawa class and was designed to transport and deploy troops, equipment, and helicopters to support amphibious landings and other operations. They are also capable of providing medical support and operating as a mobile command center.

The ships have a displacement of approximately 41,000 to 45,000 tons and are powered by gas turbines, which give them a top speed of around 22 knots. They have a crew of around 1,200 and can carry up to 1,800 troops, as well as up to 31 helicopters and a variety of amphibious vehicles. The ships are armed with a variety of weapons, including Phalanx close-in weapon systems, Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) systems, and 25mm and 7.62mm machine guns.

The Wasp class ships have seen extensive service, including participation in the Gulf War, the Iraq War, and the War in Afghanistan. They have also participated in a variety of other operations and exercises around the world. The Wasp class has been the primary class of amphibious assault ships in the United States Navy since the 1980s, and the ships have been continually upgraded and improved to maintain their effectiveness in modern warfare.

USMC MV-22B Osprey, the current tiltrotor heavy transport operated from large assault ships. Development since the 1980s has been protracted, complicated and controversial, but the final product is really a game changer. The newly developed army's V280 Valor, which has to replace the Blackhawk is also a tiltrotor.

Aircraft carrier projects

USS United States (1949)

USS United States (CVA-58) was a proposed aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, planned to be the lead ship of her class. The ship was originally intended to be a larger and more capable successor to the Essex class, which had been the backbone of the Navy's carrier force during World War II. Construction of the United States began in 1949, but was later canceled in 1949 due to budget constraints and changing strategic priorities. At the time of her cancellation, the ship was approximately 45% complete.

The United States was intended to be 1,080 feet long and displace around 70,000 tons. She was designed to be powered by four General Electric turbines, which would have given her a top speed of over 35 knots. The ship was also designed to carry a complement of over 100 aircraft, including fighters, bombers, and reconnaissance planes, but was mostly intended to deliver atomic bombers, until the ait force/navy rivalry was won by the latter at the White House and pushed for cancellation. Had she been completed, the United States would have been the largest and most powerful aircraft carrier in the world at the time, and would have represented a major leap forward in naval aviation technology. However, the cancellation of the ship was a reflection of the changing strategic priorities of the United States in the early years of the Cold War, as well as the increasing cost and complexity of modern naval technology.

SCS class aircraft carriers (1969)

The Sea Control Ship (SCS) were a projected small aircraft carrier design developed and conceptualized under Chief of Naval Operations Elmo Zumwalt. Currently the term refers to ships performing similar duties. They were intended as escort carriers liked those of WW2, providing air support for convoys. The project was canceled after budgetary cuts to the US Navy. The SCS was to be equipped with a mix of also projected Rockwell XFV-12 VTOL fighter aircraft and ASW helicopters and mostly capable anti-submarine warfare operations.

In the late 1960s, studies led by the US Navy identified a potential requirement for convoy operations in the event of war with the Soviet Union. An equivalent of WW2 escort carriers. Regular escort ships, notably frigates such as the Knox class and earlier could carry helicopters, but they could be in short numbers in case of a concerted "wolfpack" type attack. It was suggested that helicopters from small helicopter carriers, not unlike the Iwo Jima ships developed at the same time for the USMC, could perform thiese tasks.

Elmo Zumwalt became the new Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) in 1970, and revived the small helicopter carrier idea as part of his "High-Low" plan for cheaper, lower capability ships to complement larger and costier vessels. The program was named eventually the Sea Control Ship (SCS), and the requirements were to provide ae continuous airborne cover, prescely set to two anti-submarine, one airborne early warning helicopters at all time, but also to carry VSTOL fighters to deal with Soviet bombers such as the Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear" from shadowing convoys and directing submarines. The final specifications asked for 14 helicopters (to have at least one trio in the air, one preparing to take off, one in maintenance, the rest as spares) and three VSTOL fighters which later was assigned to the AV-8 Harrier once the ambitious XFV-12 program was terminated. Each was budgeted for no more than $100 million which was 1/8 of a Nimitz-class ship at the time. Full load displacement was to be 13,736 long tons (13,956 t), overall length 610 feet (190 m). Propulsion was assumed to be two General Electric LM2500 gas turbines for 45,000 shaft horsepower (34,000 kW) on a single shaft, enough for 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph). Two Phalanx weapon systems were provided for close defence. It was assumed that the convoy's guardships should also escort the SCS.

The program was "experimented" in 1971 with USS Guam chosen as test vessel, starting convoy escort operations from 18 January 1972 and by 1974 deployed to the Atlantic Ocean with AV-8A Harrier STOVL fighters and SH-3 Sea King ASW helicopters aboard. By July 1974 it was time for reporting it, and USS Guam resumed its amphibious role tasks. Eventually the late 1970s budget cuts had reason of the program. The USS Guam experiment indeed showed that regular assault amphibious ships could be deployed for ad hoc escrt missions if needed, and in case of war, more of a simplified version could be built without delays.

VSTOL VSS class aircraft carriers (1974)

The VSTOL Support Ship (VSS) was a proposed light aircraft carrier that would be smaller and less expensive than the existing supercarriers such as the Nimitz-class. The design was indeed much cramper and only capable of operating V/STOL aircraft such as the AV8B Harrier 2 and helicopters, but it having overall reduced performance. It was born from the SCS project of CNO Elmo Zumwalt, but his austere SCS design was opposed the US Navy istself, notably Admiral Hyman G. Rickover and much of the Naval aviation community, until the US Congress rejected the program in 1975.

New CNO, James L. Holloway III abandoned the SCS but not tthe concept, which had some metits to its eyes. He pushed for a larger, more capable class called the VSTOL Support Ship, or VSS. The development started in June 1976, resulting in a 690 feet (210 m) long ship powered by four General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, twice as much as for the SCS, for 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph), more compatible with the fleet. Cacacity was greater with 22 helicopters (16 H-53 Sea Stallions and six LAMPS light helicopters) and four AV-8 Harrier II. Holloway pressed the aviation industry to come up with a better VTOL model to justify his project, essentially a "jack of all trade" capable of interception, ASW, Airborne Early Warning duties. Probably too ambitious it went nowhere. The carrier's design was reworked in February 1978 and became the VSS II with a larger hangar, greater beam to allow future, larger VTOL models to be carried, and also more avgas capacity.

The third variant called VSS III by July 1978 was a variant with better magazines protection, and to combat extra weight a new hull form was designed, with less freeboard and better speed, at 717 feet (218.5 m) long overall, 178 feet (54.3 m) in beam, 24 feet 4 inches (7.42 m) in draft and a displacement of 20,116 long tons (20,439 t) light, 29,130 long tons (29,600 t) full load. Close defense rested on two quadruple Harpoon SSMs, two Phalanx. This time, the project rallied some in the Navy, but also gained the United States Senate support, but it's the Navy itself that, also with the aviation community, put a plug on it.

Not all was to be lost however. The millions of US Taxpayer money's sunk into the SCS project was "recycled" after agreement with the Spanish Government into the Spanish-built aircraft carrier Principe de Asturias, which realized Zumwalt's vision much better than any amphibious assault ship can. If anything, the concept is not ireelevant in the context of a war with China today.

The Principe de Asturias class, partly based on the SCS and VSS projects.
The SCS was in fact well tailored for limited budget nations, and outside Spain Thailand's HTMS Chakri Naruebet, was also based on final US Navy blueprints for the SCS, both Asturias and this one having ski-jump ramp and generally has the similar mission profile.

HTMS Chakri Naruebet
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet in 2001, another illustration of the SCS concept turned into reality. Built in Spain, she can operate 6 Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk 2(+4) MH-60S Knighthawk and 6 AV-8S (they were retired in 2006)

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☸ To read for a better understanding of this website

❢ Abbreviations & acronyms
    AAW// warfare
    AASAmphibious Assault Ship
    AEWAirbone early warning
    AGAir Group
    AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
    AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
    APArmor Piercing
    APCArmored Personal Carrier
    ASMAir-to-surface Missile
    ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
    ASROCASW Rockets
    ASWAnti Submarine Warfare
    ASWRLASW Rocket Launcher
    ATWahead thrown weapon
    avgasAviation Gasoline
    awAbove Waterline
    AWACSAirborne warning & control system
    bhpbrake horsepower
    BLBreach-loader (gun)
    BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
    BUBroken Up
    CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
    CalCaliber or ".php"
    CGMissile Cruiser
    CICCombat Information Center
    C-in-CCommander in Chief
    CIWSClose-in weapon system
    CECompound Expansion (engine)
    ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
    CLCruiser, Light
    CMBCoastal Motor Boat
    CMSCoastal Minesweeper
    CNOChief of Naval Operations
    CpCompound (armor)
    COBCompound Overhad Beam
    CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
    CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
    COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
    COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
    COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
    CRCompound Reciprocating
    CRCRSame, connecting rod
    CruDivCruiser Division
    CPControlled Pitch
    CTConning Tower
    CTLconstructive total loss
    CTOLConv. Take off & landing
    CTpCompound Trunk
    CVAircraft Carrier
    CVA// Attack
    CVE// Escort
    CVL// Light
    CVS// ASW support
    DADirect Action
    DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
    DCDepht Charge
    DCT// Track
    DCR// Rack
    DCT// Thrower
    DEDouble Expansion
    DEDestroyer Escort
    DDE// Converted
    DesRonDestroyer Squadron
    DFDouble Flux
    DPDual Purpose
    DUKWAmphibious truck
    EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
    ECMElectronic Warfare
    ESMElectronic support measure
    FCSFire Control System
    fpsFeet Per Second
    FYFiscal Year
    GMMetacentric Height
    GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
    GRTGross Tonnage
    GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
    HAHigh Angle
    HCHorizontal Compound
    HCR// Reciprocating
    HCDA// Direct Acting
    HCDCR// connecting rod
    HDA// direct acting
    HDAC// acting compound
    HDAG// acting geared
    HDAR// acting reciprocating
    HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
    H/FHigh Frequency
    HF/DF// Directional Finding
    HMSHer Majesty Ship
    HNHarvey Nickel
    HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
    HPHigh Pressure
    HRHorizontal reciprocating
    HRCR// connecting rod
    HSHarbor Service
    HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
    HSET// trunk
    HTHorizontal trunk
    HTE// expansion
    ICInverted Compound
    IDAInverted direct acting
    IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
    ihpindicated horsepower
    IMFInshore Minesweeper
    KCKrupp, cemented
    KNC// non cemented
    LALow Angle
    LCLanding Craft
    LCA// Assault
    LCAC// Air Cushion
    LFC// Flak (AA)
    LCG// Gunboat
    LCG(L)/// Large
    LCG(M)/// Medium
    LCG(S)/// Small
    LCI// Infantry
    LCM// Mechanized
    LCP// Personel
    LCP(R)/// Rocket
    LCS// Support
    LCT// Tanks
    LCV// Vehicles
    LCVP/// Personal
    LCU// Utility
    locolocomotive (boiler)
    LSCLanding ship, support
    LSD// Dock
    LSF// Fighter (direction)
    LSM// Medium
    LSS// Stern chute
    LST// Tank
    LSV// Vehicle
    LPlow pressure
    lwllenght waterline
    MA/SBmotor AS boat
    MGMachine Gun
    MGBMotor Gunboat
    MLMotor Launch
    MMSMotor Minesweper
    MTMilitary Transport
    MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
    HMGHeavy Machine Gun
    MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
    MLMuzzle loading
    MLR// rifled
    MSOOcean Minesweeper
    NCnon condensing
    nhpnominal horsepower
    nmNautical miles
    NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
    NSNickel steel
    NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
    NyDNaval Yard
    OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
    PCPatrol Craft
    PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
    psipounds per square inch
    PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
    QFQuick Fire
    QFC// converted
    RAdmRear Admiral
    RCRreturn connecting rod
    RFRapid Fire
    RPCRemote Control
    rpgRound per gun
    SAMSurface to air Missile
    SARSearch Air Rescue
    SBShip Builder
    SCSub-chaser (hunter)
    SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
    SESimple Expansion
    SET// trunk
    shpShaft horsepower
    SHsimple horizontal
    SOSUSSound Surv. System
    SPRsimple pressure horiz.
    SSSubmarine (Conv.)
    SSMSurface-surface Missile
    sfsteam frigate
    SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
    spfsteam paddle frigate
    STOVLShort Take off/landing
    SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
    tton, long (short in bracket)
    TACANTactical Air Nav.
    TBTorpedo Boat
    TBD// destroyer
    TCTorpedo carriage
    TETriple expansion
    TER// reciprocating
    TFTask Force
    TGBTorpedo gunboat
    TGTask Group
    TLTorpedo launcher
    TLC// carriage
    TSTraining Ship
    TTTorpedo Tube
    UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
    UHFUltra High Frequency
    VadmVice Admiral
    VCVertical compound
    VCE// expansion
    VDE/ double expansion
    VDSVariable Depth Sonar
    VIC/ inverted compound
    VLFVery Low Frequency
    VQL/ quadruple expansion
    VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
    VTE/ triple expansion
    VTOLVertical take off/landing
    VSE/ Simple Expansion
    WTWireless Telegraphy
    xnumber of
    BuShipsBureau of Ships
    DBMGerman Navy League
    GBGreat Britain
    DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    FAAFleet Air Arm
    FNFLFree French Navy
    MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
    MSAMaritime Safety Agency
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    RANRoyal Australian Navy
    RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
    R&DResearch & Development
    RNRoyal Navy
    RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
    ussrUnion of Socialist Republics
    UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
    UNUnited Nations Org.
    USNUnited States Navy
    WaPacWarsaw Pact

⛶ Pre-Industrial Eras

☀ Introduction
☀ Neolithic to bronze age
⚚ Antique
⚜ Medieval
⚜ Renaissance
⚜ Enlightenment

⚔ Naval Battles

⚔ Pre-Industrial Battles ☍ See the page
  • Salamis
  • Cape Ecnomus
  • Actium
  • Red Cliffs
  • Battle of the Masts
  • Yamen
  • Lake Poyang
  • Lepanto
  • Vyborg Bay
  • Svensksund
  • Trafalgar
  • Sinope
⚔ Industrial Era Battles ☍ See the page
⚔ WW1 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page
⚔ WW2 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page

⚔ Crimean War

Austrian Navy ☍ See the page
French Navy ☍ See the page
    Screw Ships of the Line
  • Navarin class (1854)
  • Duquesne class (1853)
  • Fleurus class (1853)
  • Montebello (1852)
  • Austerlitz (1852)
  • Jean Bart (1852)
  • Charlemagne (1851)
  • Napoleon (1850)
  • Sailing Ships of the Line
  • Valmy (1847)
  • Ocean class (1805)
  • Hercules class (1836)
  • Iéna class (1814)
  • Jupiter (1831)
  • Duperré (1840)
  • Screw Frigates
  • Pomone (1845)
  • Isly (1849)
  • Bellone (1853)
  • D’Assas class (1854)
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Primauguet class (1852)
  • Roland (1850)
Royal Navy ☍ See the page
  • Duke of Wellington
  • Conqueror (1855)
  • Marlborough (1855)
  • Royal Albert (1854)
  • St Jean D’Acre (1853)
  • Waterloo (1833
  • Sailing ships of the Line
  • Sailing Frigates
  • Sailing Corvettes
  • Screw two deckers
  • Screw frigates
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Screw guard ships
  • Paddle frigates
  • Paddle corvettes
  • Screw sloops
  • Paddle sloops
  • Screw gunboats
  • Brigs

⚑ 1870 Fleets

Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola ☍ See the Page
  • Numancia (1863)
  • Tetuan (1863)
  • Vitoria (1865)
  • Arapiles (1864)
  • Zaragosa (1867)
  • Sagunto (1869)
  • Mendez Nunez (1869)
  • Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
  • Frigate Tornado (1865)
  • Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
  • Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
  • Dannebrog (1863)
  • Peder Skram (1864)
  • Danmark (1864)
  • Rolf Krake (1864)
  • Lindormen (1868)

  • Jylland CR (1860)
  • Tordenskjold CR (1862)
  • Dagmar SP (1861)
  • Absalon class GB (1862)
  • Fylla class GB (1863)
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Basileos Giorgios (1867)
  • Basilisa Olga (1869)
  • Sloop Hellas (1861)
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine 1870
  • Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
  • De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
  • Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
  • Buffel class turret rams (1868)
  • Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
  • Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
  • Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
  • Adder class Monitors (1870)
  • A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
  • A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
  • Djambi class corvettes (1860)
  • Amstel class Gunboats (1860)
Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
  • Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
  • Screw Frigates (1849-59)
  • Conv. sailing frigates
  • Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
  • Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
  • Paddle Frigates
  • Paddle Corvettes
  • screw sloops
  • screw gunboats
  • Sailing ships of the line
  • Sailing frigates
  • Sailing corvettes
  • Sailing bricks

  • Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
  • Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
  • Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
  • Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
  • Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
  • Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864)
  • Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
  • Taureau arm. ram (1865)
  • Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
  • Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
  • Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

  • Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
  • Talisman cruisers (1862)
  • Resolue cruisers (1863)
  • Venus class cruisers (1864)
  • Decres cruiser (1866)
  • Desaix cruiser (1866)
  • Limier class cruisers (1867)
  • Linois cruiser (1867)
  • Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
  • Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
  • Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
  • Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

  • Curieux class sloops (1860)
  • Adonis class sloops (1863)
  • Guichen class sloops (1865)
  • Sloop Renard (1866)
  • Bruix class sloops (1867)
  • Pique class gunboats (1862)
  • Hache class gunboats (1862)
  • Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
  • Etendard class gunboats (1868)
  • Revolver class gunboats (1869)
Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
  • Barrozo class (1864)
  • Brasil (1864)
  • Tamandare (1865)
  • Lima Barros (1865)
  • Rio de Janeiro (1865)
  • Silvado (1866)
  • Mariz E Barros class (1866)
  • Carbal class (1866)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864)
  • Assari Tewfik (1868)
  • Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
  • Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
  • Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
  • Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
  • Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
  • Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
  • Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
  • Abdul Kadir Battleships (project)

  • Frigate Ertrogul (1863)
  • Selimieh (1865)
  • Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
  • Mehmet Selim (1876)
  • Sloops & despatch vessels
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Marina Do Peru
  • Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
  • CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
  • Turret ship Huascar (1865)
  • Frigate Apurimac (1855)
  • Corvette America (1865)
  • Corvette Union (1865)
Portuguese Navy 1870 Marinha do Portugal
  • Bartolomeu Dias class (28-guns) steam frigates
  • Sagris (14 guns) steam corvette
  • Vasco Da Gama (74 guns) Ship of the Line
  • Dom Fernando I e Gloria (50) Sailing Frigate
  • Dom Joao I class (14 guns) Sailing corvettes
  • Portuguese Side-wheel steamers
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun 1870
  • Ironclad Ruyjo (1868)
  • Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
  • Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
  • Frigate Kasuga (1863)
  • Corvette Asama (1869)
  • Gunboat Raiden (1856)
  • Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
  • Teibo class GB (1866)
  • Gunboat Mushun (1865)
  • Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine 1870
  • Prinz Adalbert (1864)
  • Arminius (1864)
  • Friedrich Carl (1867)
  • Kronprinz (1867)
  • K.Whilhelm (1868)
  • Arcona class Frigates (1858)
  • Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
  • Augusta class Frigates (1864)
  • Jäger class gunboats (1860)
  • Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot 1870
  • Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
  • Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
  • Ironclad Smerch (1864)
  • Pervenetz class (1863)
  • Charodeika class (1867)
  • Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
  • Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
  • Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
  • Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
  • S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
  • S3D Sinop (1860)
  • S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
  • Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
  • Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
  • Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
  • Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
  • Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
  • Almaz class Sloops (1861)
  • Opyt TGBT (1861)
  • Sobol class TGBT (1863)
  • Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
  • Ericsson class monitors (1865)
  • Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
  • Frigate Stockholm (1856)
  • Corvette Gefle (1848)
  • Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
  • Skorpionen class (1866)
  • Frigate Stolaf (1856)
  • Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
  • Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
  • Frigate Vanadis (1862)
  • Glommen class gunboats (1863)
Union Union Navy ☍ See the Page
Confederate Confederate Navy ☍ See the Page
Union 'Old Navy'(1865-1885) ☍ See the Page
  • Dunderberg Bd Ironclad (1865)
  • Wampanoag class frigates (1864)
  • Frigate Chattanooga & Idaho (1864)
  • Frigate Idaho (1864)
  • Java class frigates (1865)
  • Contookook class frigates (1865)
  • Frigate Trenton (1876)
  • Swatara class sloops (1865)
  • Alaska class sloops (1868)
  • Galena class sloops (1873)
  • Enterprise class sloops (1874)
  • Alert class sloops (1873)
  • Alarm torpedo ram (1873)
  • Intrepid torpedo ram (1874)

⚑ 1890 Fleets

Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
  • Parana class (1873)
  • La Plata class (1875)
  • Pilcomayo class (1875)
  • Ferre class (1880)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
  • Custoza (1872)
  • Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
  • Kaiser (1871)
  • Kaiser Max class (1875)
  • Tegetthoff (1878)

  • Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
  • SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
  • SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

  • Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
  • Saida (1878)
  • Fasana (1870)
  • Aurora class (1873)
Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
  • Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
  • Skjold (1896)
  • Cruiser Fyen (1882)
  • Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)
Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Spetsai class (1889)
  • Nauarchos Miaoulis (1889)
  • Greek Torpedo Boats (1881-85)
  • Greek Gunboats (1861-84)
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
  • Gunboat St Michael (1970)
  • Gunboat "1804" (1875)
  • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
  • Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
  • Konigin der Netherland (1874)
  • Draak, monitor (1877)
  • Matador, monitor (1878)
  • R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
  • Evertsen class CDS (1894)
  • Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
  • Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
  • Banda class Gunboats (1872)
  • Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
  • Gunboat Aruba (1873)
  • Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
  • Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
  • Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
  • Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
  • Combok class Gunboats (1891)
  • Borneo Gunboat (1892)
  • Nias class Gunboats (1895)
  • Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
  • Dutch sloops (1864-85)
Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
  • Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
  • Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
  • Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
  • Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
  • Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
  • Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
  • Marceau class barbette ships (1888)

  • Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
  • Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
  • Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
  • Tonnant ironclad (1880)
  • Furieux ironclad (1883)
  • Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Jemmapes class (1892)
  • Bouvines class (1892)

  • La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
  • Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
  • Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
  • Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
  • Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
  • Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
  • Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
  • Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
  • Troude class Cruisers (1888)
  • Alger class Cruisers (1891)
  • Friant class Cruisers (1893)
  • Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
  • Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
  • Linois class Cruisers (1896)
  • D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
  • Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

  • R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
  • Cruiser Tourville (1876)
  • Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
  • Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
  • Villars class Cruisers (1879)
  • Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
  • Cruiser Naiade (1881)
  • Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
  • Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
  • Cruiser Milan (1884)

  • Parseval class sloops (1876)
  • Bisson class sloops (1874)
  • Epee class gunboats (1873)
  • Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
  • Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
  • Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
  • G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
  • Inconstant class sloops (1887)
  • Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
  • Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
  • Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Marinha do Portugal 1898 Marinha do Portugal
Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
  • GB Indipendencia (1874)
  • GB Democrata (1875)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
  • Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
  • Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
  • Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
  • Turkish TBs (1885-94)
Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina
  • Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
  • Caio Duilio class (1879)
  • Italia class (1885)
  • Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
  • Carracciolo (1869)
  • Vettor Pisani (1869)
  • Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
  • Flavio Goia (1881)
  • Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
  • C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
  • Pietro Micca (1876)
  • Tripoli (1886)
  • Goito class (1887)
  • Folgore class (1887)
  • Partenope class (1889)
  • Giovanni Bausan (1883)
  • Etna class (1885)
  • Dogali (1885)
  • Piemonte (1888)
  • Staffeta (1876)
  • Rapido (1876)
  • Barbarigo class (1879)
  • Messagero (1885)
  • Archimede class (1887)
  • Guardiano class GB (1874)
  • Scilla class GB (1874)
  • Provana class GB (1884)
  • Curtatone class GB (1887)
  • Castore class GB (1888)
Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
  • Ironclad Fuso (1877)
  • Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

  • Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
  • Cruiser Takao (1888)
  • Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
  • Cruiser Chishima (1890)
  • Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
  • Cruiser Miyako (1898)

  • Frigate Nisshin (1869)
  • Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
  • Kaimon class CVT (1882)
  • Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
  • Sloop Seiki (1875)
  • Sloop Amagi (1877)
  • Corvette Jingei (1876)
  • Gunboat Banjo (1878)
  • Maya class GB (1886)
  • Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine
  • Ironclad Hansa (1872)
  • G.Kurfürst class (1873)
  • Kaiser class (1874)
  • Sachsen class (1877)
  • Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

  • Ariadne class CVT (1871)
  • Leipzig class CVT (1875)
  • Bismarck class CVT (1877)
  • Carola class CVT (1880)
  • Corvette Nixe (1885)
  • Corvette Charlotte (1885)
  • Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
  • Bussard class (1890)

  • Aviso Zieten (1876)
  • Blitz class Avisos (1882)
  • Aviso Greif (1886)
  • Wacht class Avisos (1887)
  • Meteor class Avisos (1890)
  • Albatross class GBT (1871)
  • Cyclop GBT (1874)
  • Otter GBT (1877)
  • Wolf class GBT (1878)
  • Habitch class GBT (1879)
  • Hay GBT (1881)
  • Eber GBT (1881)
  • Rhein class Monitors (1872)
  • Wespe class Monitors (1876)
  • Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
  • Lima class Cruisers (1880)
  • Chilean TBs (1879)
Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
  • Lindormen (1868)
  • Gorm (1870)
  • Odin (1872)
  • Helgoland (1878)
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy 1898
  • Hotspur (1870)
  • Glatton (1871)
  • Devastation class (1871)
  • Cyclops class (1871)
  • Rupert (1874)
  • Neptune class (1874)
  • Dreadnought (1875)
  • Inflexible (1876)
  • Agamemnon class (1879)
  • Conqueror class (1881)
  • Colossus class (1882)
  • Admiral class (1882)
  • Trafalgar class (1887)
  • Victoria class (1890)
  • Royal Sovereign class (1891)
  • Centurion class (1892)
  • Renown (1895)

  • HMS Shannon (1875)
  • Nelson class (1876)
  • Iris class (1877)
  • Leander class (1882)
  • Imperieuse class (1883)
  • Mersey class (1885)
  • Surprise class (1885)
  • Scout class (1885)
  • Archer class (1885)
  • Orlando class (1886)
  • Medea class (1888)
  • Barracouta class (1889)
  • Barham class (1889)
  • Pearl class (1889)
  • 1870-90 Torpedo Boats
  • Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
    • Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

    • Aragon class (1879)
    • Velasco class (1881)
    • Isla de Luzon (1886)
    • Alfonso XII class (1887)
    • Reina Regentes class (1887)
    • Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
    • Emperador Carlos V (1895)
    • Cristobal Colon (1896)
    • Princesa de Asturias class (1896)

    • Destructor class (1886)
    • Temerario class (1891)
    • TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
    • De Molina class (1896)
    • Furor class (1896)
    • Audaz class (1897)
    • Spanish TBs (1878-87)
    • Fernando class gunboats (1875)
    • Concha class gunboats (1883)
    US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy US Navy 1898☍ See the Page
    • USS Maine (1889)
    • USS Texas (1892)
    • Indiana class (1893)
    • USS Iowa (1896)

    • Amphitrite class (1876)
    • USS Puritan (1882)
    • USS Monterey (1891)

    • Atlanta class (1884)
    • USS Chicago (1885)
    • USS Charleston (1888)
    • USS Baltimore (1888)
    • USS Philadelphia (1889)
    • USS San Francisco (1889)
    • USS Newark (1890)
    • USS New York (1891)
    • USS Olympia (1892)
    • Cincinatti class (1892)
    • Montgomery class (1893)
    • Columbia class (1893)
    • USS Brooklyn (1895)

    • USS Vesuvius (1888)
    • USS Katahdin (1893)
    • USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
    • GB USS Dolphin (1884)
    • Yorktown class GB (1888)
    • GB USS Petrel (1888)
    • GB USS Bancroft (1892)
    • Machias class GB (1891)
    • GB USS Nashville (1895)
    • Wilmington class GB (1895)
    • Annapolis class GB (1896)
    • Wheeling class GB (1897)
    • Small gunboats (1886-95)
    • St Louis class AMC (1894)
    • Harvard class AMC (1888)
    • USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
    • USN Armed Yachts


    ☉ Entente Fleets

    US ww1 US Navy ☍ See the Page
    British ww1 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww1 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Japan ww1 Nihhon Kaigun ☍ See the Page
    Russia ww1 Russkiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Italy ww1 Regia Marina

    ✠ Central Empires

    German Navy 1914 Kaiserliche Marine
    austria-hungary ww1 KuK Kriesgmarine
    turkey ww1 Osmanli Donmanasi
    • Barbarossa class battleships (1892)
    • Yavuz (1914)
    • Cruiser Mecidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Hamidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Midilli (1914)
    • Namet Torpedo cruisers (1890)
    • Sahahani Deria Torpedo cruisers (1892)
    • Destroyers class Berk-Efshan (1894)
    • Destroyers class Yarishar (1907)
    • Destroyers class Muavenet (1909)
    • Berk i Savket class Torpedo gunboats (1906)
    • Marmaris gunboat (1903)
    • Sedd ul Bahr class gunboats (1907)
    • Isa Reis class gunboats (1911)
    • Preveze class gunboats (1912)
    • Turkish WW1 Torpedo Boats
    • Turkish Armed Yachts (1861-1903)
    • Turkish WW1 Minelayers

    ⚑ Neutral Countries

    Argentinian navy Argentina
    Brazilian Navy Brazil
    Chilean Navy 1914 Chile
    Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
    • Gunboat Baire (1906)
    • Gunboat Patria (1911)
    • Diez de octubre class GB (1911)
    • Sloop Cuba (1911)
    Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti
    • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
    • GB Toussaint Louverture (1886)
    • GB Capois la Mort (1893)
    • GB Crete a Pierot (1895)
    Mexican Navy Mexico
    • Cruiser Zatagosa (1891)
    • GB Plan de Guadalupe (1892)
    • Tampico class GB (1902)
    • N. Bravo class GB (1903)
    Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
    • Almirante Grau class (1906)
    • Ferre class subs. (1912)
    Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
    • Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
    • Drski class TBs (1906)
    Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
    • Skjold class (1896)
    • Herluf Trolle class (1899)
    • Herluf Trolle (1908)
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Hekla class cruisers (1890)
    • Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
    • Fyen class crusiers (1882)
    • Danish TBs (1879-1918)
    • Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
    • Danish Minelayer/sweepers
    Greek Royal Navy Greece
    Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
    • Eversten class (1894)
    • Konigin Regentes class (1900)
    • De Zeven Provincien (1909)
    • Dutch dreadnought (project)
    • Holland class cruisers (1896)
    • Fret class destroyers
    • Dutch Torpedo boats
    • Dutch gunboats
    • Dutch submarines
    • Dutch minelayers
    Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
    • Haarfarge class (1897)
    • Norge class (1900)
    • Norwegian Monitors
    • Cr. Frithjof (1895)
    • Cr. Viking (1891)
    • DD Draug (1908)
    • Norwegian ww1 TBs
    • Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
    • Sub. Kobben (1909)
    • Ml. Fröya (1916)
    • Ml. Glommen (1917)
    Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
    • Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
    • Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
    • Sao Gabriel class (1898)
    • Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
    • Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
    • Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
    • Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
    • Portuguese ww1 Gunboats
    Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
    Spanish Armada Spain
    Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
    Chinese navy 1914 China
    Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
    • Maha Chakri (1892)
    • Thoon Kramon (1866)
    • Makrut Rajakumarn (1883)

    ⚏ WW1 3rd/4th rank navies

    ✈ WW1 Naval Aviation

    US naval aviation USN
    • Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
    • Aeromarine 39 (1917)
    • Curtiss H (1917)
    • Curtiss F5L (1918)
    • Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
    • Curtiss NC (1918)
    • Curtiss NC4 (1918)
    • Short 184 (1915)
    • Fairey Campania (1917)
    • Felixtowe F2 (1916)
    • Felixtowe F3 (1917)
    • Felixtowe F5 (1918)
    • Sopwith Baby (1917)
    • Fairey Hamble Baby (1917)
    • Fairey III (1918)
    • Short S38 (1912)
    • Short Admiralty Type 166 (1914)
    • Short Admiralty Type 184 (1915)

    • Blackburn Kangaroo
    • Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter
    • Sopwith Pup
    • Sopwith Cuckoo 1918
    • Royal Aircraft Factory Airships
    German Imperial naval aviation Marineflieger
    • Albatros W.4 (1916)
    • Albatros W.8 (1918)
    • Friedrichshafen Models
    • Gotha WD.1-27 (1918)
    • Hansa-Brandenburg series
    • L.F.G V.19 Stralsund (1918)
    • L.F.G W (1916)
    • L.F.G WD (1917)
    • Lübeck-Travemünde (1914)
    • Oertz W series (1914)
    • Rumpler 4B (1914)
    • Sablatnig SF (1916)
    • Zeppelin-Lindau Rs series
    • Kaiserlichesmarine Zeppelins
    French naval aviation French Naval Aviation
    • Borel Type Bo.11 (1911)
    • Nieuport VI.H (1912)
    • Nieuport X.H (1913)
    • Donnet-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA (1913)
    • Donnet-Denhaut (1915)
    • Borel-Odier Type Bo-T(1916)
    • Levy G.L.40 (1917)
    • Blériot-SPAD S.XIV (1917)
    • Hanriot HD.2 (1918)
    • Zodiac Airships
    Italian naval aviation Italian Naval Aviation
    • Ansaldo SVA Idro (1916)
    • Ansaldo Baby Idro (1915)
    • Macchi M3 (1916)
    • Macchi M5 (1918)
    • SIAI S.12 (1918)
    Russian naval aviation Russian Naval Aviation
    • Grigorovich M-5 (1915)
    • Grigorovich M-9 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-11 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-15 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    ✠ K.u.K. SeeFliegkorps
    • Lohner E (1914)
    • Lohner L (1915)
    • Oeffag G (1916)
    IJN Aviation IJN Air Service
    • IJN Farman 1914
    • Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1917)
    • Yokosuka Igo-Ko (1920)


    ✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

    US ww2 US Navy
    British ww2 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww2 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Soviet ww2 Sovietskiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Koninklije Marine, Dutch Navy ww2 Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    Chinese Navy Chinese Navy 1937 ☍ See the Page

    ✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

    Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    italy ww2 Regia Marina ☍ See the Page
    German ww2 Kriegsmarine ☍ See the Page

    ⚑ Neutral Navies

    Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Armada de Chile Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    Søværnet Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    • Danish ww2 submarines
    • Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers
    Merivoimat Finnish Navy ☍ See the Page
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Greek ww2 Destroyers
    • Greek ww2 submarines
    • Greek ww2 minelayers
    Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser ORP Dragon
    • Cruiser ORP Conrad
    • Brislawicka class Destroyers
    • Witcher ww2 Destroyers
    • Minelayer Gryf
    • Wilk class sub.
    • Orzel class sub.
    • Jakolska class minesweepers
    • Polish Monitors
    Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Douro class DDs
    • Delfim class sub
    • Velho class gb
    • Albuquerque class gb
    • Nunes class sloops
    Romanian Navy Romanian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Romanian ww2 Destroyers
    • Romanian ww2 Submarines
    Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret ☍ See the Page
    • Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    Spanish Armada Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Sverige class CBBs (1915)
    • Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
    • Interwar Swedish CBB projects

    • Tre Kronor class (1943)
    • Gotland (1933)
    • Fylgia (1905)

    • Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
    • Psilander class DDs (1926)
    • Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
    • Romulus class DDs (1934)
    • Göteborg class DDs (1935)
    • Mode class DDs (1942)
    • Visby class DDs (1942)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)

    • Swedish ww2 TBs
    • Swedish ww2 Submarines
    • Swedish ww2 Minelayers
    • Swedish ww2 MTBs
    • Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
    • Swedish ww2 Minesweepers
    Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kocatepe class Destroyers
    • Tinaztepe class Destroyers
    • İnönü class submarines
    • Submarine Dumplumpynar
    • Submarine Sakarya
    • Submarine Gur
    • Submarine Batiray
    • Atilay class submarines
    Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser Dalmacija
    • Dubrovnik class DDs
    • Beograd class DDs
    • Osvetnik class subs
    • Hrabi class subs
    • Gunboat Beli Orao
    Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Taksin class
    • Ratanakosindra class
    • Sri Ayuthia class
    • Puket class
    • Tachin class
    • Sinsamudar class sub
    minor navies Minor Navies ☍ See the Page

    ✈ Naval Aviation

    Latest entries | WW1 | Cold War
    US naval aviation USN aviation ☍ See the Page
    Fleet Air Arm ☍ See the Page
    IJN aviation ☍ See the Page
    • Mitsubishi 1MF (1923)
    • Nakajima A1N (1930)
    • Nakajima A2N (1932)
    • Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" (1935)
    • Nakajima A4N (1935)
    • Mitsubishi A6M "zeke" (1940)
    • Nakajima J1N Gekko "Irving" (1941)
    • Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "George" (1942)
    • Nakajima J5N Tenrai (1944)

    • Aichi S1A Denko* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi A7M reppu* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui* (1945)
    • Mitsubishi J8M2 Shusui-kai* (1945)
    • Kyushu J7W Shinden* (1945)
    • Nakajima J9Y Kikka* (1945)

    • Mitsubishi 1MT (1922)
    • Mitsubishi B1M (1923)
    • Mitsubishi B2M (1932)
    • Kugisho B3Y (1932)
    • Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
    • Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi B5M "Mabel" (1937)
    • Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
    • Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
    • Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
    • Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
    • Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1942)
    • Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
    • Kawanishi P1Y Ginga "Frances" (1943)
    • Kyushu Q1W Tokai "Lorna" (1943)
    • Tachikawa Ki-74 "Patsy" (1944)
    • Nakajima G8N Renzan "Rita" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Nakajima C2N1 (1931)
    • Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
    • Nakajima L1N1 (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K2/4-L (1938)
    • Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
    • Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
    • Mitsubishi L4M1 (1942)
    • Nakajima G5N Shinzan "Liz" (1942)
    • Yokosuka L3Y "Tina" (1942)
    • Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna"(1943)
    • Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
    • Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945)

    • Hiro H1H (1926)
    • Yokosuka E1Y (1926)
    • Nakajima E2N (1927)
    • Aichi E3A (1929)
    • Yokosuka K4Y (1930)
    • Nakajima E4N (1931)
    • Nakajima E8N "Dave" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E7K "Alf" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E11K1 (1937)
    • Aichi E11A "Laura" (1938)
    • Watanabe E9W (1938)
    • Watanabe K8W* (1938)
    • Mitsubishi F1M "pete" (1941)
    • Nakajima E14Y "Glen" (1941)
    • Aichi E13A "Jake" (1941)
    • Aichi H9A (1942)
    • Nakajima A6M2-N (1942)
    • Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" (1943)
    • Aichi E16A "Zuiun" (1944)
    • Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1945)

    • Kawanishi E11K* (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" (1938)
    • Kawanishi K6K* (1938)
    • Kawanishi H6K3 (1939)
    • Kawanishi K8K (1940)
    • Kawanishi H8K "Emily" (1942)
    • Yokosuka H5Y "Cherry" (1936)

    • Mitsubishi 2MR (1923)
    • Yokosho K1Y (1924)
    • Yokosuka K2Y (1928)
    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Hitachi LXG1 (1934)
    • Kyushu K10W "Oak" (1943)
    Italian Aviation ☍ See the Page
    French Aeronavale ☍ See the Page
    • Levasseur PL5/9 (1924)
    • Wibault 74 (1926)
    • CAMS 37 (1926)
    • Gourdou-Leseurre GL.300 series (1926-39)
    • Levasseur PL7 (1928)
    • Levasseur PL10 (1929)
    • Latécoere 290 (1931)
    • Breguet 521/22/23 (1931)
    • Leo H257 bis (1932)
    • Latécoere 300 series (1932)
    • Morane 226 (1934)
    • Dewoitine 376 (1934)
    • Latécoere 321 (1935)
    • Potez 452 (1935)
    • Latécoere 38.1 (1936)
    • Loire 210 (1936)
    • Leo H43 (1936)
    • Levasseur PL107 (1937)
    • Loire 130 (1937)
    • Dewoitine HD.730 (1938)
    • Latecoere 298 (1938)
    • LN 401 (1938)
    Soviet Naval Aviation
    Luftwaffe (Naval) ☍ See the Page
    • Arado 197 (1937)
    • Fieseler Fi-167 (1938)
    • Junkers Ju-87C (1938)
    • Messerschmitt Me 109T (1941)
    • Messerschmitt 155 (1944)

    • Heinkel HE 1 (1921)
    • Caspar U1 (1922)
    • Dornier Do J Wal (1922)
    • Dornier Do 16 ‘Wal’ (1923)
    • Heinkel HE 2 (1923)
    • Junkers A 20/Ju 20 (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro II (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro III (1924)
    • Dornier Do D (1924)
    • Dornier Do E (1924)
    • Junkers G 24 (1924)
    • Rohrbach Ro IV (1925)
    • Heinkel HD 14 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 25 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 26 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 24 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 4 (1926)
    • Junkers W 33/34 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 5 (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro VII Robbe (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro V Rocco (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 31 (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 8 (1927)
    • Arado W II (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 9 (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 16 (1928)
    • Heinkel He 55 (1929)
    • Heinkel He 56 (1929)
    • Arado SSD I (1930)
    • Junkers Ju 52w (1930)
    • Heinkel HE 42 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 50 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 59 (1931)
    • Arado Ar 66 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 58 (1932)
    • Junkers Ju 46 (1932)
    • Klemm Kl 35bW (1932)
    • Heinkel He 62 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 60 (1933)
    • Heinkel He 51w (1933)
    • Arado Ar 95 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 196 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 199 (1939)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 139 (1936)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 138 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 140 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 222 (1938)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 238 (1942)
    • Dornier Do 24/318 (1937)
    • Dornier Do 18 (1935)
    • Dornier Do 26 (1938)
    • Dornier Do 22 (1938)
    • DFS Seeadler (1936)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 58W (1935)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 62 (1937)
    • Heinkel He 114 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 115 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 119 (1936)
    Dutch Naval Aviation
    • Fokker W.3 (1915)
    • Fokker T.II (1921)
    • Fokker B.I/III (1922)
    • Fokker B.II (1923)
    • Fokker T.III (1924)
    • Fokker T.IV (1927)
    • Fokker B.IV (1928)
    • Fokker C.VII W (1928)
    • Fokker C.VIII W (1929)
    • Fokker C.XI W (1934)
    • Fokker C.XIV-W (1937)
    • Fokker T.VIII-W (1939)

    ☢ The Cold War


    Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot ☍ See the Page
    Warsaw Pact cold war navy Warsaw Pact Navies ☍ See the Detail
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • Volksmarine East Germany
    • Parchim class corvettes (1985)
    • Hai class sub-chasers (1958)
    • Volksmarine's minesweepers
    • Volksmarine's FAC
    • Volksmarine's Landing ships
    • ORP Warzsawa (1970)
    • ORP Kaszub (1986)
    • Polish Landing ships
    • Polish FACs
    • Polish Patrol ships
    • Polish Minesweepers
    • Missile Destroyer Muntenia (1982)
    • Tetal class Frigates (1981)
    • Romanian river patrol crafts

    ✦ NATO

    bundesmarine Bundesmarine ☍ See the Page
    Dutch Navy Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)
    • Frigate Beskytteren (1976)
    • Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)
    • Thetis class frigates (1989)
    • Bellona class corvettes (1955)
    • Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

    • Delfinen class submarines (1958)
    • Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

    • Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)
    • Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)
    • Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)
    • Soloven class Torpedo Boats (1962)
    • Willemoes class FAC (1976)
    • Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)
    • Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)
    • Danish Minelayers
    • Danish Minesweepers
    Dutch Navy Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    • CV Karel Doorman (1948)
    • De Zeven Provinciën class cruisers (1945)
    • Holland class DDs (1953)
    • Friesland class DDs (1953)
    • Roodfier class Frigates (1953)
    • Frigate Lynx (1954)
    • Van Speijk class Frigates (1965)
    • Tromp class Frigates (1973)
    • Kortenaer class frigates (1976)
    • Van H. class Frigates (1983)
    • K. Doorman class Frigates (1988)
    • Dolfijn clas sub. (1959)
    • Zwaardvis class subs. (1970)
    • Walrus class subs. (1985)
    • ATD Rotterdam (1990s)
    • Dokkum class minesweepers (1954)
    • Alkmaar class minesweepers (1982)
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hydra class FFs (1990)
    • Greek cold war Subs
    • Greek Amphibious ships
    • Greek MTBs/FACs
    • Greek Patrol Vessels
    Eire Irish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eithne class PBs (1983)
    • Cliona class PBs
    • Deidre/Emer class PBs
    • Orla class fast PBs
    Marina Militare Marina Militare ☍ See the Page
      Aircraft Carriers
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1983)
    • Conte di Cavour (2004)*
    • Trieste (2022)*
    • Cruisers
    • Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)
    • Doria class H. cruisers (1962)
    • Vittorio Veneto (1969)
    • Destroyers

    • Impetuoso class (1956)
    • Impavido class (1957)
    • Audace class (1971)
    • De La Penne class (1989)
    • Orizzonte class (2007)*
    • Frigates
    • Grecale class (1949)
    • Canopo class (1955)
    • Bergamini class (1960)
    • Alpino class (1967)
    • Lupo class (1976)
    • Maestrale class (1981)
    • Bergamini class (2013)*
    • Thaon di Revel class (2020)*
    • Corvettes (OPV)
    • Albatros class (1954)
    • De Cristofaro class (1965)
    • Minerva class (1987)
    • Cassiopeia class (1989)
    • Esploratore class (1997)*
    • Sirio class (2003)*
    • Commandanti class (2004)*
    • Submarines
    • Toti class (1967)
    • Sauro class (1976)
    • Pelosi class (1986)
    • Sauro class (1992)*
    • Todaro class (2006)*
    • Attack/Amphibious ships
    • San Giorgio LSD (1987)
    • Gorgona class CTS (1987)
    • Italian Landing Crafts (1947-2020)
    • Misc. ships
    • Folgore PB (1952)
    • Lampo class PBs (1960)
    • Freccia class PBs (1965)
    • Sparviero class GMHF (1973)
    • Stromboli class AOR (1975)
    • Anteo SRS (1980)
    • Etna class LSS (1988)
    • Vulcano AOR (1998)*
    • Elettra EWSS (2003)*
    • Etna AOR (2021)*
    • Mine warfare ships
    • Lerici class (1982)
    • Gaeta class (1992)*
    Marine Française Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    • Jean Bart (1949)
    • Aircraft/Helicopter carriers
    • Dixmude (1946)
    • Arromanches (1946)
    • Lafayette class light carriers (1954)
    • PA 28 class project (1947)
    • Clemenceau class (1957)
    • Jeanne d'Arc (1961)
    • PA 58 (1958)
    • PH 75/79 (1975)
    • Charles de Gaulle (1994)

    • Cruisers
    • De Grasse (1946)
    • Chateaurenault class (1950)
    • Colbert (1956)

    • Destroyers
    • Surcouf class (1953)
    • Duperre class (1956)
    • La Galissonniere class (1960)
    • Suffren class (1965)
    • Aconit (1970)
    • Tourville class (1972)
    • G. Leygues class (1976)
    • Cassard class (1985)

    • Frigates
    • Le Corse class (1952)
    • Le Normand class (1954)
    • Cdt Riviere class (1958)
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Lafayette class (1990)

    • Corvettes
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Floreal class (1990)

    • Submarines
    • La Creole class (1940)
    • Narval class (1954)
    • Arethuse class (1957)
    • Daphne class (1959)
    • Gymnote test SSBN (1964)
    • Le Redoutable SSBN (1967)
    • Agosta SSN (1974)
    • Rubis SSN (1979)
    • Amethyste SSN (1988)
    • Le Triomphant SSBN (started 1989)

    • Amphibian Ships
    • Issole (1958)
    • EDIC class (1958)
    • Trieux class (1958)
    • Ouragan lass (1963)
    • Champlain lass (1973)
    • Bougainville (1986)
    • Foudre class (1988)
    • CDIC lass (1989)

    • Misc. ships
    • Le Fougueux class (1958)
    • La Combattante class (1964)
    • Trident class (1976)
    • L'Audacieuse class (1984)
    • Grebe class (1989)
    • Sirius class (1952)
    • Circe class (1972)
    • Eridan class (1979)
    • Vulcain class (1986)
    RCAN RCAN ☍ See the Page
    • HCMS Bonaventure (1957)
    • St Laurent class DDE (1951)
    • Algonquin class DDE (1952)
    • Restigouche class DDs (1954)
    • Mackenzie class DDs (1961)
    • Annapolis class DDH (1963)
    • Iroquois class DDH (1970)

    • River (mod) 1955
    • Tribal class FFs (Pjct)
    • City class DDH (1988)

    • Ojibwa class sub. (1964)
    • Kingston class MCFV (1995)
    Royal Navy Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cold War Aircraft Carriers
    • Centaur class (1947)
    • HMS Victorious (1957)
    • HMS Eagle (1946)
    • HMS Ark Royal (1950)
    • HMS Hermes (1953)
    • CVA-01 class (1966 project)
    • Invincible class (1977)

    • Cold War Cruisers
    • Tiger class (1945)

    • Destroyers
    • Daring class (1949)
    • 1953 design (project)
    • Cavendish class (1944)
    • Weapon class (1945)
    • Battle class (1945)
    • FADEP program (1946)
    • County class GMD (1959)
    • Bristol class GMD (1969)
    • Sheffield class GMD (1971)
    • Manchester class GMD (1980)
    • Type 43 GMD (1974)

    • British cold-war Frigates
    • Rapid class (1942)
    • Tenacious class (1941)
    • Whitby class (1954)
    • Blackwood class (1953)
    • Leopard class (1954)
    • Salisbury class (1953)
    • Tribal class (1959)
    • Rothesay class (1957)
    • Leander class (1961)
    • BB Leander class (1967)
    • HMS Mermaid (1966)
    • Amazon class (1971)
    • Broadsword class (1976)
    • Boxer class (1981)
    • Cornwall class (1985)
    • Duke class (1987)

    • British cold war Submarines
    • T (conv.) class (1944)
    • T (Stream) class (1945)
    • A (Mod.) class (1944)
    • Explorer class (1954)
    • Strickleback class (1954)
    • Porpoise class (1956)
    • Oberon class (1959)
    • HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
    • Valiant class SSN (1963)
    • Resolution class SSBN (1966)
    • Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
    • Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
    • Upholder class (1986)
    • Vanguard class SSBN (started)

    • Assault ships
    • Fearless class (1963)
    • HMS Ocean (started)
    • Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
    • Sir Galahad (1986)
    • Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
    • Brit. LCVPs (1963)
    • Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

    • Minesweepers/layers
    • Ton class (1952)
    • Ham class (1947)
    • Ley class (1952)
    • HMS Abdiel (1967)
    • HMS Wilton (1972)
    • Hunt class (1978)
    • Venturer class (1979)
    • River class (1983)
    • Sandown class (1988)

    • Misc. ships
    • HMS Argus ATS (1988)
    • Ford class SDF (1951)
    • Cormorant class (1985)
    • Kingfisger class (1974)
    • HMS Jura OPV (1975)
    • Island class OPVs (1976)
    • HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
    • Castle class OPVs (1980)
    • Peacock class OPVs (1982)
    • MBT 538 class (1948)
    • Gay class FACs (1952)
    • Dark class FACs (1954)
    • Bold class FACs (1955)
    • Brave class FACs (1957)
    • Tenacity class PCs (1967)
    • Brave class FPCs (1969)
    Armada de espanola - Spanish cold war navy Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    • Dédalo aircraft carrier (1967)
    • Principe de Asturias (1982)

    • Alava class DDs (1946)
    • Audaz class DDs (1955)
    • Oquendo class DDs (1956)
    • Roger de Lauria class (1967)

    • Baleares class FFs (1971)
    • Descubierta class FFs (1978)
    • Numancia class FFs (1987)

    • Pizarro class gunboats (1944)
    • Artevida class Cvs (1952)
    • Serviola class Cvs (1990)
    • Spanish cold-war submarines
    • Spanish FACs
    • Spanish Minesweepers
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Tre Kronor class (1946)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)
    • Halland class DDs (1952) (1945)
    • Ostergotland class DDs (1956)
    • Spica III class Corvettes (1984)
    • Goteborg class Corvettes (1989)

    • U1 class subs (mod.1963)
    • Hajen class subs (1954)
    • Sjoormen class subs (1967)
    • Nacken class subs (1978)
    • Vastergotland class subs (1986)
    • Gotland class subs (1995)

    • T32 class MTBs (1951)
    • T42 class MTBs (1955)
    • Plejad class FACs (1951)
    • Spica I class FACs (1966)
    • Spica II class FACs (1972)
    • Hugin class FACs (1973)
    • Swedish Patrol Boats
    • Swedish minesweepers
    • Swedish Icebreakers
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters
    Turkish Navy Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Berk class FFs (1971)
    • Atilay class sub. (1974)
    • Cakabey class LST
    • Osman Gazi class LST
    • Turkish Fast Attack Crafts
    • Turkish Patrol Boats
    US Navy USN (cold war) ☍ See the Page

    ☯ ASIA

    Chinese Navy ☍ See the Page
    Indian Navy Indian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Vikrant class CVs (1961)
    • Viraat class CVs (1986)

    • Cruiser Delhi (1948)
    • Cruiser Mysore (1957)
    • Raja class DDs (1949)
    • Rajput class DDs (1980)
    • Delhi class DDs (1990)

    • Khukri class FFs (1956)
    • Talwar class FFs (1958)
    • Brahmaputra class FFs (1957)
    • Nilgiri class FFs (1968)
    • Godavari class FFs (1980)

    • Kusura class subs (1970)
    • Shishumar class subs (1984)
    • Sindhugosh class subs (1986)

    • Indian Amphibious ships
    • Indian corvettes (1969-90)
    • Khukri class corvettes (1989)
    • SDB Mk.2 class PBs (1977)
    • Vikram class OPVs (1979)
    • Sukanya class OPVs (1989)
    Indonesia Indonesian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Fatahilla class Frigates (1977)
    • Pattimura class corvettes (1956)
    • Indonesian Marines
    • Indonesian Mine Vessels
    • Indonesian FAC/OPVs
    JMSDF JMSDF ☍ See the Page
      JMSDF Destroyers
    • Harukaze class DD (1955)
    • Ayanami class DD (1957)
    • Murasame class DD (1958)
    • Akizuki class DD (1959)
    • Amatukaze missile DD (1963)
    • Yamagumo class DDE (1965)
    • Takatsuki class DD (1966)
    • Minegumo class DDE (1967)
    • Haruna class DDH (1971)
    • Tachikaze class DD (1974)
    • Shirane class DDH (1978)
    • Hatsuyuki class DDs (1980)
    • Hatakaze class DDs (1984)
    • Asigiri class DDs (1986)
    • Kongo class DDs (started 1990)

    • JMSDF Frigates
    • Akebono class FFs (1955)
    • Isuzu class FFs (1961)
    • Chikugo class FFs (1970)
    • Ishikari class FFs (1980)
    • Yubari class FFs (1982)
    • Abukuma class FFs (1988)

    • JMSDF submarines
    • Oyashio class Sub. (1959)
    • Hayashio class Sub. (1961)
    • Natsushio class Sub. (1963)
    • Oshio class Sub. (1964)
    • Uzushio class Sub. (1970)
    • Yushio class Sub. (1979)
    • Harushio class Sub. (1989)

    • JMSDF Misc. ships
    • Japanese Landing Ships
    • Japanese Large Patrol Ships
    • Japanese Patrol Crafts
    • Japanese Minesweepers
    • Japanese Sub-chasers
    North Korean Navy North Korean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Najin class Frigates
    • Experimental Frigate Soho
    • Sariwan class Corvettes

    • Sinpo class subs.
    • Sang-O class subs.
    • Yono class subs.
    • Yugo class subs.

    • Hungnam class LCM
    • Hante class LST
    • Songjong class HVC
    • Sin Hung/Ku Song FACs
    • Anju class FACs
    • Iwon class FACs
    • Chaho class FACs
    • Hong Jin class FAC-G
    • Sohung class MTBs
    • Sinpo class MTBs
    • Nampo class FALC
    Philippines Navy Philippines Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Datu Kalantian class Frigates (1976)
    • Bacolod City class LS(L)
    • Philippino Patrol Crafts
    Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN ☍ See the Page
    • Ulsan class frigates (1980)
    • Pohang class corvettes (1984)
    • Dong Hae class corvettes (1982)
    • Han Kang class patrol corvettes (1985)
    • Chamsuri (PKM 268) PBs (1978)
    • ROKS coast guard vessels
    • Paek Ku class FAC (1975)
    • Kang Keong class minehunters (1986)
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters


    Israeli Navy IDF Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eilat class Corvettes (1993)
    • SAAR 5 Project
    • SAAR 1 FAC
    • SAAR 4 FAC
    • SAAR 4.5 FAC
    • Dvora class FAC
    • Shimrit class MHFs
    • IDF FACs/PBs
    • Etzion Geber LST
    • Ash class LCT
    Iranian Navy Iranian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Destroyer Artemiz (1965)
    • Bayandor class FFs (1963)
    • Alvand class FFs (1969)
    • Khalije Fars class DDs (2016)*


    Australian Navy RAN ☍ See the Page
    • HMAS Sydney (1948*)
    • HMAS Melbourne (1955*)
    • Tobruk class DDs (1947)
    • Voyager class DDs (1952)
    • Perth class MDD (1963)
    • Quadrant class FFs (1953)
    • Yarra class FFs (1958)
    • Swan class FFs (1967)
    • Adelaide class MFFs (1978)
    • Anzac class MFFs (1990s)
    • Oxley class subs (1965)
    • Collins class subs (1990s)
    • Australian Amphibious ships
    • Fremantle class PBs
    RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy ☍ See the Page
    • HMNZS Royalist (1956)
    • Pukaki class patrol Crafts (1974)
    • Moa class patrol crafts (1983)
    • HMNZS Aotearoa (2019)*

    ☩ South America

    Armada de argentina Argentina ☍ See the Page
    • ARA Independencia (1958)
    • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (1968)
    • Belgrano class cruisers (1951)
    • Almirante Brown class Frigates (1981)
    • Mantilla class corvettes (1981)
    • Espora class corvettes (1982)
    • Salta class submarines (1972)
    • Santa Cruz class submarines (1982)
    Brazilian Navy Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Minas Gerais aircraft carrier (1956)
    • Cruiser Barroso (1951)
    • Cruiser Tamandare (1951)
    • Acre class destroyers (1945)
    • Niteroi class Frigates (1974)
    • Ihnauma class Frigate (1986)
    • Tupi class submarines (1987)
    • Brazilian patrol ships
    Chilean Navy Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • O'Higgins class cruisers
    • Lattore Cruiser (1971)
    • Almirante class destroyers (1960)
    • Prat class M. Destroyers (1982)
    • Almirante Lynch class Frigates (1972)
    • Thomson class subs (1982)
    • Small surface combatants
    Peruvian Navy Peruvian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Almirante Grau(ii) class
    • Almirante Grau(iii) class
    • Abtao class sub.
    • PR-72P class corvettes
    • Velarde class OPVs

    ℣ AFRICA

    Egyptian Navy Egyptian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • October class FAC/M (1975)
    • Ramadan class FAC/M (1979)
    SADF South African Navy ☍ See the Page
    ☫ Minor cold war/modern Navies Algerian NavyAzerbaijani NavyBangladesh NavyBarheini NavyBolivian NavyCambodian NavyComoros NavyCosta Rica NavyCroatian NavyCuban NavyDjibouti NavyDominican Republic NavyEquadorian NavyEstonian NavyEthiopian NavyFinnish NavyGeorgian NavyHaitian NavyHonduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

    ✚ MORE

    ⚔ Cold War Naval Events
    • ⚔ Indochina War naval ops
    • ⚔ Korean War naval ops
    • ⚔ 1956 intervention in Suez
    • ⚔ 1960 Cuban crisis
    • ⚔ 1960 US/Soviet compared strenghts
    • ⚔ 1963-69 Algerian war naval ops
    • ⚔ Naval warfare in Vietnam
    • ⚔ Middle East naval fights
    • ⚔ 1980 Falkland wars
    • ⚔ 1990 Gulf War
    ⚔ Modern Navies
    ✈ Cold War Naval Aviation See the full section
    • Grumman Mallard 1946
    • Edo OSE-1 1946
    • Short Solent 1946

    • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
    • Grumman Albatross 1947
    • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
    • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
    • Short Sealand 1947

    • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
    • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
    • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
    • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
    • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949

    • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
    • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
    • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
    • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)

    • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
    • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955

    • Ikarus Kurir H 1957

    • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
    • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
    • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
    • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
    • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
    • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
    • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984

    • Patrol Planes
    • ATR 42 MP Surveyor (Italy, 1984)
    • ATR 72 MP (Italy 1988)

    • ATR 72 ASW (France, 1988)
    • Breguet Atlantic (France 1965)
    • Nord 1402 Noroit (France 1949)

    • Avro Shackleton (UK 1949)
    • BAE Nimrod MRA4 (UK 2004)
    • Britten-Norman Defender/Islander (UK 1970)
    • Fairey Gannet (UK 1949)
    • Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod (UK 1967)

    • Beechcraft King Air (USA 1963)
    • Basler BT-67 (USA 1990)
    • Boeing 737 Surveiller (USA 1967)
    • Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA 2009)
    • Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA, 1945)
    • Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA 1959)
    • Martin P4M Mercator (USA 1946)
    • Convair P5Y (USA 1950)
    • Douglas/BSAS Turbo Dakota (USA 1991)

    • Bombardier DHC-8 MPA/MSA (Can 2007)
    • Canadair CP-107 Argus (Can 1957)

    • CASA C-212 MPA (Spain 1971)
    • CASA/IPTN CN-235 MPA/HC-144 Ocean Sentry (Spain 1983)
    • CASA C-295 MPA (Spain 1997)

    • Diamond DA42 Guardian (Austria 2002)

    • Dornier 228 (Germany 1981)

    • Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante (Brazil 1968)
    • Embraer R-99 (Brazil 2001)
    • Embraer P-99 (Brazil 2003)

    • Fokker F27 200-MAR (NL 1955)
    • Fokker F27 Maritime Enforcer (NL 1955)

    • IAI 1124N Sea Scan (Israel 1977)

    • Kawasaki P-1 (Japan 2007)
    • Kawasaki P-2J (Japan 1966)

    • Saab Swordfish (Sweden 2016)
    • Shaanxi Y-8F,Q,X (China 1984)
    • Short Seavan (UK 1976)

    • Beriev Be-8 1947
    • Beriev Be-6 1949
    • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
    • Beriev Be-10 1956
    • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
    • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986
    • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
    • Ilyushin Il-38 'May' (USSR 1967)
    • Myasishchev 3M/3MD (USSR 1956)
    • Tupolev Tu-16T/PL/R/RM/SP (USSR 1952)
    • Tupolev Tu-95MR (USSR 1961)
    • Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR 1968)

    • Carrier Planes
    • Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
    • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
    • Douglas A2D Skyshark
    • Douglas AD Skyraider
    • Douglas F3D Skynight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Grumman A-6 Intruder
    • Grumman AF Guardian
    • Grumman C-1 Trader
    • Grumman C-2 Greyhound
    • Grumman E-1 Tracer
    • Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
    • Grumman EA-6B Prowler
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F9F Panther
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat ➚
    • Grumman S-2 Tracker
    • Lockheed Martin F-35B
    • Lockheed S-3 Viking ➚
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
    • McDonnell FH Phantom
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
    • McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
    • North American A-5 Vigilante
    • North American AJ Savage
    • North American FJ Fury
    • North American T-2 Buckeye
    • North American T-28 Trojan
    • Vought A-7 Corsair
    • Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Vought F6U Pirate
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    • Boeing EA-18G Growler
    • RN
    • Blackburn Buccaneer
    • Boulton Paul Sea Balliol
    • BAe Sea Harrier
    • de Havilland Sea Vampire
    • de Havilland Sea Venom
    • de Havilland Sea Vixen
    • Fairey Gannet
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Short Seamew
    • Westland Wyvern
    • Marine Nationale
    • Breguet Alizé
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Étendard
    • Dassault Rafale M
    • Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr M
    • SNCASE Aquilon
    • Soviet Navy
    • Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP
    • Sukhoi Su-33
    • Yakovlev Yak-38

    Navy Helicopters
      Chinese PLAN:
    • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
    • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
    • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
    • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
    • Italy:
    • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
    • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
    • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
    • India:
    • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
    • France:
    • Alouette II (1955)
    • Alouette III (1959)
    • Super Frelon (1965)

    • Cougar ()
    • Panther ()
    • Super Cougar H225M ()
    • Fennec ()
    • MH-65 Dolphin ()
    • UH-72 Lakota ()
    • Germany:
    • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
    • NHIndustries NH90
    • Japan:
    • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
    • Poland:
    • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
    • Romania:
    • IAR 330M (1975)
    • United Kingdom:
    • Westland Lynx (1971)
    • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
    • Westland Sea King (1969)
    • Westland Wasp (1962)
    • Westland Wessex (1958)
    • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
    • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
    • USA:
    • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
    • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
    • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
    • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
    • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
    • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
    • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
    • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
    • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
    • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
    • ussr:
    • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
    • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
    • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
    • Ka-31 (1987)
    • Ka-35 (2015)
    • Ka-40 (1990)
    • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
    • Mil Mi-4 (1952)
    Civilian ♆ WW1 US Shipping Board
    MORE !