Ships of the Renaissance

Ancient science to the rescue

The Renaissance begins, according to most authors, in Italy, notably in Florence and Venice. In particular because the wealth of generous and enlightened merchants and Condotierres, bringing patronage to artists that took their inspiration and "rediscovered" classical antiquity. Called locally Rinascimento, it originated from the Trecento from the fourteenth century and gained the rest of Europe in the sixteenth century. Many date it from the fall of Constantinople in 1453, but ended at an unspecified time, some speaking of the death of Charles V in 1558. But it is especially a period marked by the great naval discoveries, maps creations, gunpowder, rudder and compass, and it is also the constitution great merchant and military empires.

On the purely naval side, we note the emergence of an emblematic vessel of that era, both building trade and war faster, the Galleon. It does not, strictly speaking, replace the Carrack, which is maintained at its side until the end of the sixteenth century. Carracks and galleons will be instruments of exploration and wealth for the Portuguese, the Spaniards and then the Dutch. This chapter also includes a transition ship of the modern age, which is no longer of the Renaissance, but classified here for convenience: The ship-of-the-line, ma-o-war, a truly military tallship and logical evolution of the Galleon. It was born at the beginning of the XVIIth century, and evolved constantly to find its culmination around 1840.

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Eastern ships : Carracks : Galleys, Galeazza & Galeas : Ships-of-the-line (XVIIe): Galleons : Renaissance ships posters Renaissance ships

Venetian Galley

The Venetian military galley, heir to both the mighty Byzantine Dromons and the distant Roman Imperial Triremes, was one of the best examples of their evolution, at a time when the still-rising galleons had not eclipsed them. Compared to the carracks, which boasts a powerful artillery, the galleys are less armed but quicker, and independent of the wind.

Naval battles are always solved by boarding as in the past, but firearms give the embarked troops the possibility to engage the enemy at better ranges. The Galley presented here is already imposing, signaling itself as a command galle. It is a "trireme", in the sense that it is given three rows of oars, but at the same level.

On the other hand, these oars are handled by three to four men each. It is the "a scaloccio", rowing style, a term invented by the Italians in the Middle Ages but often used to describe antique swimming systems. The latter, with its 84 oars handled by 336 men, had in front a chasing cannon of large caliber (bombard), and four lighters pieces, sheltered inside the forecastle. To the ballistae have succeeded the lighter culverins on articulated side poles. Inevitably, the rigging is Latin, and most of the time on a single mast.


The Vasa is one of those great ships (they are no longer called galleons, but form a part of this family born at the beginning of the last century), which bore all the royal magnificence together with a formidable dissuasion power towards Sweden's naturals foes, like Russia. In this case it was originally called the Nya Wassan, a large sailing ship of 1400 tons, with planned 1150 m2 of sail. The head of her mainmast culminated at 50 meters, for a full length of 66.50 m from the lantern of the stern table at the edge of the parrot's hune.

She carried 133 crew and 300 soldiers and servants, for 64 bronze guns divided into forty-eight 24 pounders, eight 2 pounders, two one pounders, and six mortars. No less than 80 tons was disseminated on three decks, the lowest one being just 1.20 m above the waterline. She was built under personal instructions from King Gustav Adolf (who reigned from 1611 to 1632), then at war with Ferdinand II of Habsburg.

She was built and launched in 1627 in Blasieholmen Island, and completed in the spring of 1628, the ceremony having been celebrated with pomp. The king would have even said these words: "After God, it is the fleet that decides the prosperity of the Kingdom." Still, the Nya Wassan was towed to the naval artillery dock not far from the palace of the three crowns ("Tre Kronor").

There she had to be armed, receiving her artillery but also ballast and crew, basically to be prepared to join the fleet. On August 10, 1628, she began her first service voyage to join Alvsnabben (Stockholm Archipelago), where the rest of the fleet was anchored. The jubilant crowd was massed on the jetties to witness the departure of the famous and magnificent ship.

The weather was beautiful, with a radiant sun, and the ship did not unfurl its sail until after being towed to Södermalm. Crewmates lowered the foresail, brigantine, great and the little topsail. A slight south-southeast breeze was then blowing. But after barely a mile, a sudden gust of wind drowned the ship, which rolled down to the level of the lower battery, the ports of which were wide open to gun salute the King. When the gust ceased, Vasa, far from straightening up, had pitch increasing until the water penetrated to the ports. Foreseeably she completely capsize in a few moments, its sails taking water, her holds filled very quickly.

She sank, for she had been heavily weighted to compensate for the weight of her artillery, in front of an incredulous public. This was nothing short of a national catastrophe: About fifty people were drowned, crew, artillerymen, But also officers and especially high-ranking officers of the Swedish Army who traveled with women and children... Since the ship cost was a whooping 100,000 Riksdaler (60 million Euros today), a commission of inquiry was convened as of the next day in order to decide on the responsibilities of each.

The boatswain, Jöran Matsson, who was the most seriously accused, defended himself with much conviction, and eventually convinced the jury that the ship had been too heavily loaded at the top and in his opinion - he was not an engineer or a naval carpenter - The hull was too narrow for her high profile. He confirmed the fact that during roll tests the ship had already behaved badly. When Hein Jacobsson, the final boatmaster of the ship, said that the final plans had been drawn on these precise specifications by the King himself...

The investigation also questioned the artillery intendant Erik Jönsson, Lieutenant Gierdsson, in charge of the rigging, and eventually the audience closed without clear responsibility. The Vasa could not be recovered, so teams did their best then to dismantle her large mast, which protruded from the water, in order to clear the navigation.

In 1664, a salvage operation by Hans A. Von Treileben was only partially carried out by sending divers to empty the contents of the vessel, including the 50 large bronze cannons. But the story does not end there: In 1956, a maritime archaeologist managed to trace the ship, buried under tons of mud.

This famous natural preservative, the Scandinavian mud, was considered acidic, antibacterial, and moreover woodworms, usual gravediggers and natural recyclers of hulls, did not support the icy waters of the Baltic. It was the miracle that made it possible to dig up valuable archaeological vestiges from the sea, such as the famous Vikings boats.

Four years of hard work was needed, financed largely by the government. Finally In 1961, the Vasa was removed practically intact from its muddy cradle... Only the paintings had disappeared.

Archaeologist Anders Franzén found the trace later with pigments encrusted in the veins of the wood and a colored reconsititution was done. The Vasa hull was carefully washed and treated with polyethylene glycol. A hangar was quickly built to completely isolate her from the outside, which became the temporary museum of Djugarten in Stockholm.

She is now the Vasamuseet, a large building which besides the ship, also hold nine exhibitions dedicated to the 14,000 intact wooden objects recovered in the ship and notably its extra sails, the only ones recovered from that time in the world. The Vasa is currently one of the most popular attractions in Sweden, and its visit is essential for going through Stockholm. The Vasa became invaluable for the knowledge of the techniques of the time, and many posterior reconstructions rely heavily on studies made out of her.


The Odam (here the Odam Poodam), is a cargo characteristic derived from Dhows used in Southern India, and originating in the Laccadives archipelago. She features two leaning mastswith Arab sails (Lateen-Setie), but tops a jib on a short boat-out. As always, the bow is very sharp, though rounded, and the stern sharp and receding.

Coconut wood was used for the curves. Odams had a crew of 4 to 6 men, housed in the rear castle covered with a masted roof, and supplemented by a central hut used for the storage of perishable goods. These vessels generally measured 18 meters for 5.18 meters wide with a draft of 4.30 meters. They load their cargo into a large, one-piece, decked hold. The Odam, which was still in use recently, is beginning to disappear slowly. Their ancient origin remains mysterious.

Grand Mistress

The Great Mistress was a singular ship of Henry VIII's fleet of England, a contemporary of the Great Harry, halfway between a carrack and a galley.

Modern galleons did not appeared until the middle of the sixteenth century, and the Grand Mistress was unquestionably a precursor. It was classified as a "galleass" on the fleet registers, but an engraving of the time (unless it is an involuntary omission of the engraver, not necessarily a marine engraver), represents it without the least trace of rows, necessary to consider it as such. The term "galleon" was adopted for overseas ships with oars until the seventeenth century.

As a galleon he would have been very well armed, six big bombards and 14 couleuvrines, as well as twenty or so heavy arquebus. Her rigging was that of a galleon, with a low, shallow hull and low castles differentiated her from carracks of the time, making here a steadier and faster ship. We can therefore understand through this precursor how the Galleon quickly established herself and succeeded to the carrack in all Christendom.


The Tchektirme was the typical Turkish workboat, a Mediterranean variant of the flat-bottom coasters rigged with a fore-and-aft rig. This type of ship, linked to the Greek Skapho (a small fishing boat), and the large Sakouleiva, was long-derived from the Byzantine Khelandion (chaland). The French Trecandin was also related to these ships, but with a somewhat different rigging.

Great Harry

Successively called Imperial Carrack, Henry Imperial, Henry VIII's Royal Carrack was built in 1514 on orders to replace the Regent, sunk previously after a duel with the French Admiral Ship Mary de la Cordelière (which sank too). Known only from launch as the Great Harry she has been on par with Portuguese Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai, the largest carrack ever built.

Harry Grace a Dieu's ("By the grace of god") height was reduced in 1536 to avoid excessive roll, and its rigging lowered. Her artillery was quite impressive for the time, with 184 heavy bombards, up to 251 guns of all calibers. She famously carried the king to Francis I's Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520 for an historical meeting. Afterwards her career was relatively uneventful, until she burn at Woolwhich in 1553.

VOC Galleon

After their independence the Dutch set up the largest trading empire of their time. Large fleets of versatile ships, carrying large quantities of goods, especially spices and silk, but also well-capable to defen hemselves with powerful defensive artillery.

The lesson of the British corsairs pitted against Spanish trade had been retained. This type of ship specifically used by these large far-east trading companies would later be called "Indiaman", up the XVIIIth Century.

The VOC galleons, a real multinational with current standards, and at that time a state within the state, with its own army, regulations, police, justice, sent galleon convoys powerfully escorted to these mysterious lands of the "far east", Indonesia, Malaysia and India.

The enormous price of the commodities transported justified the constitution of this empire. One of these galleons, the Batavia, was reconstituted in the 1990s by the Dutch. She could very well lend itself to an adventure movie so much the history of its mutiny has nothing to envy to that of the Bounty.


The Baqarah has nothing to do with the gambling table of the casino: This was an old trading ships, close to the Bedan, having a particularly inclined bow, but still roomy and sturdy with high draft.

She is a pure cargo ship that appeared at the end of the Middle Ages, disappearing since the turn of the 20th century. Its antenna was particularly long since it extended well beyond the length of the ship, and came to rest on poles in the back.

Galleazza Grossa

Galeazza Grossa The "Galeazza Grossa", a great galley of the fifteenth century, and "secret weapon" that won the battle of Lepanto - the greatest galley battle in history - and turn the tide of history for the Mediterranean world, appeared as a heavier version of the Galea.

The latter was then a small vessel (15 meters), but soon it was enlarged and redesigned to carry artillery like the galleon. 80 meters long, with a complete deck, about 20 guns, the Galeazza was characterized by powerful "castros" like previous Byzantine ships, in place of the gun deck, to fire in all directions. Because of her weight, the Galeazza had a strong draft and required between 4 and 7 rowers per side, manned by a crew, gunners and troops, about 800 to 1000 men in total.

Above all, these heavy galleys were rigged with three Latin sails. But as they were seen like compromises between carracks and galleys, they were also built by the English, the French, and were in use on the coasts of Holland. Rigged like galleons, they could easily be confused with the latter type. Venice unleashed these six Galeazza Grossa in line at the battle of Lepanto on October 7, 1571, which largely contributed to the victory of the Christian coalition against the Turks.

Their height, formidable firepower, well distributed widely contributed to this victory. Galleys disappeared in the middle of the eighteenth century, just like the galley itself, especially because of the incompatibility of combining efficiently strong artillery and too many rowers. Moreover, the defeat of the invincible Armada in 1588 proved the inefficiency of Spanish Galeass outside the Mediterranean.

Prestige French Carrack: Marie de la Cordelière (1505)

Marie de la Cordilière

The Marie de la Cordellière (1505) suspected to be the name of a prominent mistress of Francis the 1st (Henry VII did the same with the "grand mistress") was the bedrock of the newly-born French National Navy, as a response to a similar move from Henry VIII. This carrack (French "Caraque") was the first known and admiral ships of the French Navy which later really took shape under Louis X.

There is no known representation of this ship but her history is much better known. This carrack was issued to civilian shipbuilding, borrowing many elements to the Spanish and Portuguese ships, but also Venetian design. They were ancestors of the first galleons, cargo ships with a defensive artillery carried at the last end. Under Louis X, about fifty carracks were specially equipped for war. Traditionally they carried 8 to 20 pieces of heavy caliber, bombards in the lower decks, and a hundred smaller iron pieces more arquebus-size than cannons.

Shots were fired at close range as a prelude to any boarding assault. Marie de la Cordellière was known to be the flagship of the fleet in 1505. She duelled with Henry VIII's HMS Regent in 1512 in the Bay of Camaret and their fight remains legendary. These two ships rigged each other and were set blazed during the battle, the fire being communicated to the powder reserves. Both ships exploded and sank in a short time. The wreck of La Cordellière was recently found by a team of Breton divers. Henry VII built the formidable Great Harry to replace the Regent, while the French built two other huge war and prestige carracks, the Grande Hermine and Grande Francoise.

Read More about Marie de la Cordelière and the battle of St Mathieu.


The Koreans are so proud that they have made at least two reconstructions of these ships relatively unknown to Westerners. Undoubtedly the centerpiece of the marine arsenal of the Chosons, they come from a line of military ships quite surprising originally imagined to contain massive raids of Japanese pirates. The turtle-boat - so called because of its domed roof made of iron scales - was indeed an invention that Leonardo da Vinci would certainly not have denied:

It is simply the first battleship. Its propulsion was assured both by short oars, and thin battened veils, constituted as on the junks of the time, of canvas issued from rice mat, maintained by bamboo yards, pivoting on the axis of the mast And very easy to stir.. from the inside. For in the vast comparative bestiary, the hedgehog would have been equally appropriate to deal with this ship.

The roof was, in fact, devoid of any access (which was made by the back of the gallery), but on the other hand furnished with sharp points, generally hidden by boots of straw, so as to discourage collisions. What's more, this roof was high enough for the junks of the time. To this passive protection was added a formidable battery of cannon mounted on rolling carriages (6 to 12 per side), and the arms of the men on board.

The dragon's head, at the beginning lower, was in fact the exit of a barrel pulling from the front. Later, this head served either as a flamethrower in the manner of the Byzantine siphons, or as a thick smoke to conceal the maneuver. The Geobukson (or Kobukson) is large and high, relatively slow but stable, and Eminently formidable. Few of them were produced, but only at the instigation of Yi-Sun-Sin, which took over the "naval base" of the province of Cholla.

Korea was in open war with Japan, whose fleet had heavy and powerful ships. The turtle ship is mentioned from the time of King Taejong (1400-1418), but remained in the prototype stage. It was not until the Ijmin war in 1592 that the Admiral took up the idea of ​​this ship and allowed it to pass to the stage of mass-production.

Three will see the light of day in 1592 and two others in 1595 which will have decisive weight in the battle alongside Panokson, largely the majority. Their action can be compared with that of the handful of Venetian Galleasses at the battle of Lepanto.


The Balam was a kind of Arabian dhow of the Persian Gulf characterized by a curved bow, limited dimensions and a capacity to access rivers. This type of ship began to disappear with the industrialization of the Middle East in the last fifty years. Its origin is unknown, but probably the Renaissance.

Red seal Fune

Author's recreation of a "Palace Fune" and Red Seal ship

The term "Fune" means in general Japanese a ship, whatever its size. Like the Ho Fune previously discussed, the Fune has been declined in many variants resulting from Chinese construction techniques. Even as Japan came into contact with the Portuguese navigators and their Galleons, they continued to build traditional Fune. The one presented here is a large sized ship with three main masts, of the "red seal" type (朱印船 Shuinsen).

She has three decks and superimposed galleries, from a rendition on a wooden print of the Sakoku (Edo) era. The superposed and partially latticed sails as well as the galleries and the parrot at the front with a hierarchy of mast sizes distributed as on the Galleons testified to some Western influence.

Red Seal Ship
Red Seal Ship

For the rest, this Fune had a prismatic hull with a flat bottom akin traditional junks. Some could be armed with guns, but the one presented here had a purely civilian vocation. The Japanese will continue to build this type of ship until the mid-17th century. They were extinguished with the Meiji era. Red Seal ships were particularly influenced by the Portuguese. From a time of opening to world trade, they were armed merchant vessels bound for Southeast Asian ports. They presented a red-sealed letters patent issued by the early Tokugawa shogunate and made regular trade excursions around 1600-1635.

Restoration of a red seal ship Red seal ship model, early Edo period, National Museum of Japanese History in Sakura, Chiba.

In all about 350 of these ships traded as far as Indonesia, Southern Asia, Malaysia, China (Formosa and Macau only), and the Philippines. They were as large as European late carracks and galleons, at 500 and 750 tons for about 250 crewmembers, international (often Dutch and European pilots). They exported silver, diamonds, copper, swords and other artifacts, and carried back home Chinese silk and Southeast Asian products like sugar, rare wood, and deer skin. Small Japanese enclaves appeared at each trading point.

They were fierce warriors and known as such, and became for some master-less Samurais called Ronin, well-paid and praised mercenaries. Some local rulers hired them in their regional fights, like in Siam against Burma. Their only competitor here was the powerful Dutch East India Company (VOC). One of these ships also reached India and Tenjiku "Indie" Tokubei became very famous after relating his adventures, the Marco Polo of Japan.

It is well possible these ships also fired on Spanish Galleons, which were not well seen either by the Shogunate. However in 1636 with the Introduction of the Sakoku policy links with the foreign world were severed and the Japanese trade fleet disappeared completely. From then on, foreign sailors setting foot on Japan for any reasons were put to death. The country would be opened by Force in 1854 by Commodore Perry.

Ho Fune

Ho Fune Japan's shipbuilding industry was largely inspired by the junks that ran aground on its shore, and more rarely those that traded with the archipelago. As colonizers of Korea, the Japanese of the Middle Ages used junks very early. As a result, the Ho Fune, which appeared before the first contacts with the Portuguese in 1636, betrayed a wide Chinese influence but also Malay, or even Arab, as evidenced by its prow with a long inclined bow.

On the other hand, their hull had a section in tears, with the rear much more massive than the front, tapered, a large axial rudder, more typical junks. The rigging corresponded to this declining width of the forward bow, with its main mast at the rear and two others decreasing in size.

The sails are rectangular, in height, and consist of vertical stripes connected to the center (above) or battened in bird feathers. These were merchant vessels, and the smaller ones carried only one sail for fishing. They often had a figurehead at the head of Dragon or Snake...

Portuguese Nao Flor de la Mar

Flor de la Mar
Example of "Nao" at a time when the Portuguese Caraques had nothing to do with the "naves" of the Middle Ages, this ship was with the "Trinidad", one of the most powerful units of its time. The illustration is an interpretation of the engraving of "Roteiro de Malacca".

An example among others of the know-how of the Portuguese at the time when they founded their empire. In order to defend their convoys or "Mudes", they put on line of buildings able to defend it against any intrusion adverse.

The Flor de la Mar was perhaps a "nao", a nave in Portuguese, because the classic lateral reinforcements or porticos are absent from these flanks, which pleads for a traditional construction of the South, on board. The engraving from which these illustrations are derived comes from the Roteiro de Malacca. It seemed to argue in the direction of a ship with six or seven decks, which was considerable.

The relative dispersal of the artillery typical of this period is also noted. The galleons of the sixteenth century will distribute them more effectively. As a result, the building was to measure 60 meters overall, for a height at the waterline at the handrail of the last bridge of the 20-meter aft deck.

Its width, like any round ship of the time, at the ratio of 3/1, should be 20 meters at the waterline, the tops being much finer according to the "pear shape" of its section. With 36 pieces of main artillery, not counting the mangonels and stones that could be adapted to the windows, it was a unit of first strike, considered as the most powerful of its time.

Santa Maria

Santa Maria "Nao", Carrack or Caravel were famous names, and the Santa Maria, in between these types, was the flagship of Christopher Columbus during his expedition to "indies". This reconstruction here is that of a "Mixed Caravel" with caravel attributes but squared rigging.

At one time Cogs, Hulks, Carracks and Navas/Naos (Distinction was made especially on rigging and tonnage), the Santa Maria proceeded from both the Nao (Latin name Nava, know as the Kogge in the north) and the early carrack. The latter was distinguished by a larger forecastle, and often a topsail sail above their foresail. Tonnage was higher too, and they often sported reinforcing bars, whether they were bordered with clinker (North) or freeboard (Mediterranean).

Their dimensions remained in a classic 3/1 ratio, but they were higher on water, with more bulging shapes, and a square stern. They were also the first to bear guns in ports. The first unit permanently equipped with guns was the Nao Galicia, in 1400. It is precisely in Galicia that the Santa Maria was built, nicknamed "the Galician".

She belonged to Juan de la Cosa and was anchored in Palos de la Frontera for her first trip. 30 meters long and 10 meters wide, the Santa Maria measured 230 tons and possessed perhaps four small bombards in the main battery deck. Her crew was 40 men. After her sinking in Hispaniola the wreck served as timber for the small fort of the Navidad.

The Santa Maria is inseparable from the Genovese navigator Christoforo Colombo (Christopher Columbus). Classically, he lived in an atmosphere of traveling merchants, spices and evenings tales or adventures in the far East. Naturally himself (helped by his family) became an experienced sailor thanks to many travels. During one of them in 1476, his convoy was attacked by the French and he took refuge in Lagos, Portugal, where a large Genoese community was present.

There he met his wife, Filipa Perestrelo e Moniz, who will give him three sons. Columbus will make several trips to the shores of Africa with Portuguese Merchants, learning navigation and cartography. He also becomes aware of the long duration of these coastal voyages along the great continent, and became convinced of the possibility of reaching the Indies by heading directly in high seas to the west. The cornerstone of his belief was Ptolemy's own circumference of the earth was overestimated, and he himself estimated the distance from Europe to Cypango (Japan) to at most 2414 kilometers.

He established a strong case in order to prepare any questioning of the inquisitors, pleading in 1485 his project with King Manuel II. The latter, influenced by hostile advisers, categorically refused. Disappointed, Columbus leaved for Castile and he was accepted at the court of King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile.

But a first verdict is unfavorable to him in 1490. He retains his luck in 1491 and this time, his project is in the process of obtaining the approval of the King. But the demands of Columbus for his titles and the power he asked for on the lands to discover provoked a new refusal. It was the Queen's counselor who finally convinced her to accept the expected benefits of such an expedition.

In August 1492, Columbus was ready to leave with three ships, the Santa Maria, and two small Caravels, the Nina and the Pinta, and 90 men. On October 12, after a difficult and demanding journey for Columbus and especially for his crew accustomed to sailing by coast sight and frightened by stories of monsters and periles in the high seas, threaten the expedition to fail. Columbus, a poor diplomat, narrowly escaped one mutiny, saved by the captain of the Nina, his faithful Martin Pinzon.

On the 12th of October, then, Columbus landed on the island of Guanahani (San Salvador), and greedy for gold, was led by the Indians farther north to Cuba. His expedition finally took foot on the island further west, named at the time Hispaniolia (Haiti). But the sea conditions had made the carrack unusable and she had been used to build a permanent establishment.

A handful of men were left behind, and Columbus set out again on the Nina up-river, joining Pinta earlier to search for gold further to the west. The return was also difficult, but triumphal. He bring back various artifacts, natives and animals, that attracted much interest, but no or little gold,. Despite some reulctance he convinced the court to the constitution of a larger fleet, counting 15 ships and 1500 men in order to establish a durable colony.

He left Cadiz in 1493 and arrived at Hispaniola, discovering the Fort Navidad without any living soul, while the fort was badly damaged leaving survivors dying ofhunger and illness and the hostility of the "Indians" . Columbus therefore started a new colony, called Isabella on another site. He stayed for a while to manage it, with his two brothers. His chief idea was always to find gold, and he went to explore southern Cuba with three caravels. He returned without new discoveries in 1496.

For his third voyage, in 1498, he was able to arm only 8 ships, and had to divert 5 on Hispaniolia because of shortages. Turning to Trinidad he thought he had finally found the continent. But the situation remained worrying to isabella, and colomb is soon accused of being the bad manager.

The King sent his adviser Bogadilla to shed light on these denunciations, and the report led to sending both Colomb brothers to be judged in Spain; Columb is effectively condemned, lost his titles and as a governor of Isabella, but receiving the endorsement for a new exploration mission, his fourth and last trip, in 1502.

This time he explored the shores of Honduras, discovered the isthmus of Panama that he mistook for the passage of Malaysia; But his expedition turned to drama, he lost his ships. He was rescued eventually by the grace of the new governor of Isabella, and returned to Seville where he ended his life without much fame or fortune, passing away in 1506.

São Gabriel

It was the most famous flagship of Vasco da Gama.

Vasco da Gama was born in 1468 in Sines. He was the son of a nobleman of the region, Estevão da Gama, but as a younger brother neither inherited the title nor the land, due to his brother. Frustrated, he had to choose between a career of ecclesiastical or military. This was his last choice. Attempted by adventure, he was very early acquainted with the things of the sea.

An officer, a fierce warrior eager for a title and recognition, confirmed sailor, he took part in numerous expeditions in Africa and the Mediterranean against the Turks. His youth had been lulled by accounts of the voyages undertaken nearly a century before by the first sailors of the African coasts under the impulse of Henry the Navigator.

Conspiracies were thus opened as far as Guinea. Under John II, the Perfect, the attempt was made to go even further, the ultimate goal being to join the Indies where the trade in spices was most profitable. A first expedition in 1482 enabled Diego Cão to reach the mouth of Zaire. Then in 1486, he explored the coasts of Angola. In 1487 Batholomeu Diaz succeeded in reaching the first Cape of Good Hope, and in 1488 doubled it.

In 1487 the King sent Pero da Covilhã by land to contact Oriental potentates to verify the validity of certain information, but especially the establishment of diplomatic relations and possibly an alliance with the mysterious "Priest john" (a legendary sovereign of an Oriental Christian kingdom, possible allusion to Armenia), which would have made it possible to counterbalance Ottomans. But the emissary of the King, pushing into Abyssinia and India, was able to bring back only information on navigation on the East African coasts.

The King had spoken of the courage of Vasco da Gama and entrusted him with several missions. But the history of the expeditions stopped temporarily. John II had to face a serious internal crisis, in particular financial, and was facing the Spanish ambitions. He had to resolve to sign the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, dividing the world between two spheres of influence. The king perished the following year, perhaps poisoned.

His successor, Manuel I, restored the privileges associated with titles of nobility, and Paulo da Gama, Vasco's brother, was given the command of a fleet of exploration to India. But Paulo, suffering, "passed his hand" to his younger brother, recommending him to the King. Vasco found himself thus in 1497 appointed by the King at the head of a small flotilla of three naos. (Or caracas):

It was the São Gabriel, its flagship, São Rafael commanded by its brother Paulo, both of 90 tons, Berrio of 50 tons, commanded by Nicaulo Coelho, and finally an old caravel of 110 tons loaded with provisions and water, commanded by Gonçalo Nunes. The flotilla sailed from Belem on July 8, 1497. She first sacked with the old and famous bartholomew Diaz, at the head of her own expedition to the São Jorge da Mina counter on the West African coast.

The flotilla, first rallying the Canaries, set sail for the Cape Verde islands, to refuel and repair the ships before returning to the sea on August 3, and rejoined the Gulf of Guinea. Bartholomeu left his compatriot by saluting him with a volley of white guns, then Da Gama resumed his journey following the wind, which led him to the open sea in the south-west before the latter turned south and brought back to the east.

93 days passed before the land was reported. The temperature had decreased, the wind was more violent. On the 7th of November he set foot on the coast at a point named by Diaz, Santa Helena. Taking again towards the south after having refueled, the expedition was in sight of the cape on the 18th of November.

Vasco da Gama before Zamorin of Calicut, by painter Veloso Salgado, 1898

But at that moment, the heavy weather and the threatening sky gave the crew a feeling of fear. Vasco saw for himself that the nickname given by Diza of "Cape of Storms" was not usurped. The frail caraques were swept up by the immense blades, the crests of which crumbled without ceasing their oak frames. The hatches had been closed, but the sailors on deck kept bailing.

Da Gama made a series of round trips between the coast and the south, emerging from the storm to obtain a respite, but facing a contrary wind pushing it towards the west, and returning south to take advantage of the strong winds. A look-out informed him as soon as the land was in sight: The ships resumed to the south. In this way he thought, we were going to be able to cross the cape.

If his crew were exhausted and terrified, his resolve was unwavering. At last, on the 25th, after seven days of sailing, the winds of wind were more clever, and the ground was again signaled. The course was finally crossed. They made a release in the same cove where Diaz had completed his expedition years before, refueling and repairing their ships. The last provisions were taken from the old ship-shop ordered by Nunes and burnt as planned.

On the 7th of December Vasco da Gama set out again towards the North. In view of a coast on Christmas Day, he baptized Natal. A storm rejected him on January 11 at the coast where he landed on the "land of good people", baptized as a result of his warm welcome by the natives. On the 23rd he touched land at a place called the land of the "Sinai Bons" in reference to the darker complexion of the inhabitants, a sign of an approaching East.

There they were again warmly welcomed, the inhabitants taking them for Turks; But on the spot Vasco de Gama found neither Christians nor any "priest John" signs. It does not matter: The flotilla remains on the spot 32 days, spent repairing the ships and trying to establish commercial relations.

A good part of the crew is exhausted and sick, and Paulo De Gama, appreciated by men, tries to temper the anger of his brother. On the last day before departure, Vasco de Gama had a stone marker bearing the Royal Portuguese coat of arms, marking his passage. He sailed on the 24th February towards the North.

On 2 March, it is in sight of the island of Mozambique. Again his ploy works. When he disembarked, he and his men disguised themselves as Turks. Everywhere the welcome is warm. Everywhere there are also encouraging signs abounding: They encounter dhows laden with gold, silks, gems and spices.

The local Sultan even agrees to provide them with two pilots to join Calicut. But the Arab merchants present, fearing for their comercial monopoly, denounce the true identity of the Portuguese. The Sultan immediately changed his behavior; Sensing the sulfur, Vasco joins his fleet on two launches when attacked by six armed dhows.

Paulo then intervenes with the Berrio, sending a volley to the address of the ships which fold down on the coast. Vasco da Gama, by retaliation, will bombard the city with his three ships. Then they resumed their journey and on March 7 they stopped at Mombasa. A Portuguese seafarer, who sniffs a trap, prefers to anchor outside the harbor.

That does not prevent his men from disembarking and refueling. warm business relations are even undertaken. Finally the Sultan agrees that the flotilla will be anchored in the harbor. But Vasco da Gama smells a trap and his ships leave, without his two pilots who jumped to the sea and swam to the coast in a moment of inattention.

On 15 April the squadron returned to Malindi, and the local Sultan was friendly. He succeeded in lulling the Portuguese's vigilance, and the latter freed the Moorish hostages captured in Mozambique, while the Sultan agreed to provide them with a Portuguese-speaking pilot as far as Calicut. The squadron resumed the sea on the 24th, and the captain-major, who thought to impress the pilot, Malemo Canaca, showed him a sextant.

The latter, to the great surprise of Vasco da Gama, revealed what he recognized as a "ladder of Jacob", an old measuring instrument brought to Arab scientists by Jewish merchants in the past and, above all, a very detailed Arab map of any the East African coast and India.

On the 20th of May, after having rapidly crossed the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese anchored in the port of Calicut. They are impressed by the splendid architecture, the fountains, the brilliant streets and the parks. The welcome, however, is mixed.

Again, Vasco looks for signs of Christendom and finds none. They are granted a hearing by the Zamorin on 28 May. The Captain-Major brings to Manuel I the portrait of a powerful and influential sovereign in Europe, and the Zamorin sketches his desire to negotiate for an alliance. But the next day, the "presents" granted by Vasco Da Gama to the local ruler, which resemble pale merchandise for natives, displeased him. De Gama forbids himself to be a merchant, but only an ambassador. Little diplomat, he leaves the relationship fester.

The suspicions of the Zamorin, maintained by the Arab merchants, reached the point where he forbade the Captain-Major to return to his ships. He is a prisoner in the palace. Vasco succeeded in contacting one of his men outside and charged him with a message for his brother, asking him to anchor and join Portugal, and to return in force.

But, on the contrary, the latter approaches the coast and prepares to bombard the city. The landemain, the Zamorin agreed to relay Gama, but the resentment of the Moors is palpable. The latter supervise him on his return to the quays, and the captain-major, exasperated, is to draw the sword when his brother intervenes and begins a new commercial relationship. Resentment subsides and business resumes.

But soon, the Zamorin will again change his mind and take hostage the sailors of Sao Gabriel. Finally, Vasco Da Gama will leave Calicut and also take hostages. It will remain off, preparing for a possible return, and ultimately the Zamorin will release the Portuguese hostages, demanding that Vasco do the same, and the return journey could begin on August 29, this time with commercial and diplomatic agreements.

The first stop was on the island of Anjediva, where the forests allowed the three vessels to be repaired and dryed for a fairing. Then the Portuguese took the road again towards Malindi. Unfortunately, the Sao Rafael was the victim of a navigation error and came to be dropped on the coast.

Unusable, it was evacuated and burned. Then the squadron reduced to Sao Gabriel Berrio and resumed his journey, rounded the Cape, joined the Gulf of Guinea, and split into two, Nicolau Coelho on Berrio with the task of directly ralier Lisbon, while Gama was transiting his other caraque to the islands of Cape Verde, to remain with his dying brother. His return was no less triumphant, with 55 men out of the 150 parties a year earlier.

Manuel II thanked him princely, granting him titles and the city of Sines, a living allowance for his descendants. Dom Vasco de Gama, Married to an artist, Catarina de Ataíde, took the title of Count of Vidigueira. In 1502 he was made "Admiral Persian sea, Arabs, Indians, and all the Eastern seas", and invited to take command of a new much more ambitious shipping fleet of 20 carracks and caravels.

This time it is a matter of opening permanent trading posts in India. He sailed from Lisbon on 10 February. On 12 June, he passed through Kilwa, which he bombed on learning of the persecution that had been the victim of Cabral shortly before. The inner demons of Vasco da Gama are then expressed in broad daylight: The admiral sets sail on the red sea that he furrows and ransoms and sinks all the Arab merchant ships he crosses.

But when he crosses paths with a ship from Calicut, he commits the worst: Taking hostage children the edge to make Christians, it sinks the ship with the rest of his crew, not n'pargant women , and then hanged and cut off the hands of his other prisoners, in order to display them in trophies at the Zamorin.

Arriving in Calicut, he demanded that the latter should expel the Arab merchants from the city. In refusing to do so, the latter sees his city bombed two days and two nights by the Portuguese fleet, which nothing stops. Feeling in force, he has signing commercial agreements favorable to Portugal in the Kingdoms of Cochin and Cananor where he establishes counters and then build fortresses on the coast. Then he sets off again to Portugal, the holds full of oriental spices.

On his return to the country, Vasco profited by his titles and position for some twenty years, before the new King John III invited him to attempt a new expedition, with the title of Viceroy of India. In particular, he was to restore the King's authority to the local governors, who took a little too much liberty.

On the 9th of April, 1524, his squadron left Lisbon. But old Dom Vasco da Gama, who had arrived on the spot, could not exercise his authority as Vice-King for three months. Tired and sick, he died on December 25, 1524 in Cochin. Later on a sculpture was erected of a lying figure, which was placed with its remains in the monastery of Geronimos, next to the poet of the Lusiades, Luis de Camões, who for centuries made it a mythical hero.

HMS Mary Rose

HMS Mary Rose
On his accession to the Throne in 1509, Henry VIII inherited the nucleus of a navy created by his father in the form of five ships, including Regent caravans and Sovereign. This fleet could be extended by buying or leasing merchant ships, both domestic and foreign, sometimes transformed into lightly armed warships with archers and some firearms. Other ships could be financed by the nobility.

The Mary Rose is undoubtedly one of the most famous Caraques of the English fleet at that time, more famous than the Great Harry who followed. Faced with the ever-present threat of the French navy, as well as the potentially hostile Scottish fleet, Henry undertook a shipbuilding program, including the Mary Rose.

According to Nam Rodger (The Salvage of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain Vol. 1) the threat of new Scottish vessels, including Michael and Margaret, was undoubtedly the determining factor in the King's decision to extend and reinforce Marine. From a technological point of view, these new ships had nothing to do with the elders, they were heavy caravels rather than clinquarts, equipped with heavy weapons mounted near the waterline.

Although the loss of Mary Rose is well documented, the ship's construction is not. There are, however, some documents that provide important clues as to where and when it was built. A private Venetian letter dated 29/12/1999 referring to an increase in the price of tin because the king manufactures bronze cannons to equip four new ships built in Southampton.

However, neither the names or the tonnage of the vessels are recorded. There is also a mandate given to John Dawtry on 29/1/1510, authorizing a grant of £ 700 for building materials for a 400-ton vessel and a 300-ton vessel. Seven hundred pounds followed by other endowments. The sails, strings, lines, ropes, cables, shrouds, bouyropes, ticks, elevators, top tacks, coils, compasses, racing glasses, bowls, dishes, lanterns, pulleys, provisions and salaries are also noted.

The supposed ships were the Mary Rose and Peter Pomegranate respectively, only two large new ships registered as built in March 1510 in Portsmouth. There was present Robert Brygandine, clerk of the king's ships in 1495 and generating state documents. Some texts even doubt the existence of the ship, called and often confused with the "great galley" of the Tudors.

After its launch Mary Rose participated in the first war of the young Henry VII, which will last from 1511 to 1514. England threatened to the North by Scotland and to the south by the French was the holy league, Spain, Venice and the Papacy.
His alliance with Ferdinand of Aragon, through his Marriage, obtains that the King of Spain will attack France before the end of April 1512. The fleet begins by making sure of the control of the Channel, capturing 12 Bretons and French ships. In June-July under Lord Howard, the fleet led an expedition to Brittany, the troops burning villages and capturing knights for ransom.

After spending some time in repairs the fleet attacks Brest in August. A great battle ensued, the first with ships having these new heavy batteries in portholes. The Mary Rose attacked the French flagship, forcing her to leave the line with 300 dead and injured, her main mast being cut by a shot on goal.

The high point of the battle arises when a "400-tonne ship", probably Peter Pomegranate, knocks out the "Carraque de Brest" or "de la Reine" and the great caraque Marie-la-Cordelière 400 to 1500 tons). The Regent caught fire after the entry of the English, and two thousand men were killed. On the English side, the loss of Sir Thomas Knevet (the captain) and Sir John Carew was lost. The English fleet continued its journey by capturing 32 other ships and then retreated to Dartmouth and Southampton.

Before the campaign of 1513, and after the naval review of Greenwich, the fleet, by order of the King, made a regatta to the Strait of Dover, of which Mary Rose emerged victorious, with the greatest admiration of Lord Howard. Subsequently the caraque with the rest the fleet launched a blockade of Brest and disembarks a company of 1500 men who burns and plunder the coast.

However, the French counter-attack with the fleet of galleys of Pregent de Bidoux, sink an English ship and withdraw to Whitsand Bay near Conquer. Lord Howard will attack these galleys by his boats, galleys and Crayers, two of his admirals embarking. One of them will leave his life and the attack will be a failure. It will even give rise to a certain fear of these Breton galleys, and desertions.

Remember Lord Howard will then wage war against the Scots, sinking the Lion and the Jenett of Purwyn. Later the Scots invaded England but were defeated at the Battle of Flodden. Henry VIII will relaunch the war in France, Mary Rose being implicated of operations allowing the recapture of Therouanne and Tournai, then the siege of Calais in October. The caraque was back in Portsmouth for the winter.

Battle of the Solent in Portsmouth

One hears more about the ship with the Peace signed with France until 1518, its caulking being redone between the 5 of August and 26 of November. When the war was repre- sented in 1522-1525, the Mary Rose remained in support on the coast while an English Army reached 80 kilometers from Paris, aided by the Spaniards and the rebellion of the Duke of Bourbons. But Charles's army is not very reactive and the rebellion fails, while the English army at the bottom runs out and must withdraw, although in Italy at the same time the French army is beaten in Pavia.

The carcass then retreated to Deptford for a complete reconstruction in 1525. The reconstruction is pushed by a complete overhaul at Portsmouth in 1528. Another redesign will take place in 1536. On this date the King of France obtained from the ambassador Prillac the postponement of the three largest units of the fleet, the "Pomegranate", the Mary Rose and the Great Harry.

The war resumed in 1542, but it is not known whether Mary Rose participated in the operations against Scotland or France. What is known however, is that the caraque was in October 1544 in operations off Boulogne, preventing any exit of the French between Douvre and Calais/Boulogne. A battle ensued on 21 June 1545 in Alderney with French galleys (defeat of the last apparently).

However the French line fleet entered the Solent with the intention of crossing the iron with the English fleet in July. This fleet consisted of 200 vessels, including 23 galleys. The English manage to collect 80 ships and prepare for a defensive battle.

The battle of the Solent will see the unexpected end of Mary Rose. Francis I left the ship-admiral Carraquon (burnt) and Admiral D'Annebault made his mark on La Maistresse, en route to the island of White. The battle began with an engagement of the French galleys, after which the Mary Rose sank, under circumstances that still seem unclear.

It is very unlikely that this is the result of the galleys and their weak artillery, their only role being to attract the English towards the bulk of the French fleet. One of the survivors testified that the ship was flying in the wind to the point where its lowest ports were taken by water (this is also the official report of Sir Walter Raleigh and Burchet.) According to John Hooker, Mary Rose began to roll abnormally as soon as the sails were erected, while another reported the indiscipline of the gabiers???, who would not have folded the sails when asked, and afterwards Venetians tried unsuccessfully to refloat the carrack.

The Mary Rose was spotted again in 1836 when a fisherman saw his nets caught in the sandy structure as later discovered by the diver John Deane. He later removed bronze cannons and some artifacts but the wreck returned into the darkness; In 1965, Alexander McKee continued his international attention.

He launched an attempt with his diving club to find the ships of this famous battle of the Solent. He will be able to set up a sonar research with Professor Harold E. Edgerton (MIT) and John Mills, the site being finally discovered and explored from 1968 to 1971. Extraordinary, the Mary Rose will finally be extracted from the mud in 1985, will be treated and protected, then exhibited in a specially designed museum, now an attraction of Portsmouth. This is the only example of a carrack of that time with this level of preservation. The Swedish Vasa, built much later, was a much more modern vessel, with more than 100 years of gap.


Great Carrack of Malta knights Great Carrack of Malta Knights

Tchektirme Turkish Tchektirme, typical cargo

Maltese galley Great Maltese Galley

Ottoman admiral Galley Ottoman Admiral Galley

Ottoman Galiot


Encyclopedia Ships: Gibbons, Ford, Hewson, Gibson
google books the culture of piracy 1580-1630
Google books Venetian ships and shipbuilders from the renaissance
Google books - Exploration in the Renaissance By Lynne Elliott
War at Sea in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance edited by Ernest J King Professor of Maritime History Chairman Maritime History Department and Director Naval War College Museum John B Hattendorf, John B. Hattendorf, Richard W. Unger


Types of Renaissance Ships Jalyne Berry.

Documents (pdf):

Mobility & Space in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe by Mirko Sardelić (Oxford)
History of Cartography in the Renaissance by David Woodward
Shipbuilding Practice and Ship Design Methods From the Renaissance to the 18th Century
Illustrated History of Ships & Boats by Lionel Casson 1964
The origin of the science of hydrostratic stability
About Renaissance cartography and sea monsters

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❢ Abbreviations & acronyms
    AAW// warfare
    AASAmphibious Assault Ship
    AEWAirbone early warning
    AGAir Group
    AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
    AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
    APArmor Piercing
    APCArmored Personal Carrier
    ASMAir-to-surface Missile
    ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
    ASROCASW Rockets
    ASWAnti Submarine Warfare
    ASWRLASW Rocket Launcher
    ATWahead thrown weapon
    avgasAviation Gasoline
    awAbove Waterline
    AWACSAirborne warning & control system
    bhpbrake horsepower
    BLBreach-loader (gun)
    BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
    BUBroken Up
    CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
    CalCaliber or ".php"
    CGMissile Cruiser
    CICCombat Information Center
    C-in-CCommander in Chief
    CIWSClose-in weapon system
    CECompound Expansion (engine)
    ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
    CLCruiser, Light
    CMBCoastal Motor Boat
    CMSCoastal Minesweeper
    CNOChief of Naval Operations
    CpCompound (armor)
    COBCompound Overhad Beam
    CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
    CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
    COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
    COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
    COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
    CRCompound Reciprocating
    CRCRSame, connecting rod
    CruDivCruiser Division
    CPControlled Pitch
    CTConning Tower
    CTLconstructive total loss
    CTOLConv. Take off & landing
    CTpCompound Trunk
    CVAircraft Carrier
    CVA// Attack
    CVE// Escort
    CVL// Light
    CVS// ASW support
    DADirect Action
    DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
    DCDepht Charge
    DCT// Track
    DCR// Rack
    DCT// Thrower
    DEDouble Expansion
    DEDestroyer Escort
    DDE// Converted
    DesRonDestroyer Squadron
    DFDouble Flux
    DPDual Purpose
    DUKWAmphibious truck
    EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
    ECMElectronic Warfare
    ESMElectronic support measure
    FCSFire Control System
    fpsFeet Per Second
    FYFiscal Year
    GMMetacentric Height
    GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
    GRTGross Tonnage
    GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
    HAHigh Angle
    HCHorizontal Compound
    HCR// Reciprocating
    HCDA// Direct Acting
    HCDCR// connecting rod
    HDA// direct acting
    HDAC// acting compound
    HDAG// acting geared
    HDAR// acting reciprocating
    HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
    H/FHigh Frequency
    HF/DF// Directional Finding
    HMSHer Majesty Ship
    HNHarvey Nickel
    HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
    HPHigh Pressure
    HRHorizontal reciprocating
    HRCR// connecting rod
    HSHarbor Service
    HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
    HSET// trunk
    HTHorizontal trunk
    HTE// expansion
    ICInverted Compound
    IDAInverted direct acting
    IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
    ihpindicated horsepower
    IMFInshore Minesweeper
    KCKrupp, cemented
    KNC// non cemented
    LALow Angle
    LCLanding Craft
    LCA// Assault
    LCAC// Air Cushion
    LFC// Flak (AA)
    LCG// Gunboat
    LCG(L)/// Large
    LCG(M)/// Medium
    LCG(S)/// Small
    LCI// Infantry
    LCM// Mechanized
    LCP// Personel
    LCP(R)/// Rocket
    LCS// Support
    LCT// Tanks
    LCV// Vehicles
    LCVP/// Personal
    LCU// Utility
    locolocomotive (boiler)
    LSCLanding ship, support
    LSD// Dock
    LSF// Fighter (direction)
    LSM// Medium
    LSS// Stern chute
    LST// Tank
    LSV// Vehicle
    LPlow pressure
    lwllenght waterline
    MA/SBmotor AS boat
    MGMachine Gun
    MGBMotor Gunboat
    MLMotor Launch
    MMSMotor Minesweper
    MTMilitary Transport
    MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
    HMGHeavy Machine Gun
    MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
    MLMuzzle loading
    MLR// rifled
    MSOOcean Minesweeper
    NCnon condensing
    nhpnominal horsepower
    nmNautical miles
    NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
    NSNickel steel
    NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
    NyDNaval Yard
    OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
    PCPatrol Craft
    PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
    psipounds per square inch
    PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
    QFQuick Fire
    QFC// converted
    RAdmRear Admiral
    RCRreturn connecting rod
    RFRapid Fire
    RPCRemote Control
    rpgRound per gun
    SAMSurface to air Missile
    SARSearch Air Rescue
    SBShip Builder
    SCSub-chaser (hunter)
    SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
    SESimple Expansion
    SET// trunk
    shpShaft horsepower
    SHsimple horizontal
    SOSUSSound Surv. System
    SPRsimple pressure horiz.
    SSSubmarine (Conv.)
    SSMSurface-surface Missile
    sfsteam frigate
    SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
    spfsteam paddle frigate
    STOVLShort Take off/landing
    SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
    tton, long (short in bracket)
    TACANTactical Air Nav.
    TBTorpedo Boat
    TBD// destroyer
    TCTorpedo carriage
    TETriple expansion
    TER// reciprocating
    TFTask Force
    TGBTorpedo gunboat
    TGTask Group
    TLTorpedo launcher
    TLC// carriage
    TSTraining Ship
    TTTorpedo Tube
    UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
    UHFUltra High Frequency
    VadmVice Admiral
    VCVertical compound
    VCE// expansion
    VDE/ double expansion
    VDSVariable Depth Sonar
    VIC/ inverted compound
    VLFVery Low Frequency
    VQL/ quadruple expansion
    VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
    VTE/ triple expansion
    VTOLVertical take off/landing
    VSE/ Simple Expansion
    WTWireless Telegraphy
    xnumber of
    BuShipsBureau of Ships
    DBMGerman Navy League
    GBGreat Britain
    DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    FAAFleet Air Arm
    FNFLFree French Navy
    MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
    MSAMaritime Safety Agency
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    RANRoyal Australian Navy
    RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
    R&DResearch & Development
    RNRoyal Navy
    RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
    ussrUnion of Socialist Republics
    UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
    UNUnited Nations Org.
    USNUnited States Navy
    WaPacWarsaw Pact

⛶ Pre-Industrial Eras

☀ Introduction
☀ Neolithic to bronze age
⚚ Antique
⚜ Medieval
⚜ Renaissance
⚜ Enlightenment

⚔ Naval Battles

⚔ Pre-Industrial Battles ☍ See the page
  • Salamis
  • Cape Ecnomus
  • Actium
  • Red Cliffs
  • Battle of the Masts
  • Yamen
  • Lake Poyang
  • Lepanto
  • Vyborg Bay
  • Svensksund
  • Trafalgar
  • Sinope
⚔ Industrial Era Battles ☍ See the page
⚔ WW1 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page
⚔ WW2 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page

⚔ Crimean War

Austrian Navy ☍ See the page
French Navy ☍ See the page
    Screw Ships of the Line
  • Navarin class (1854)
  • Duquesne class (1853)
  • Fleurus class (1853)
  • Montebello (1852)
  • Austerlitz (1852)
  • Jean Bart (1852)
  • Charlemagne (1851)
  • Napoleon (1850)
  • Sailing Ships of the Line
  • Valmy (1847)
  • Ocean class (1805)
  • Hercules class (1836)
  • Iéna class (1814)
  • Jupiter (1831)
  • Duperré (1840)
  • Screw Frigates
  • Pomone (1845)
  • Isly (1849)
  • Bellone (1853)
  • D’Assas class (1854)
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Primauguet class (1852)
  • Roland (1850)
Royal Navy ☍ See the page
  • Duke of Wellington
  • Conqueror (1855)
  • Marlborough (1855)
  • Royal Albert (1854)
  • St Jean D’Acre (1853)
  • Waterloo (1833
  • Sailing ships of the Line
  • Sailing Frigates
  • Sailing Corvettes
  • Screw two deckers
  • Screw frigates
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Screw guard ships
  • Paddle frigates
  • Paddle corvettes
  • Screw sloops
  • Paddle sloops
  • Screw gunboats
  • Brigs

⚑ 1870 Fleets

Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola ☍ See the Page
  • Numancia (1863)
  • Tetuan (1863)
  • Vitoria (1865)
  • Arapiles (1864)
  • Zaragosa (1867)
  • Sagunto (1869)
  • Mendez Nunez (1869)
  • Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
  • Frigate Tornado (1865)
  • Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
  • Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
  • Dannebrog (1863)
  • Peder Skram (1864)
  • Danmark (1864)
  • Rolf Krake (1864)
  • Lindormen (1868)

  • Jylland CR (1860)
  • Tordenskjold CR (1862)
  • Dagmar SP (1861)
  • Absalon class GB (1862)
  • Fylla class GB (1863)
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Basileos Giorgios (1867)
  • Basilisa Olga (1869)
  • Sloop Hellas (1861)
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine 1870
  • Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
  • De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
  • Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
  • Buffel class turret rams (1868)
  • Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
  • Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
  • Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
  • Adder class Monitors (1870)
  • A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
  • A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
  • Djambi class corvettes (1860)
  • Amstel class Gunboats (1860)
Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
  • Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
  • Screw Frigates (1849-59)
  • Conv. sailing frigates
  • Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
  • Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
  • Paddle Frigates
  • Paddle Corvettes
  • screw sloops
  • screw gunboats
  • Sailing ships of the line
  • Sailing frigates
  • Sailing corvettes
  • Sailing bricks

  • Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
  • Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
  • Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
  • Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
  • Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
  • Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864)
  • Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
  • Taureau arm. ram (1865)
  • Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
  • Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
  • Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

  • Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
  • Talisman cruisers (1862)
  • Resolue cruisers (1863)
  • Venus class cruisers (1864)
  • Decres cruiser (1866)
  • Desaix cruiser (1866)
  • Limier class cruisers (1867)
  • Linois cruiser (1867)
  • Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
  • Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
  • Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
  • Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

  • Curieux class sloops (1860)
  • Adonis class sloops (1863)
  • Guichen class sloops (1865)
  • Sloop Renard (1866)
  • Bruix class sloops (1867)
  • Pique class gunboats (1862)
  • Hache class gunboats (1862)
  • Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
  • Etendard class gunboats (1868)
  • Revolver class gunboats (1869)
Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
  • Barrozo class (1864)
  • Brasil (1864)
  • Tamandare (1865)
  • Lima Barros (1865)
  • Rio de Janeiro (1865)
  • Silvado (1866)
  • Mariz E Barros class (1866)
  • Carbal class (1866)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864)
  • Assari Tewfik (1868)
  • Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
  • Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
  • Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
  • Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
  • Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
  • Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
  • Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
  • Abdul Kadir Battleships (project)

  • Frigate Ertrogul (1863)
  • Selimieh (1865)
  • Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
  • Mehmet Selim (1876)
  • Sloops & despatch vessels
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Marina Do Peru
  • Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
  • CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
  • Turret ship Huascar (1865)
  • Frigate Apurimac (1855)
  • Corvette America (1865)
  • Corvette Union (1865)
Portuguese Navy 1870 Marinha do Portugal
  • Bartolomeu Dias class (28-guns) steam frigates
  • Sagris (14 guns) steam corvette
  • Vasco Da Gama (74 guns) Ship of the Line
  • Dom Fernando I e Gloria (50) Sailing Frigate
  • Dom Joao I class (14 guns) Sailing corvettes
  • Portuguese Side-wheel steamers
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun 1870
  • Ironclad Ruyjo (1868)
  • Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
  • Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
  • Frigate Kasuga (1863)
  • Corvette Asama (1869)
  • Gunboat Raiden (1856)
  • Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
  • Teibo class GB (1866)
  • Gunboat Mushun (1865)
  • Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine 1870
  • Prinz Adalbert (1864)
  • Arminius (1864)
  • Friedrich Carl (1867)
  • Kronprinz (1867)
  • K.Whilhelm (1868)
  • Arcona class Frigates (1858)
  • Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
  • Augusta class Frigates (1864)
  • Jäger class gunboats (1860)
  • Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot 1870
  • Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
  • Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
  • Ironclad Smerch (1864)
  • Pervenetz class (1863)
  • Charodeika class (1867)
  • Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
  • Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
  • Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
  • Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
  • S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
  • S3D Sinop (1860)
  • S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
  • Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
  • Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
  • Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
  • Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
  • Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
  • Almaz class Sloops (1861)
  • Opyt TGBT (1861)
  • Sobol class TGBT (1863)
  • Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
  • Ericsson class monitors (1865)
  • Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
  • Frigate Stockholm (1856)
  • Corvette Gefle (1848)
  • Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
  • Skorpionen class (1866)
  • Frigate Stolaf (1856)
  • Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
  • Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
  • Frigate Vanadis (1862)
  • Glommen class gunboats (1863)
Union Union Navy ☍ See the Page
Confederate Confederate Navy ☍ See the Page
Union 'Old Navy'(1865-1885) ☍ See the Page
  • Dunderberg Bd Ironclad (1865)
  • Wampanoag class frigates (1864)
  • Frigate Chattanooga & Idaho (1864)
  • Frigate Idaho (1864)
  • Java class frigates (1865)
  • Contookook class frigates (1865)
  • Frigate Trenton (1876)
  • Swatara class sloops (1865)
  • Alaska class sloops (1868)
  • Galena class sloops (1873)
  • Enterprise class sloops (1874)
  • Alert class sloops (1873)
  • Alarm torpedo ram (1873)
  • Intrepid torpedo ram (1874)

⚑ 1890 Fleets

Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
  • Parana class (1873)
  • La Plata class (1875)
  • Pilcomayo class (1875)
  • Ferre class (1880)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
  • Custoza (1872)
  • Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
  • Kaiser (1871)
  • Kaiser Max class (1875)
  • Tegetthoff (1878)

  • Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
  • SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
  • SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

  • Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
  • Saida (1878)
  • Fasana (1870)
  • Aurora class (1873)
Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
  • Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
  • Skjold (1896)
  • Cruiser Fyen (1882)
  • Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)
Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Spetsai class (1889)
  • Nauarchos Miaoulis (1889)
  • Greek Torpedo Boats (1881-85)
  • Greek Gunboats (1861-84)
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
  • Gunboat St Michael (1970)
  • Gunboat "1804" (1875)
  • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
  • Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
  • Konigin der Netherland (1874)
  • Draak, monitor (1877)
  • Matador, monitor (1878)
  • R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
  • Evertsen class CDS (1894)
  • Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
  • Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
  • Banda class Gunboats (1872)
  • Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
  • Gunboat Aruba (1873)
  • Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
  • Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
  • Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
  • Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
  • Combok class Gunboats (1891)
  • Borneo Gunboat (1892)
  • Nias class Gunboats (1895)
  • Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
  • Dutch sloops (1864-85)
Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
  • Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
  • Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
  • Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
  • Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
  • Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
  • Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
  • Marceau class barbette ships (1888)

  • Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
  • Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
  • Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
  • Tonnant ironclad (1880)
  • Furieux ironclad (1883)
  • Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Jemmapes class (1892)
  • Bouvines class (1892)

  • La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
  • Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
  • Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
  • Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
  • Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
  • Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
  • Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
  • Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
  • Troude class Cruisers (1888)
  • Alger class Cruisers (1891)
  • Friant class Cruisers (1893)
  • Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
  • Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
  • Linois class Cruisers (1896)
  • D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
  • Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

  • R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
  • Cruiser Tourville (1876)
  • Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
  • Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
  • Villars class Cruisers (1879)
  • Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
  • Cruiser Naiade (1881)
  • Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
  • Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
  • Cruiser Milan (1884)

  • Parseval class sloops (1876)
  • Bisson class sloops (1874)
  • Epee class gunboats (1873)
  • Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
  • Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
  • Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
  • G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
  • Inconstant class sloops (1887)
  • Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
  • Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
  • Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Marinha do Portugal 1898 Marinha do Portugal
Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
  • GB Indipendencia (1874)
  • GB Democrata (1875)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
  • Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
  • Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
  • Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
  • Turkish TBs (1885-94)
Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina
  • Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
  • Caio Duilio class (1879)
  • Italia class (1885)
  • Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
  • Carracciolo (1869)
  • Vettor Pisani (1869)
  • Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
  • Flavio Goia (1881)
  • Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
  • C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
  • Pietro Micca (1876)
  • Tripoli (1886)
  • Goito class (1887)
  • Folgore class (1887)
  • Partenope class (1889)
  • Giovanni Bausan (1883)
  • Etna class (1885)
  • Dogali (1885)
  • Piemonte (1888)
  • Staffeta (1876)
  • Rapido (1876)
  • Barbarigo class (1879)
  • Messagero (1885)
  • Archimede class (1887)
  • Guardiano class GB (1874)
  • Scilla class GB (1874)
  • Provana class GB (1884)
  • Curtatone class GB (1887)
  • Castore class GB (1888)
Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
  • Ironclad Fuso (1877)
  • Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

  • Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
  • Cruiser Takao (1888)
  • Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
  • Cruiser Chishima (1890)
  • Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
  • Cruiser Miyako (1898)

  • Frigate Nisshin (1869)
  • Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
  • Kaimon class CVT (1882)
  • Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
  • Sloop Seiki (1875)
  • Sloop Amagi (1877)
  • Corvette Jingei (1876)
  • Gunboat Banjo (1878)
  • Maya class GB (1886)
  • Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine
  • Ironclad Hansa (1872)
  • G.Kurfürst class (1873)
  • Kaiser class (1874)
  • Sachsen class (1877)
  • Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

  • Ariadne class CVT (1871)
  • Leipzig class CVT (1875)
  • Bismarck class CVT (1877)
  • Carola class CVT (1880)
  • Corvette Nixe (1885)
  • Corvette Charlotte (1885)
  • Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
  • Bussard class (1890)

  • Aviso Zieten (1876)
  • Blitz class Avisos (1882)
  • Aviso Greif (1886)
  • Wacht class Avisos (1887)
  • Meteor class Avisos (1890)
  • Albatross class GBT (1871)
  • Cyclop GBT (1874)
  • Otter GBT (1877)
  • Wolf class GBT (1878)
  • Habitch class GBT (1879)
  • Hay GBT (1881)
  • Eber GBT (1881)
  • Rhein class Monitors (1872)
  • Wespe class Monitors (1876)
  • Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
  • Lima class Cruisers (1880)
  • Chilean TBs (1879)
Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
  • Lindormen (1868)
  • Gorm (1870)
  • Odin (1872)
  • Helgoland (1878)
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy 1898
  • Hotspur (1870)
  • Glatton (1871)
  • Devastation class (1871)
  • Cyclops class (1871)
  • Rupert (1874)
  • Neptune class (1874)
  • Dreadnought (1875)
  • Inflexible (1876)
  • Agamemnon class (1879)
  • Conqueror class (1881)
  • Colossus class (1882)
  • Admiral class (1882)
  • Trafalgar class (1887)
  • Victoria class (1890)
  • Royal Sovereign class (1891)
  • Centurion class (1892)
  • Renown (1895)

  • HMS Shannon (1875)
  • Nelson class (1876)
  • Iris class (1877)
  • Leander class (1882)
  • Imperieuse class (1883)
  • Mersey class (1885)
  • Surprise class (1885)
  • Scout class (1885)
  • Archer class (1885)
  • Orlando class (1886)
  • Medea class (1888)
  • Barracouta class (1889)
  • Barham class (1889)
  • Pearl class (1889)
  • 1870-90 Torpedo Boats
  • Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
    • Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

    • Aragon class (1879)
    • Velasco class (1881)
    • Isla de Luzon (1886)
    • Alfonso XII class (1887)
    • Reina Regentes class (1887)
    • Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
    • Emperador Carlos V (1895)
    • Cristobal Colon (1896)
    • Princesa de Asturias class (1896)

    • Destructor class (1886)
    • Temerario class (1891)
    • TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
    • De Molina class (1896)
    • Furor class (1896)
    • Audaz class (1897)
    • Spanish TBs (1878-87)
    • Fernando class gunboats (1875)
    • Concha class gunboats (1883)
    US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy US Navy 1898☍ See the Page
    • USS Maine (1889)
    • USS Texas (1892)
    • Indiana class (1893)
    • USS Iowa (1896)

    • Amphitrite class (1876)
    • USS Puritan (1882)
    • USS Monterey (1891)

    • Atlanta class (1884)
    • USS Chicago (1885)
    • USS Charleston (1888)
    • USS Baltimore (1888)
    • USS Philadelphia (1889)
    • USS San Francisco (1889)
    • USS Newark (1890)
    • USS New York (1891)
    • USS Olympia (1892)
    • Cincinatti class (1892)
    • Montgomery class (1893)
    • Columbia class (1893)
    • USS Brooklyn (1895)

    • USS Vesuvius (1888)
    • USS Katahdin (1893)
    • USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
    • GB USS Dolphin (1884)
    • Yorktown class GB (1888)
    • GB USS Petrel (1888)
    • GB USS Bancroft (1892)
    • Machias class GB (1891)
    • GB USS Nashville (1895)
    • Wilmington class GB (1895)
    • Annapolis class GB (1896)
    • Wheeling class GB (1897)
    • Small gunboats (1886-95)
    • St Louis class AMC (1894)
    • Harvard class AMC (1888)
    • USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
    • USN Armed Yachts


    ☉ Entente Fleets

    US ww1 US Navy ☍ See the Page
    British ww1 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww1 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Japan ww1 Nihhon Kaigun ☍ See the Page
    Russia ww1 Russkiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Italy ww1 Regia Marina

    ✠ Central Empires

    German Navy 1914 Kaiserliche Marine
    austria-hungary ww1 KuK Kriesgmarine
    turkey ww1 Osmanli Donmanasi
    • Barbarossa class battleships (1892)
    • Yavuz (1914)
    • Cruiser Mecidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Hamidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Midilli (1914)
    • Namet Torpedo cruisers (1890)
    • Sahahani Deria Torpedo cruisers (1892)
    • Destroyers class Berk-Efshan (1894)
    • Destroyers class Yarishar (1907)
    • Destroyers class Muavenet (1909)
    • Berk i Savket class Torpedo gunboats (1906)
    • Marmaris gunboat (1903)
    • Sedd ul Bahr class gunboats (1907)
    • Isa Reis class gunboats (1911)
    • Preveze class gunboats (1912)
    • Turkish WW1 Torpedo Boats
    • Turkish Armed Yachts (1861-1903)
    • Turkish WW1 Minelayers

    ⚑ Neutral Countries

    Argentinian navy Argentina
    Brazilian Navy Brazil
    Chilean Navy 1914 Chile
    Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
    • Gunboat Baire (1906)
    • Gunboat Patria (1911)
    • Diez de octubre class GB (1911)
    • Sloop Cuba (1911)
    Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti
    • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
    • GB Toussaint Louverture (1886)
    • GB Capois la Mort (1893)
    • GB Crete a Pierot (1895)
    Mexican Navy Mexico
    • Cruiser Zatagosa (1891)
    • GB Plan de Guadalupe (1892)
    • Tampico class GB (1902)
    • N. Bravo class GB (1903)
    Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
    • Almirante Grau class (1906)
    • Ferre class subs. (1912)
    Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
    • Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
    • Drski class TBs (1906)
    Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
    • Skjold class (1896)
    • Herluf Trolle class (1899)
    • Herluf Trolle (1908)
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Hekla class cruisers (1890)
    • Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
    • Fyen class crusiers (1882)
    • Danish TBs (1879-1918)
    • Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
    • Danish Minelayer/sweepers
    Greek Royal Navy Greece
    Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
    • Eversten class (1894)
    • Konigin Regentes class (1900)
    • De Zeven Provincien (1909)
    • Dutch dreadnought (project)
    • Holland class cruisers (1896)
    • Fret class destroyers
    • Dutch Torpedo boats
    • Dutch gunboats
    • Dutch submarines
    • Dutch minelayers
    Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
    • Haarfarge class (1897)
    • Norge class (1900)
    • Norwegian Monitors
    • Cr. Frithjof (1895)
    • Cr. Viking (1891)
    • DD Draug (1908)
    • Norwegian ww1 TBs
    • Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
    • Sub. Kobben (1909)
    • Ml. Fröya (1916)
    • Ml. Glommen (1917)
    Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
    • Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
    • Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
    • Sao Gabriel class (1898)
    • Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
    • Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
    • Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
    • Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
    • Portuguese ww1 Gunboats
    Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
    Spanish Armada Spain
    Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
    Chinese navy 1914 China
    Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
    • Maha Chakri (1892)
    • Thoon Kramon (1866)
    • Makrut Rajakumarn (1883)

    ⚏ WW1 3rd/4th rank navies

    ✈ WW1 Naval Aviation

    US naval aviation USN
    • Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
    • Aeromarine 39 (1917)
    • Curtiss H (1917)
    • Curtiss F5L (1918)
    • Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
    • Curtiss NC (1918)
    • Curtiss NC4 (1918)
    • Short 184 (1915)
    • Fairey Campania (1917)
    • Felixtowe F2 (1916)
    • Felixtowe F3 (1917)
    • Felixtowe F5 (1918)
    • Sopwith Baby (1917)
    • Fairey Hamble Baby (1917)
    • Fairey III (1918)
    • Short S38 (1912)
    • Short Admiralty Type 166 (1914)
    • Short Admiralty Type 184 (1915)

    • Blackburn Kangaroo
    • Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter
    • Sopwith Pup
    • Sopwith Cuckoo 1918
    • Royal Aircraft Factory Airships
    German Imperial naval aviation Marineflieger
    • Albatros W.4 (1916)
    • Albatros W.8 (1918)
    • Friedrichshafen Models
    • Gotha WD.1-27 (1918)
    • Hansa-Brandenburg series
    • L.F.G V.19 Stralsund (1918)
    • L.F.G W (1916)
    • L.F.G WD (1917)
    • Lübeck-Travemünde (1914)
    • Oertz W series (1914)
    • Rumpler 4B (1914)
    • Sablatnig SF (1916)
    • Zeppelin-Lindau Rs series
    • Kaiserlichesmarine Zeppelins
    French naval aviation French Naval Aviation
    • Borel Type Bo.11 (1911)
    • Nieuport VI.H (1912)
    • Nieuport X.H (1913)
    • Donnet-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA (1913)
    • Donnet-Denhaut (1915)
    • Borel-Odier Type Bo-T(1916)
    • Levy G.L.40 (1917)
    • Blériot-SPAD S.XIV (1917)
    • Hanriot HD.2 (1918)
    • Zodiac Airships
    Italian naval aviation Italian Naval Aviation
    • Ansaldo SVA Idro (1916)
    • Ansaldo Baby Idro (1915)
    • Macchi M3 (1916)
    • Macchi M5 (1918)
    • SIAI S.12 (1918)
    Russian naval aviation Russian Naval Aviation
    • Grigorovich M-5 (1915)
    • Grigorovich M-9 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-11 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-15 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    ✠ K.u.K. SeeFliegkorps
    • Lohner E (1914)
    • Lohner L (1915)
    • Oeffag G (1916)
    IJN Aviation IJN Air Service
    • IJN Farman 1914
    • Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1917)
    • Yokosuka Igo-Ko (1920)


    ✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

    US ww2 US Navy
    British ww2 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww2 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Soviet ww2 Sovietskiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Koninklije Marine, Dutch Navy ww2 Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    Chinese Navy Chinese Navy 1937 ☍ See the Page

    ✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

    Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    italy ww2 Regia Marina ☍ See the Page
    German ww2 Kriegsmarine ☍ See the Page

    ⚑ Neutral Navies

    Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Armada de Chile Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    Søværnet Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    • Danish ww2 submarines
    • Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers
    Merivoimat Finnish Navy ☍ See the Page
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Greek ww2 Destroyers
    • Greek ww2 submarines
    • Greek ww2 minelayers
    Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser ORP Dragon
    • Cruiser ORP Conrad
    • Brislawicka class Destroyers
    • Witcher ww2 Destroyers
    • Minelayer Gryf
    • Wilk class sub.
    • Orzel class sub.
    • Jakolska class minesweepers
    • Polish Monitors
    Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Douro class DDs
    • Delfim class sub
    • Velho class gb
    • Albuquerque class gb
    • Nunes class sloops
    Romanian Navy Romanian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Romanian ww2 Destroyers
    • Romanian ww2 Submarines
    Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret ☍ See the Page
    • Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    Spanish Armada Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Sverige class CBBs (1915)
    • Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
    • Interwar Swedish CBB projects

    • Tre Kronor class (1943)
    • Gotland (1933)
    • Fylgia (1905)

    • Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
    • Psilander class DDs (1926)
    • Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
    • Romulus class DDs (1934)
    • Göteborg class DDs (1935)
    • Mode class DDs (1942)
    • Visby class DDs (1942)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)

    • Swedish ww2 TBs
    • Swedish ww2 Submarines
    • Swedish ww2 Minelayers
    • Swedish ww2 MTBs
    • Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
    • Swedish ww2 Minesweepers
    Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kocatepe class Destroyers
    • Tinaztepe class Destroyers
    • İnönü class submarines
    • Submarine Dumplumpynar
    • Submarine Sakarya
    • Submarine Gur
    • Submarine Batiray
    • Atilay class submarines
    Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser Dalmacija
    • Dubrovnik class DDs
    • Beograd class DDs
    • Osvetnik class subs
    • Hrabi class subs
    • Gunboat Beli Orao
    Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Taksin class
    • Ratanakosindra class
    • Sri Ayuthia class
    • Puket class
    • Tachin class
    • Sinsamudar class sub
    minor navies Minor Navies ☍ See the Page

    ✈ Naval Aviation

    Latest entries | WW1 | Cold War
    US naval aviation USN aviation ☍ See the Page
    Fleet Air Arm ☍ See the Page
    IJN aviation ☍ See the Page
    • Mitsubishi 1MF (1923)
    • Nakajima A1N (1930)
    • Nakajima A2N (1932)
    • Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" (1935)
    • Nakajima A4N (1935)
    • Mitsubishi A6M "zeke" (1940)
    • Nakajima J1N Gekko "Irving" (1941)
    • Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "George" (1942)
    • Nakajima J5N Tenrai (1944)

    • Aichi S1A Denko* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi A7M reppu* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui* (1945)
    • Mitsubishi J8M2 Shusui-kai* (1945)
    • Kyushu J7W Shinden* (1945)
    • Nakajima J9Y Kikka* (1945)

    • Mitsubishi 1MT (1922)
    • Mitsubishi B1M (1923)
    • Mitsubishi B2M (1932)
    • Kugisho B3Y (1932)
    • Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
    • Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi B5M "Mabel" (1937)
    • Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
    • Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
    • Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
    • Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
    • Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1942)
    • Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
    • Kawanishi P1Y Ginga "Frances" (1943)
    • Kyushu Q1W Tokai "Lorna" (1943)
    • Tachikawa Ki-74 "Patsy" (1944)
    • Nakajima G8N Renzan "Rita" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Nakajima C2N1 (1931)
    • Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
    • Nakajima L1N1 (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K2/4-L (1938)
    • Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
    • Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
    • Mitsubishi L4M1 (1942)
    • Nakajima G5N Shinzan "Liz" (1942)
    • Yokosuka L3Y "Tina" (1942)
    • Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna"(1943)
    • Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
    • Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945)

    • Hiro H1H (1926)
    • Yokosuka E1Y (1926)
    • Nakajima E2N (1927)
    • Aichi E3A (1929)
    • Yokosuka K4Y (1930)
    • Nakajima E4N (1931)
    • Nakajima E8N "Dave" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E7K "Alf" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E11K1 (1937)
    • Aichi E11A "Laura" (1938)
    • Watanabe E9W (1938)
    • Watanabe K8W* (1938)
    • Mitsubishi F1M "pete" (1941)
    • Nakajima E14Y "Glen" (1941)
    • Aichi E13A "Jake" (1941)
    • Aichi H9A (1942)
    • Nakajima A6M2-N (1942)
    • Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" (1943)
    • Aichi E16A "Zuiun" (1944)
    • Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1945)

    • Kawanishi E11K* (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" (1938)
    • Kawanishi K6K* (1938)
    • Kawanishi H6K3 (1939)
    • Kawanishi K8K (1940)
    • Kawanishi H8K "Emily" (1942)
    • Yokosuka H5Y "Cherry" (1936)

    • Mitsubishi 2MR (1923)
    • Yokosho K1Y (1924)
    • Yokosuka K2Y (1928)
    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Hitachi LXG1 (1934)
    • Kyushu K10W "Oak" (1943)
    Italian Aviation ☍ See the Page
    French Aeronavale ☍ See the Page
    • Levasseur PL5/9 (1924)
    • Wibault 74 (1926)
    • CAMS 37 (1926)
    • Gourdou-Leseurre GL.300 series (1926-39)
    • Levasseur PL7 (1928)
    • Levasseur PL10 (1929)
    • Latécoere 290 (1931)
    • Breguet 521/22/23 (1931)
    • Leo H257 bis (1932)
    • Latécoere 300 series (1932)
    • Morane 226 (1934)
    • Dewoitine 376 (1934)
    • Latécoere 321 (1935)
    • Potez 452 (1935)
    • Latécoere 38.1 (1936)
    • Loire 210 (1936)
    • Leo H43 (1936)
    • Levasseur PL107 (1937)
    • Loire 130 (1937)
    • Dewoitine HD.730 (1938)
    • Latecoere 298 (1938)
    • LN 401 (1938)
    Soviet Naval Aviation
    Luftwaffe (Naval) ☍ See the Page
    • Arado 197 (1937)
    • Fieseler Fi-167 (1938)
    • Junkers Ju-87C (1938)
    • Messerschmitt Me 109T (1941)
    • Messerschmitt 155 (1944)

    • Heinkel HE 1 (1921)
    • Caspar U1 (1922)
    • Dornier Do J Wal (1922)
    • Dornier Do 16 ‘Wal’ (1923)
    • Heinkel HE 2 (1923)
    • Junkers A 20/Ju 20 (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro II (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro III (1924)
    • Dornier Do D (1924)
    • Dornier Do E (1924)
    • Junkers G 24 (1924)
    • Rohrbach Ro IV (1925)
    • Heinkel HD 14 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 25 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 26 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 24 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 4 (1926)
    • Junkers W 33/34 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 5 (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro VII Robbe (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro V Rocco (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 31 (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 8 (1927)
    • Arado W II (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 9 (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 16 (1928)
    • Heinkel He 55 (1929)
    • Heinkel He 56 (1929)
    • Arado SSD I (1930)
    • Junkers Ju 52w (1930)
    • Heinkel HE 42 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 50 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 59 (1931)
    • Arado Ar 66 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 58 (1932)
    • Junkers Ju 46 (1932)
    • Klemm Kl 35bW (1932)
    • Heinkel He 62 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 60 (1933)
    • Heinkel He 51w (1933)
    • Arado Ar 95 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 196 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 199 (1939)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 139 (1936)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 138 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 140 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 222 (1938)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 238 (1942)
    • Dornier Do 24/318 (1937)
    • Dornier Do 18 (1935)
    • Dornier Do 26 (1938)
    • Dornier Do 22 (1938)
    • DFS Seeadler (1936)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 58W (1935)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 62 (1937)
    • Heinkel He 114 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 115 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 119 (1936)
    Dutch Naval Aviation
    • Fokker W.3 (1915)
    • Fokker T.II (1921)
    • Fokker B.I/III (1922)
    • Fokker B.II (1923)
    • Fokker T.III (1924)
    • Fokker T.IV (1927)
    • Fokker B.IV (1928)
    • Fokker C.VII W (1928)
    • Fokker C.VIII W (1929)
    • Fokker C.XI W (1934)
    • Fokker C.XIV-W (1937)
    • Fokker T.VIII-W (1939)

    ☢ The Cold War


    Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot ☍ See the Page
    Warsaw Pact cold war navy Warsaw Pact Navies ☍ See the Detail
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • Volksmarine East Germany
    • Parchim class corvettes (1985)
    • Hai class sub-chasers (1958)
    • Volksmarine's minesweepers
    • Volksmarine's FAC
    • Volksmarine's Landing ships
    • ORP Warzsawa (1970)
    • ORP Kaszub (1986)
    • Polish Landing ships
    • Polish FACs
    • Polish Patrol ships
    • Polish Minesweepers
    • Missile Destroyer Muntenia (1982)
    • Tetal class Frigates (1981)
    • Romanian river patrol crafts

    ✦ NATO

    bundesmarine Bundesmarine ☍ See the Page
    Dutch Navy Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)
    • Frigate Beskytteren (1976)
    • Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)
    • Thetis class frigates (1989)
    • Bellona class corvettes (1955)
    • Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

    • Delfinen class submarines (1958)
    • Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

    • Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)
    • Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)
    • Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)
    • Soloven class Torpedo Boats (1962)
    • Willemoes class FAC (1976)
    • Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)
    • Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)
    • Danish Minelayers
    • Danish Minesweepers
    Dutch Navy Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    • CV Karel Doorman (1948)
    • De Zeven Provinciën class cruisers (1945)
    • Holland class DDs (1953)
    • Friesland class DDs (1953)
    • Roodfier class Frigates (1953)
    • Frigate Lynx (1954)
    • Van Speijk class Frigates (1965)
    • Tromp class Frigates (1973)
    • Kortenaer class frigates (1976)
    • Van H. class Frigates (1983)
    • K. Doorman class Frigates (1988)
    • Dolfijn clas sub. (1959)
    • Zwaardvis class subs. (1970)
    • Walrus class subs. (1985)
    • ATD Rotterdam (1990s)
    • Dokkum class minesweepers (1954)
    • Alkmaar class minesweepers (1982)
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hydra class FFs (1990)
    • Greek cold war Subs
    • Greek Amphibious ships
    • Greek MTBs/FACs
    • Greek Patrol Vessels
    Eire Irish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eithne class PBs (1983)
    • Cliona class PBs
    • Deidre/Emer class PBs
    • Orla class fast PBs
    Marina Militare Marina Militare ☍ See the Page
      Aircraft Carriers
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1983)
    • Conte di Cavour (2004)*
    • Trieste (2022)*
    • Cruisers
    • Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)
    • Doria class H. cruisers (1962)
    • Vittorio Veneto (1969)
    • Destroyers

    • Impetuoso class (1956)
    • Impavido class (1957)
    • Audace class (1971)
    • De La Penne class (1989)
    • Orizzonte class (2007)*
    • Frigates
    • Grecale class (1949)
    • Canopo class (1955)
    • Bergamini class (1960)
    • Alpino class (1967)
    • Lupo class (1976)
    • Maestrale class (1981)
    • Bergamini class (2013)*
    • Thaon di Revel class (2020)*
    • Corvettes (OPV)
    • Albatros class (1954)
    • De Cristofaro class (1965)
    • Minerva class (1987)
    • Cassiopeia class (1989)
    • Esploratore class (1997)*
    • Sirio class (2003)*
    • Commandanti class (2004)*
    • Submarines
    • Toti class (1967)
    • Sauro class (1976)
    • Pelosi class (1986)
    • Sauro class (1992)*
    • Todaro class (2006)*
    • Attack/Amphibious ships
    • San Giorgio LSD (1987)
    • Gorgona class CTS (1987)
    • Italian Landing Crafts (1947-2020)
    • Misc. ships
    • Folgore PB (1952)
    • Lampo class PBs (1960)
    • Freccia class PBs (1965)
    • Sparviero class GMHF (1973)
    • Stromboli class AOR (1975)
    • Anteo SRS (1980)
    • Etna class LSS (1988)
    • Vulcano AOR (1998)*
    • Elettra EWSS (2003)*
    • Etna AOR (2021)*
    • Mine warfare ships
    • Lerici class (1982)
    • Gaeta class (1992)*
    Marine Française Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    • Jean Bart (1949)
    • Aircraft/Helicopter carriers
    • Dixmude (1946)
    • Arromanches (1946)
    • Lafayette class light carriers (1954)
    • PA 28 class project (1947)
    • Clemenceau class (1957)
    • Jeanne d'Arc (1961)
    • PA 58 (1958)
    • PH 75/79 (1975)
    • Charles de Gaulle (1994)

    • Cruisers
    • De Grasse (1946)
    • Chateaurenault class (1950)
    • Colbert (1956)

    • Destroyers
    • Surcouf class (1953)
    • Duperre class (1956)
    • La Galissonniere class (1960)
    • Suffren class (1965)
    • Aconit (1970)
    • Tourville class (1972)
    • G. Leygues class (1976)
    • Cassard class (1985)

    • Frigates
    • Le Corse class (1952)
    • Le Normand class (1954)
    • Cdt Riviere class (1958)
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Lafayette class (1990)

    • Corvettes
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Floreal class (1990)

    • Submarines
    • La Creole class (1940)
    • Narval class (1954)
    • Arethuse class (1957)
    • Daphne class (1959)
    • Gymnote test SSBN (1964)
    • Le Redoutable SSBN (1967)
    • Agosta SSN (1974)
    • Rubis SSN (1979)
    • Amethyste SSN (1988)
    • Le Triomphant SSBN (started 1989)

    • Amphibian Ships
    • Issole (1958)
    • EDIC class (1958)
    • Trieux class (1958)
    • Ouragan lass (1963)
    • Champlain lass (1973)
    • Bougainville (1986)
    • Foudre class (1988)
    • CDIC lass (1989)

    • Misc. ships
    • Le Fougueux class (1958)
    • La Combattante class (1964)
    • Trident class (1976)
    • L'Audacieuse class (1984)
    • Grebe class (1989)
    • Sirius class (1952)
    • Circe class (1972)
    • Eridan class (1979)
    • Vulcain class (1986)
    RCAN RCAN ☍ See the Page
    • HCMS Bonaventure (1957)
    • St Laurent class DDE (1951)
    • Algonquin class DDE (1952)
    • Restigouche class DDs (1954)
    • Mackenzie class DDs (1961)
    • Annapolis class DDH (1963)
    • Iroquois class DDH (1970)

    • River (mod) 1955
    • Tribal class FFs (Pjct)
    • City class DDH (1988)

    • Ojibwa class sub. (1964)
    • Kingston class MCFV (1995)
    Royal Navy Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cold War Aircraft Carriers
    • Centaur class (1947)
    • HMS Victorious (1957)
    • HMS Eagle (1946)
    • HMS Ark Royal (1950)
    • HMS Hermes (1953)
    • CVA-01 class (1966 project)
    • Invincible class (1977)

    • Cold War Cruisers
    • Tiger class (1945)

    • Destroyers
    • Daring class (1949)
    • 1953 design (project)
    • Cavendish class (1944)
    • Weapon class (1945)
    • Battle class (1945)
    • FADEP program (1946)
    • County class GMD (1959)
    • Bristol class GMD (1969)
    • Sheffield class GMD (1971)
    • Manchester class GMD (1980)
    • Type 43 GMD (1974)

    • British cold-war Frigates
    • Rapid class (1942)
    • Tenacious class (1941)
    • Whitby class (1954)
    • Blackwood class (1953)
    • Leopard class (1954)
    • Salisbury class (1953)
    • Tribal class (1959)
    • Rothesay class (1957)
    • Leander class (1961)
    • BB Leander class (1967)
    • HMS Mermaid (1966)
    • Amazon class (1971)
    • Broadsword class (1976)
    • Boxer class (1981)
    • Cornwall class (1985)
    • Duke class (1987)

    • British cold war Submarines
    • T (conv.) class (1944)
    • T (Stream) class (1945)
    • A (Mod.) class (1944)
    • Explorer class (1954)
    • Strickleback class (1954)
    • Porpoise class (1956)
    • Oberon class (1959)
    • HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
    • Valiant class SSN (1963)
    • Resolution class SSBN (1966)
    • Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
    • Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
    • Upholder class (1986)
    • Vanguard class SSBN (started)

    • Assault ships
    • Fearless class (1963)
    • HMS Ocean (started)
    • Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
    • Sir Galahad (1986)
    • Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
    • Brit. LCVPs (1963)
    • Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

    • Minesweepers/layers
    • Ton class (1952)
    • Ham class (1947)
    • Ley class (1952)
    • HMS Abdiel (1967)
    • HMS Wilton (1972)
    • Hunt class (1978)
    • Venturer class (1979)
    • River class (1983)
    • Sandown class (1988)

    • Misc. ships
    • HMS Argus ATS (1988)
    • Ford class SDF (1951)
    • Cormorant class (1985)
    • Kingfisger class (1974)
    • HMS Jura OPV (1975)
    • Island class OPVs (1976)
    • HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
    • Castle class OPVs (1980)
    • Peacock class OPVs (1982)
    • MBT 538 class (1948)
    • Gay class FACs (1952)
    • Dark class FACs (1954)
    • Bold class FACs (1955)
    • Brave class FACs (1957)
    • Tenacity class PCs (1967)
    • Brave class FPCs (1969)
    Armada de espanola - Spanish cold war navy Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    • Dédalo aircraft carrier (1967)
    • Principe de Asturias (1982)

    • Alava class DDs (1946)
    • Audaz class DDs (1955)
    • Oquendo class DDs (1956)
    • Roger de Lauria class (1967)

    • Baleares class FFs (1971)
    • Descubierta class FFs (1978)
    • Numancia class FFs (1987)

    • Pizarro class gunboats (1944)
    • Artevida class Cvs (1952)
    • Serviola class Cvs (1990)
    • Spanish cold-war submarines
    • Spanish FACs
    • Spanish Minesweepers
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Tre Kronor class (1946)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)
    • Halland class DDs (1952) (1945)
    • Ostergotland class DDs (1956)
    • Spica III class Corvettes (1984)
    • Goteborg class Corvettes (1989)

    • U1 class subs (mod.1963)
    • Hajen class subs (1954)
    • Sjoormen class subs (1967)
    • Nacken class subs (1978)
    • Vastergotland class subs (1986)
    • Gotland class subs (1995)

    • T32 class MTBs (1951)
    • T42 class MTBs (1955)
    • Plejad class FACs (1951)
    • Spica I class FACs (1966)
    • Spica II class FACs (1972)
    • Hugin class FACs (1973)
    • Swedish Patrol Boats
    • Swedish minesweepers
    • Swedish Icebreakers
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters
    Turkish Navy Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Berk class FFs (1971)
    • Atilay class sub. (1974)
    • Cakabey class LST
    • Osman Gazi class LST
    • Turkish Fast Attack Crafts
    • Turkish Patrol Boats
    US Navy USN (cold war) ☍ See the Page

    ☯ ASIA

    Chinese Navy ☍ See the Page
    Indian Navy Indian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Vikrant class CVs (1961)
    • Viraat class CVs (1986)

    • Cruiser Delhi (1948)
    • Cruiser Mysore (1957)
    • Raja class DDs (1949)
    • Rajput class DDs (1980)
    • Delhi class DDs (1990)

    • Khukri class FFs (1956)
    • Talwar class FFs (1958)
    • Brahmaputra class FFs (1957)
    • Nilgiri class FFs (1968)
    • Godavari class FFs (1980)

    • Kusura class subs (1970)
    • Shishumar class subs (1984)
    • Sindhugosh class subs (1986)

    • Indian Amphibious ships
    • Indian corvettes (1969-90)
    • Khukri class corvettes (1989)
    • SDB Mk.2 class PBs (1977)
    • Vikram class OPVs (1979)
    • Sukanya class OPVs (1989)
    Indonesia Indonesian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Fatahilla class Frigates (1977)
    • Pattimura class corvettes (1956)
    • Indonesian Marines
    • Indonesian Mine Vessels
    • Indonesian FAC/OPVs
    JMSDF JMSDF ☍ See the Page
      JMSDF Destroyers
    • Harukaze class DD (1955)
    • Ayanami class DD (1957)
    • Murasame class DD (1958)
    • Akizuki class DD (1959)
    • Amatukaze missile DD (1963)
    • Yamagumo class DDE (1965)
    • Takatsuki class DD (1966)
    • Minegumo class DDE (1967)
    • Haruna class DDH (1971)
    • Tachikaze class DD (1974)
    • Shirane class DDH (1978)
    • Hatsuyuki class DDs (1980)
    • Hatakaze class DDs (1984)
    • Asigiri class DDs (1986)
    • Kongo class DDs (started 1990)

    • JMSDF Frigates
    • Akebono class FFs (1955)
    • Isuzu class FFs (1961)
    • Chikugo class FFs (1970)
    • Ishikari class FFs (1980)
    • Yubari class FFs (1982)
    • Abukuma class FFs (1988)

    • JMSDF submarines
    • Oyashio class Sub. (1959)
    • Hayashio class Sub. (1961)
    • Natsushio class Sub. (1963)
    • Oshio class Sub. (1964)
    • Uzushio class Sub. (1970)
    • Yushio class Sub. (1979)
    • Harushio class Sub. (1989)

    • JMSDF Misc. ships
    • Japanese Landing Ships
    • Japanese Large Patrol Ships
    • Japanese Patrol Crafts
    • Japanese Minesweepers
    • Japanese Sub-chasers
    North Korean Navy North Korean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Najin class Frigates
    • Experimental Frigate Soho
    • Sariwan class Corvettes

    • Sinpo class subs.
    • Sang-O class subs.
    • Yono class subs.
    • Yugo class subs.

    • Hungnam class LCM
    • Hante class LST
    • Songjong class HVC
    • Sin Hung/Ku Song FACs
    • Anju class FACs
    • Iwon class FACs
    • Chaho class FACs
    • Hong Jin class FAC-G
    • Sohung class MTBs
    • Sinpo class MTBs
    • Nampo class FALC
    Philippines Navy Philippines Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Datu Kalantian class Frigates (1976)
    • Bacolod City class LS(L)
    • Philippino Patrol Crafts
    Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN ☍ See the Page
    • Ulsan class frigates (1980)
    • Pohang class corvettes (1984)
    • Dong Hae class corvettes (1982)
    • Han Kang class patrol corvettes (1985)
    • Chamsuri (PKM 268) PBs (1978)
    • ROKS coast guard vessels
    • Paek Ku class FAC (1975)
    • Kang Keong class minehunters (1986)
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters


    Israeli Navy IDF Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eilat class Corvettes (1993)
    • SAAR 5 Project
    • SAAR 1 FAC
    • SAAR 4 FAC
    • SAAR 4.5 FAC
    • Dvora class FAC
    • Shimrit class MHFs
    • IDF FACs/PBs
    • Etzion Geber LST
    • Ash class LCT
    Iranian Navy Iranian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Destroyer Artemiz (1965)
    • Bayandor class FFs (1963)
    • Alvand class FFs (1969)
    • Khalije Fars class DDs (2016)*


    Australian Navy RAN ☍ See the Page
    • HMAS Sydney (1948*)
    • HMAS Melbourne (1955*)
    • Tobruk class DDs (1947)
    • Voyager class DDs (1952)
    • Perth class MDD (1963)
    • Quadrant class FFs (1953)
    • Yarra class FFs (1958)
    • Swan class FFs (1967)
    • Adelaide class MFFs (1978)
    • Anzac class MFFs (1990s)
    • Oxley class subs (1965)
    • Collins class subs (1990s)
    • Australian Amphibious ships
    • Fremantle class PBs
    RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy ☍ See the Page
    • HMNZS Royalist (1956)
    • Pukaki class patrol Crafts (1974)
    • Moa class patrol crafts (1983)
    • HMNZS Aotearoa (2019)*

    ☩ South America

    Armada de argentina Argentina ☍ See the Page
    • ARA Independencia (1958)
    • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (1968)
    • Belgrano class cruisers (1951)
    • Almirante Brown class Frigates (1981)
    • Mantilla class corvettes (1981)
    • Espora class corvettes (1982)
    • Salta class submarines (1972)
    • Santa Cruz class submarines (1982)
    Brazilian Navy Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Minas Gerais aircraft carrier (1956)
    • Cruiser Barroso (1951)
    • Cruiser Tamandare (1951)
    • Acre class destroyers (1945)
    • Niteroi class Frigates (1974)
    • Ihnauma class Frigate (1986)
    • Tupi class submarines (1987)
    • Brazilian patrol ships
    Chilean Navy Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • O'Higgins class cruisers
    • Lattore Cruiser (1971)
    • Almirante class destroyers (1960)
    • Prat class M. Destroyers (1982)
    • Almirante Lynch class Frigates (1972)
    • Thomson class subs (1982)
    • Small surface combatants
    Peruvian Navy Peruvian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Almirante Grau(ii) class
    • Almirante Grau(iii) class
    • Abtao class sub.
    • PR-72P class corvettes
    • Velarde class OPVs

    ℣ AFRICA

    Egyptian Navy Egyptian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • October class FAC/M (1975)
    • Ramadan class FAC/M (1979)
    SADF South African Navy ☍ See the Page
    ☫ Minor cold war/modern Navies Algerian NavyAzerbaijani NavyBangladesh NavyBarheini NavyBolivian NavyCambodian NavyComoros NavyCosta Rica NavyCroatian NavyCuban NavyDjibouti NavyDominican Republic NavyEquadorian NavyEstonian NavyEthiopian NavyFinnish NavyGeorgian NavyHaitian NavyHonduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

    ✚ MORE

    ⚔ Cold War Naval Events
    • ⚔ Indochina War naval ops
    • ⚔ Korean War naval ops
    • ⚔ 1956 intervention in Suez
    • ⚔ 1960 Cuban crisis
    • ⚔ 1960 US/Soviet compared strenghts
    • ⚔ 1963-69 Algerian war naval ops
    • ⚔ Naval warfare in Vietnam
    • ⚔ Middle East naval fights
    • ⚔ 1980 Falkland wars
    • ⚔ 1990 Gulf War
    ⚔ Modern Navies
    ✈ Cold War Naval Aviation See the full section
    • Grumman Mallard 1946
    • Edo OSE-1 1946
    • Short Solent 1946

    • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
    • Grumman Albatross 1947
    • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
    • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
    • Short Sealand 1947

    • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
    • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
    • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
    • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
    • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949

    • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
    • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
    • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
    • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)

    • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
    • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955

    • Ikarus Kurir H 1957

    • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
    • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
    • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
    • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
    • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
    • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
    • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984

    • Patrol Planes
    • ATR 42 MP Surveyor (Italy, 1984)
    • ATR 72 MP (Italy 1988)

    • ATR 72 ASW (France, 1988)
    • Breguet Atlantic (France 1965)
    • Nord 1402 Noroit (France 1949)

    • Avro Shackleton (UK 1949)
    • BAE Nimrod MRA4 (UK 2004)
    • Britten-Norman Defender/Islander (UK 1970)
    • Fairey Gannet (UK 1949)
    • Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod (UK 1967)

    • Beechcraft King Air (USA 1963)
    • Basler BT-67 (USA 1990)
    • Boeing 737 Surveiller (USA 1967)
    • Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA 2009)
    • Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA, 1945)
    • Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA 1959)
    • Martin P4M Mercator (USA 1946)
    • Convair P5Y (USA 1950)
    • Douglas/BSAS Turbo Dakota (USA 1991)

    • Bombardier DHC-8 MPA/MSA (Can 2007)
    • Canadair CP-107 Argus (Can 1957)

    • CASA C-212 MPA (Spain 1971)
    • CASA/IPTN CN-235 MPA/HC-144 Ocean Sentry (Spain 1983)
    • CASA C-295 MPA (Spain 1997)

    • Diamond DA42 Guardian (Austria 2002)

    • Dornier 228 (Germany 1981)

    • Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante (Brazil 1968)
    • Embraer R-99 (Brazil 2001)
    • Embraer P-99 (Brazil 2003)

    • Fokker F27 200-MAR (NL 1955)
    • Fokker F27 Maritime Enforcer (NL 1955)

    • IAI 1124N Sea Scan (Israel 1977)

    • Kawasaki P-1 (Japan 2007)
    • Kawasaki P-2J (Japan 1966)

    • Saab Swordfish (Sweden 2016)
    • Shaanxi Y-8F,Q,X (China 1984)
    • Short Seavan (UK 1976)

    • Beriev Be-8 1947
    • Beriev Be-6 1949
    • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
    • Beriev Be-10 1956
    • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
    • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986
    • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
    • Ilyushin Il-38 'May' (USSR 1967)
    • Myasishchev 3M/3MD (USSR 1956)
    • Tupolev Tu-16T/PL/R/RM/SP (USSR 1952)
    • Tupolev Tu-95MR (USSR 1961)
    • Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR 1968)

    • Carrier Planes
    • Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
    • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
    • Douglas A2D Skyshark
    • Douglas AD Skyraider
    • Douglas F3D Skynight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Grumman A-6 Intruder
    • Grumman AF Guardian
    • Grumman C-1 Trader
    • Grumman C-2 Greyhound
    • Grumman E-1 Tracer
    • Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
    • Grumman EA-6B Prowler
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F9F Panther
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat ➚
    • Grumman S-2 Tracker
    • Lockheed Martin F-35B
    • Lockheed S-3 Viking ➚
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
    • McDonnell FH Phantom
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
    • McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
    • North American A-5 Vigilante
    • North American AJ Savage
    • North American FJ Fury
    • North American T-2 Buckeye
    • North American T-28 Trojan
    • Vought A-7 Corsair
    • Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Vought F6U Pirate
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    • Boeing EA-18G Growler
    • RN
    • Blackburn Buccaneer
    • Boulton Paul Sea Balliol
    • BAe Sea Harrier
    • de Havilland Sea Vampire
    • de Havilland Sea Venom
    • de Havilland Sea Vixen
    • Fairey Gannet
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Short Seamew
    • Westland Wyvern
    • Marine Nationale
    • Breguet Alizé
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Étendard
    • Dassault Rafale M
    • Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr M
    • SNCASE Aquilon
    • Soviet Navy
    • Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP
    • Sukhoi Su-33
    • Yakovlev Yak-38

    Navy Helicopters
      Chinese PLAN:
    • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
    • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
    • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
    • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
    • Italy:
    • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
    • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
    • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
    • India:
    • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
    • France:
    • Alouette II (1955)
    • Alouette III (1959)
    • Super Frelon (1965)

    • Cougar ()
    • Panther ()
    • Super Cougar H225M ()
    • Fennec ()
    • MH-65 Dolphin ()
    • UH-72 Lakota ()
    • Germany:
    • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
    • NHIndustries NH90
    • Japan:
    • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
    • Poland:
    • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
    • Romania:
    • IAR 330M (1975)
    • United Kingdom:
    • Westland Lynx (1971)
    • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
    • Westland Sea King (1969)
    • Westland Wasp (1962)
    • Westland Wessex (1958)
    • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
    • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
    • USA:
    • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
    • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
    • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
    • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
    • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
    • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
    • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
    • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
    • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
    • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
    • ussr:
    • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
    • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
    • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
    • Ka-31 (1987)
    • Ka-35 (2015)
    • Ka-40 (1990)
    • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
    • Mil Mi-4 (1952)
    Civilian ♆ WW1 US Shipping Board
    MORE !