A Long lineage and new standard: Novik (1911)

Russian Empire/Soviet Navy 1910-1941
In destroyer history, there are a few landmarks most authors agrees upon. Let's cite for example the Spanish Destructor in 1886, recoignized generally as the earliest torpedo boat destroyer, the British Daring class in 1893, the US Bainbridge class inaugurated their own lineages, the massive HMS Swift in 1907, unhappy pet project of Sir "Jackie" Fisher or the much smaller, but more practical and innovative River class in 1903, the Shakespeare class (1916) Destroyer leaders, announcing the interwar standard, the 1917-21 Wickes/Clemson of first mass-production models, or the Fubuki class in 1926 or "special type" which also defined a new standard for the Pacific... But in between is also Novik, considered by most authors as a landmark for destroyer design in 1911.

Indeed, the first vessel of that name was a prototype, built in Germany on Russian ideas. Novik was the forerunner of a new generation of Russian fleet destroyers which counted no less than 52 ships, within four classes: The Derzky-class, Orfey, Izyaslav and Fidonisy-class destroyers. This post will be followed by these classes, treated one by one on their own dedicated post in detail.

Novik was the world's first oil-burning destroyer, and the first Russian destroyer with steam turbines as well. It became with an unmatched powerplant at the time, the world's fastest ship, beating all categories. And as a destroyer, extremely well armed with no less than four 102 mm (4.0 in) guns and eight torpedo tubes in twin banks. The following will stick with these figures, sharing the same hull, powerpant and general design. This was quite a formidable new standard and in this pre-dreadnought age, all admiralties took notice, from Berlin to London, Paris, Rome, New York and Tokyo. Unlike previous generation, they all survived WWI and the civil war, and were preciously maintained by the Soviet Navy, renamed, and seeing a fair share of action in WW2 as well.

Origins and Development

The admiralty's destroyers in 1908:

Three years after the devastating defeat of their war with the Japanese, the crippling losses of Tsushima, of the Pacific and Baltic sea fleets combined, a serious train of reform, a walz of officers and ministers equalled a "great reset" at the head of the Naval Staff. None was spared the maelstrom of mutations. Severe criticism about the Navy, albeit not made public, had for effect to put it back in shape, on a time schedule which was to end with the start on WWI. Like many other navies (and like in 1941), the Russian Navy was caught off-guard by the start of the war.

One aspect that was criticized, was the total lack of adequate support for the Battleships during the Battle of the Yellow sea in 1904 and Tsushima in 1905. Admiralties indeed had no plans to screen their precious battleships with a buffer of expandable vessels used for reconnaissance and protection: Fleet destroyers.

Special committee for the Navy's reinforcement:

Emphasis on mine and torpedo warfare shown in this war shown the potential capabilities of more capable Destroyers, even their capabilities as "universal ships" carrying out torpedo attacks, patrol, minelaying, and even coastal bombardment as well as fleet screening. The last war involved 18 minelayers, enlarged version of the standard 350-ton destroyers as the basis of the mine forces ordered with funds raised by the "Special Committee for Strengthening the Navy", based on voluntary donations.

These Minelayers were more advanced ships at 600-700 tons, with improved seaworthiness and enhanced armament, but could not fully fulfill escort tasks for largeer ships in any sea state. The "Special Committee" secured 2 million rubles to spend on construction of a new type of ship taking into account the experience and new set of requirements.

Thus, Novik was financed by donations during the 1904-1905 war. The design was subjected to delays due to the study of numerous reports, a compilation of experiences. They were supposed to be very fast, in part as an active protection against rapid-fire guns, delivering a powerful torpedo broadside (eight or ten was envisioned, or even more), completed by artillery if needed, or to lay "active" minefields in the path of an approaching battlefleet, an idea that was to have a long reach in the Russian naval staff, well into the Soviet era.

December 1905 Reunion

By December 1905, the Marine Technical Committee (MTC) held a meeting presided by the commander of the 2nd Pacific squadron, Z. P. Rozhestvensky. The development of a new minelaying force was decided. Some participants proposed new minelayers with increased displacement, others supported the idea of small destroyers for coastal defense, also capable of minelaing. The majority, so 14 versus 9 wanted specialized "mine cruisers". Characteristics proposed were a speed of 28-30 knots, 6-8 long-barreled guns (with two 120 mm, six 47 mm or four 75 mm) plus four machine guns and three 450 mm torpedo tube banks. They were to be given oil fired steam boilers for a range of at least 3,000 miles at 12 knots.

Rozhdestvensky wanted tro limit the tonnage to 750 tons, but it was not accepted as unrealistic. The machinery type, VTE or turbines, remained open oto discussion. Mechanical engineers present wanted to push for steam turbines. Particular attention was paid also to structural strength of the hull and absence of vibrations at full speed, also important for the latter and construction engineers, which also played on the powerplant type. As a result, no form decision was made, but this was the starting point for further development, which later ended with a new type of turbine destroyers.

Technical aspects of Novik (old rusian publication)

Summer 1907 Reunion

In the summer of 1907, the "Special Committee" still lacking official instructions from the Naval Department to solve the issue of the powerplant, formed a technical commission of its own to study several technical aspects of a high-speed turbine destroyer. The operational-tactical task (OTZ) for this project had the proposed objective of reaching 36-knot and from this the Russian Naval General Staff for the first time whorked on a new multi-purpose mine-torpedo-artillery ship designed for high seas reconnaissance and commerce raiding operations. An untouchable thoroughbred and jack of all trades.

Special attention paid to speed and cruising range, plus seaworthiness had engineers proposing a hull able to clip through waves at a winds force 8-9 with 7-8 force waves, and supported the idea of a large hull to "ride" the wave lenghts at 35 knots, with a range of 1,800 miles or 86 hours of continuous travel at 21 knots. Displacement was eventually limited to 1000 tons with the armament precised to two 120 mm gun, two twin 450 mm torpedo tubes with spare torpedoes.

Final Requirements of 1908

All this led to requirements setup by the admiralty. Specifications developed by the Marine Technical Committee (MTC) under the guidance of shipbuilders A. N. Krylov, I. G. Bubnov and G. F. Shlesinger precised also a displacement of 1000 tons, full load speed of 33 knots, armament of two 120-mm cannons, 4 machine guns, three 450-mm twin torpedo banks and a main power plant with Parsons steam turbines. On February 11, 1908, the "Special Committee" sent these to several shipyards with a request to report cost and time of construction within two days. Answers received in tome showed this was difficult and most importantly, yards did not wanted to deal with the specificications without a guaranteed order.

It was also decided to announce an international competition for the new "36-knot destroyer" with the right to provide the winning proposal with an order. Invitations were sent out in mid-1908, and more time was left/ The first answers came back in October. In January 1909, the commission rendered its verdict:
The four Russian yards's proposals had been considered and foreign ones rejected at the preliminary stage (not meeting the competition's conditions).
The former were Admiralty, Creighton, Nevsky and Putilov.
As a result, the Putilov Plant project developed by chief engineers D. D. Dubitsky and B. O. Vasilevsky were recognized as the winner.

Putilov won the order (1909)

The order to the Putilovsky plant was confirmed and approved at a "Special Committee" reunion of July 4, 1909 marking the end of the said committee. By July 29, representatives of the Putilov Yard signed an agreement of a delivery for trials within 28 months from signing date. The contract conditions were handed over to the Imperial treasury on August 1, 1912 to secure funds. These represented 2 million and 190 thousand rubles at the time, but assorted with trials and construction penalties for exceeding building time and not meeting speed requirements, as insufficient stability.

The detailed design was made in putilov's design bureau in 1909-1910, together with the German company Vulkan which undertook to design, manufacture and install a powerful yet compact three-shaft boiler and steam turbine units. It would also looked at the tactical and technical requirements. This work was supervised by D. D. Dubitsky for the mechanical part, with B. O. Vasilevsky tasked of the shipbuilding part. Navy Supervision was entrusted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Corps of Naval Engineers N. V. Lesnikov, assisted by Staff Captain V. P. Kostenko for the mechanical part and Staff Captain G. K. Kravchenko foe the construction as well as Yard's Chief Builder C. A. Tennyson. A permanent laison team was installed at Vulkan, Stettin, working with daily communications.

Design of the class

The main differences between the lead ship and subsequent mass-produced destroyers were that Novik had a four-funnel silhouette, two superstructures, and three-shaft powerplant. But the two masts, forecastle extending a quarter of her length, solid main deck, forecastle deck, were carateristic of subsequent Russian destroyers until the Gnevny, the new 1930s generation.

Hull Design

The hull was riveted and 102.43 m over its total lenght. She was 9.53 m in beam, making it for a 10.75 ratio. Particular attention was paid to ensure longitudinal strength, based on a 100 m (328 ft) wave length, with a 5 m crest (16 ft). The hull was assembled with high-strength steel framing and plating (tensile strength 55–70 kg/mm², elastic limit of 28 kg/mm²). The framing had intervals of 560 mm (1.83 ft) from the stern to the bow for extra rigidity. The main feature was the use of an longitudinal reinforcement around the boiler and engine rooms, proposed by I. G. Bubnov. The hull bottom consisted of a 8 mm thick vertical keel, 1,050 mm high (3.31 ft) with double steel squares along the upper and lower edges, two bottom and one side stringers either each side, and one carling per side. The whole structure, together with a 4-mm (0.15 in) thick deck at the second bottom and upper deck, were enclosed between longitudinal bulkheads, 3.5 m (11.4 ft) from the centreline, with a 6-9 mm (0.2-0.3 in) thick outer skin and 11.5 mm (0.45 in) thick deck stringer. This formed a fairly rigid structure withstanding very hard longitudinal bending in any operating conditions. The double bottom extended along the main powerplant, divided into compartments storing extra fuel. Outside the engine and boiler rooms, the vertical keel was sloped down, smoothly turned into a vertical forged stem and cast sternpost. The prow was shaped and reinforced in order to break ice. The transverse framing consisted of double frames, 6 mm thick each and interconnected by brackets of 4.5-5 mm sheets and beams of the upper and main decks (5-6 mm squares). According to this transverse scheme, the forecastle was made of 4 mm sheathing and flooring. The outer skin consisted of 8 plating belts, including the keel belt and sheerstrake. Their thickness decreased from 9 mm at the keel belt and 8.5 mm at the sheerstrake down to 6 mm. Belts connection used rivets in 3 horizontal rows applied on same frames.

Superstructure Design

The bow superstructure consisted of a forecastle bridge, combat bridge and unprotected wheelhouse. The conning tower below was made of chromium steel walls, 12.7 mm (walls) thick (0.5 in) and 6 mm (0.3 in) for the roof plate. Low-magnetic steel was used for the compass area to avoid interferences. The navigator's cabin was located behind the combat cabin (with the chadburn and acoustic pipes were located) made of 3-3.5 mm mild steel sheeting. The forecastle bridge was built atop the conning tower with the navigation cabin behind it, extending the entire width. Both the bridge's spotting wings were supported by pillars connected by diagonal struts. The stern superstructure started aft of the fourth funnel and was noticeably larger than the rest of the Novik-derived destroyers. It housed a radio room, a galley with an oil heating apparatus for cooking. The aft bridge wings were beam-wide, ans also fixed by pillars and struts. The "radio room" housed of course a wireless radio telegraph, and soundproofed. Walls and ceiling indeed had a built-in air gap 45 mm thick in 3 rows of 12 mm boards and 10 mm felt layers for better cushion. On top of the inner boards an extra layer of 10mm felt was added. The floor was paddled, with a 45mm air gap, two 25mm boards layers and 15mm cork layer. All internal surface were also covered with linoleum. To further reduce vibration and heat the floor was raised more above the machinery. Telephone for internal communication was coupled with a the dynamo located outside the wheelhouse. During her major overhaul, this superstructure was redesigned: The stern superstructure was expanded, accommodating a division headquarters room, and a damage control post. The radio room relocated instead forward of the first funnel. The bow brudge was also expanded and fully enclosed. Instead of pole masts, tripods were installed to support heavier platforms, notably spotting top and projectors, and heavier wireless radio cables for longer range.


Novik was a brand new league for the crew accomodations, at the relief of the latter compared to previous destroyers. There was a well better though at and convenient distribution of living quarters with the commander and officers cabin as well as the "campaign cabin" and mess located under the forecastle, closer to the bridge for quick turnover and reaction time. They were also aklways close to the combat and navigation cabin, but not from the radio, which communicated via the internal telephone. The officer's quarters were semi-luxurious with in addition to the mess hall, a bathroom and latrine. Each officer's cabin had a bunk, wardrobe, folding washbasin, desk, chair and hanging hooks.

The later increased crew in the interwar led to a deterioration of living conditions. The latter was located mostly aft to avoid the noise from the engine compartments as much as possible. No bunks still, but hammocks. These rooms were located in the stern (two) and in a single bow cabin, mostly officers assistants. Depending on the space available, there were lockers and some folding beds. Personal gear were stored in lockers, but bed nets close to the bridge were a novelty. Conductor rooms (large enough for 6 men each) were located aft, equipped with lockers in two tiers but also wardrobes and a small living room with books, chairs and a dining table.

The galley was located under the aft bridge, with stoves using oil heating, for the ratings. There was a separate officer's stove and samovar (because Russia), and provision srorage rooms. The attenant room to the galley had a table and shelves. When modernized, the larger crew forced to enlarge the galley and bridge.

To avoid internal shrapnels when hit by shells, sides were sheathed with cork plates with an air gap, and bulkheads painted with white lacquer paint acting also as lining, to prevent shards. The floors were covered with 5 mm linoleum for a better cushion while all the latrines and bathrooms were floored with chipped marble on cement. Cabinets and tables as well as lockers and washbasins were made of mild steel. Chairs however were made in wood, curved beech, and ash for the rest of the furnitures.

Protection layout

The danger of mines dicated a separation of the hull underwater into 9 main watertight bulkheads at the 14, 41, 55, 75, 96, 117, 139, 159 frames. This bulkheading went up to the upper deck and ended at the 175 frame to the forecastle deck. In addition, eight more separations were installed at 20, 28, 37, 142, 146, 153, 165, 169 frames up to the weather deck, down to the stern. Their thickness was 5 mm for the lower cord and 3 mm for the upper one. This was completed by the conning tower at the bow, 0.5 - 0.3 in between the walls and roof was seen above.


Novik was the first domestic ship fitted with steam turbines, operating only on fuel oil. Steam turbines were all the rage at the time for the Russian admiralty, which wanted to procure them too for the Sevastopol class battlecruisers and the new cruisers of the Svetlana type in construction. On the Sebastopol class though, this was coal heating and for the cruisers a mix of both. The choice of oil only for the destroyers was dictated by relative scarcity of both oil and space, prioritizing oil to that class.

The plant consisted of three steam turbines of the Curtis-A.E.G. Vulcan type (a licenced Curtis type by AEG). These were classic direct drive turbines made at Vulkan, Stettin in Germany. They had a linear layout with the boilers. These were six water-tube Vulkan models. From the bow to the stern, at forst 6 boilers, located in three boiler rooms, were followed by the steam turbines, two in the bow, on in the stern. Funnels corresponded to boilers No. 1 and 6 to their own (1st and 4th funnel), and boilers No. 2 and 5 corresponded to Funnel 2 and 3 amidships.

As for the turbines they were of the direct-acting type, not fitted with a reduction gear. They drove the propeller shaft through intermediate shafts and composed from a high-pressure turbine (HPT), and low-pressure turbine (LPT), plus a reverse turbine (RTH). Components were located on one shaft and single casing. The low pressure turbine was supposed to deliver 35% of the forward, HP turbines with a total contract power rated at 42,000 hp (unofficially 42,800 hp). They were capable of 640 rpm, enabling speeds up to 37.3 knots. Full speed was however reduced in practice to 36 knots, and when cruising, 21 knots which was the standard for capital ships at the time. At the end of the shaft lines were three three-blade bronze propellers 2.4 m in diameter (7.8 ft) with a pitch of 2.3-2.2 m (7.5 ft).

The water-tube boilers were of the also classic triangular type. Two were located in each of the three boiler room. They had an unitary capacity of 50 t/h for a total of 290 t/h. Total heating surface was 850 m² for a total of 4,970 m². Note that the smaller Boiler N°1 had inferior values. Thes boilers produced supersaturated steam at 17 kg/cm² (1.19 Ib/Sq. inch) and 203° Centigrades (397° F). These boilers were fed with freshwater using piston feed pumps, two per Boiler. Double-capacity pumps were installed. The feed water was heated by Norman heaters, one per boiler, operated on exhaust (“mint”) steam. This loop enabled the feed water to be already heated up to 60–80 °C before it was fed into the boiler. The two 13 tonnes Feed water tanks were located in front of the bow boiler rooms, behind the aft engine rooms.

Fuel supply was 351 tons of fuel oil, stored in double-bottom compartments motly between frames 42 and 139, with exception, additional fuel located into side tanks between the 75 and 117 frames, for a grand total up to 418 tons usable in wartime and for long crossings. The upper tanks were of course those emptied first to not compromise stability. With all this, range was down to 740 miles if using a practical long run full speed of 34 knots, but up to 1,760 miles at the economic cruise speed of 21 knots.

Radio & Communication

The radio room was located under the aft bridge, and the first model installed was a long-wave transmitter of the MV type from the Naval Department, model 1911 rated for 2 kW and with a range of 200 miles. It also had a long reception range with its two tube receivers at 300-1900 m. The destroyer also had 30 W radiophones. Internal communication used traditional voice pipes, but also telephones and bells, notably to communicate from the bridge to the radio room, machinery, fire posts and torpedo room. Voice pipes were made of red-copper 45 mm in diameter with brass sockets and whistles. They passed from the navigation bridge and conning tower to the guns and other places directly behind. The telephone network was mostly useful to connect the conning tower with the bow and stern bridges and nearly all others compartments. The senior mechanic was in contact with the bridge on an open line. The conning tower was connected with the division commander's room and commander's office as well as the wardroom and mess in order to be sure reaching any officer.

Visual communication rested on a signal searchlight on the foremast platform, and a Semyonov system lights, Ratier system and STB stereo tubes. There were also day and night binoculars, and traditional signal flags and flares. After modernization, these were improved, as in 1931-1932, Novik received the "Blockade-1" receiver/transmitter radio with a much greater range, and after her second overhaul in 1937-1940, the "Blockade-2" system, plus the VHF radiotelephone station "Reid".

Navigation Equipments

Novik was fitted with three 5-inch (127-mm) magnetic compasses, with direction-finding devices but also a sextant, chronometers and a laying tool. The main magnetic compass counted a large binnacle located in the center of the navigation bridge. Steering compasses were placed on the open bridge, next to the helm and the conning tower. Novik also had two 75 mm smaller boat portable compasses in order to carry them on the cutter or small boats in case of abandoning ship. Depth was measured by a Thomson mechanical system and traditional backups. Speed was measured by a Walker turntable with control posts located on the bridge and conning tower.

After her 1931 upgrade, Novik was given the Russian gyrocompass "GU mark 1", first tested aboard. Its repeaters were added on all her control posts. The turntable was replaced with an electromechanical "GO mark-III" system, also domestic.



The main guns consisted in four 102 mm (4 inches) L/60 Obukhov cannons. These 4"/60 (10.2 cm) Pattern 1911 coincided with the Novik class. They were placed in the axis, one forward and the remaining three aft, alternating with the torpedo tubes banks. They had a high-mounted pivots for good elevation, but no gun shield.
Performances of these were as follows:
-Shell Obukhovsky 38.58 lbs. (17.5 kg) HE mod 1911
-Unitary cartridge 30 kg including the 17.5 kg shell
-Brass cartridge case containing a 7.5 kg charge
-Elevation Rate 3 degrees per second
-Train 360 degrees at 3 degrees per second
-Gun recoil 28 inches (71 cm)
-Muzzle velocity 823 m/s.
-Range at 30 degrees 16,800 yards (15,360 m).
-Rate of fire 12 rounds per minute.

More on Navweaps
These were rapid-fire guns, provided with 160 unitary artillery rounds per barrel (HE) for a grand total of 640 shells aboard. In 1941 this was increased to 810 rounds. Cartridges were stored in two artillery cellars. There was a feed system upwards using two elevators driven by electric motors (with manual backup), which was quite modern for a destroyer at the time.

Many more shells were made available on the long run as these guns were widepsread and still used in WW2: HE mod 1915 and mod 1911, FRAG mod 1915, HE mod 1907, Shrapnel, Star Shell, Diving shell (for ASW use), Incendiary shell.

Machine Guns

In the "monocaliber" tendency, apart these main guns Novik had nothing else but the torpedo boats. The only exception were 2-4 7.62-mm Maxim liquid-cooled machine guns installed on pedestals on the bow bridge, and upper deck aft, near the galley. Total boxed ammunition and belts totalled 810 rounds per Machine Gun.

Fire equipments

For night fighting, Novik was equipped with a combat 60 cm Sperry searchlight, to illuminate targets. There was a single manual Barr and Strood 9-foot (base 2,745 mm) coincidence rangefinder installed on the bridge providing data. They were coordinated by a single Geisler-type fire control system communicating setting angles from sights located in the conning tower. There were four sets of data display (for each of the guns). These were equipped with bells and howlers to signal a shot or a volley.


The four twin torpedo launchers were all in the axis: Three aft of the forecastle, the last forward of the radio room and mainmast, and a fourth aft, in between the third and fourth gun mount. These four twin-tube 450 mm torpedo tubes were already above the average destroyer armament. The admiralty thought of triple tubes already, but due to weight issues, the system was not ready to be adopted yet. The catch however was that if torpedoes were stored directly in the tubes, there were spare torpedoes provided. This was a one-way ticket. Loading torpedoes and feeding them into the tubes was a long and complicated, even dangerous task in case of unclement weather. Using manpower with beams, cranks and manual winches. These were Whitehead torpedoes, which detonaters can be loaded and stored separately in a single small cellar.

Despite the advantage of a twce larger tproedo volley, compared to previous designs, the main drawback of Novik and her followers in the Black Sea Fleet were the torpedo tubes used: The twin-tube made at Putilov factory had rigidly fastened tubes with the impossibility of target tracking, lacking the appropriate clutch in the gear train and with a slow mechanical rotation, plus a structural defect in the charger shutter that was never really solved before the late interwar.


Novik and her successors were also wanted by the Navy Staff, given the lessons of the Russo-Japanese war, as "active minesweepers", capabk of a rapid delivery directly into the path of an underway enemy battle formation, even under fire. Their speed was their best weapon, but this meant dropping mines at 30 knots+ which was never done before, especially if the stern wake wave had the potential to create such a depresssion a contact mine could unexpectedly return to the stern and explode. This tactic was seen as a way to scatter the enemy formation and favor torpedo attacks. The staff launche itself in many new imaginative tactics as the last war was seen as missed opportunities, not having the proper ships. Novik's mines were stored on two long rail tracks on either side of the lower hull aft, starting at the forecastle. That was quite a distance, enabling a larger number of mines can be carried, unlike previous destroyers.

According to the naval staff, Novik and her followers could lay up to 50 mine thanks to these permanent rails and mine slopes, which shaped was carefully studied in a basin to avoid high speed turbulence issues. In addition, the destroyer tested on-board mine ramps which were given a 20° angle towards the stern also to solve these high speed laying issues. The slopes protruded overboard by 1.5 m at this but this design turned out to be unsuccessful and only worked below 24 knots instead of 30 knots. Mines had even the potential to be sucked underwater towards the propellers. In the 1930s, Nobik received two K-1 paravanes for anti-mine operations.

For ASW warfare, Novik was given in WW1 ten 10 depth charges of the types 4V-B or 4V-M on two five-charge racks at the stern. They were replaced in the interwar by more advanced BB-1 and BM-1, respectively 8 and 20, stored between racks, manually dropped overboard or using carts tailored to support 4 large or 5 small depht charges.


In WWI, Anti-aircraft defence was added to the ship with the installation of a single 76.2-mm Vickers type AA gun on the quarterdeck. This was likely done during the winter of 1914-15. There was a supply of 300 rounds located in the mine storeroom.

Also the main artillery received modified mounted with a greater elevation angle to 30°, whereas three guns were reinstalled behind the aft superstructure. The sol AA gun remained in place but both at the bow and stern decks a single Maxim 37-mm LMG was installed, replaced later in the interwar by a 45 mm 21-K semi-automatic gun. In the 1930s, two extra 12.7 mm DShKs HMGs were also added, to complement the Maxim machine guns. In 1940, a second 3-in (75 mm) Lender anti-aircraft gun was likely installed and the Maxims removed and replaced by four DShKs. The old Barr & Stoud rangefinder was left in place but a 1.5 m wide DM-1.5 was added on the aft bridge for better range and accuracry. The combat 60-cm Sperry searchlight was replaced by a Russia MPE 6.0 of the same diameter. In the end, four 7.62-mm Maxim AA machine guns were also kept for close defence.

So to resume at the start of WW2 Novuk had two 76.2mm AA guns, one 45mm/46 mm 21-K AA gun, and four 12.7 mm DShK HMGs, plus potentially four Maxim LMGs. Anti-submarine armament was increased from ten 10 depht charges to 28 (8 BB-1 type and 20 BM-1 type). Mine and torpedo armament was upgraded to three triple tubes and 50 sea anchor mines. This torpedo overhaul gave Novik and her follow-ups the occasion of getting rid of her problematic torpedo armament: The stern No. 4 bank was rmeoved, the remaining three converted to new three-tube torpedo tubes banks model 1913 without all the main shortcomings of the two-tube banks. They allowed quick revolution for volley firing and better, more accurate speed control rotation notably by the use of a Jenny clutch. Spare torpedoes however were still not provided. Torpedo fire control rested on Mikhailov M-1 sights mounted on the bridge's wings. Also Ericsson's PUTS system were installed, and later removed.

Construction and Trials

In 1910, at the eve of her keel-laying, it was decided to assign Novik to the Baltic Fleet instead of the Pacific. One reason was the proximity of the German yard in case of any mishaps, and because the new head of the Baltic Fleet, Vice Admiral N. O. Essen, personally asked this to the Emperor, as well as securing the name "Novik", in memory of the 2nd rank, 1898 cruiser Novik which he commanded in 1902-1904 scuttled during the war. Novik ship was laid down on July 19, 1910 at Putilov Shipyard, St. Petersburg in presence of the Minister of the Navy.

On May 1, 1912, Novik started her sea trials. On May 17, she achieved 35.8 knots at a measured mile, off Wolf Island, down to the contract speed by 0.2 knots. This was world record, but below expectations, and despite of this, it was judged still satisfactory and it was not considered to review the propellers or oil heating system. The ship also failed top reach the contract speed on June 18 and July 1 with an average of 35.85 knots. Eventually it was decided to change her propellers on July 30, and yet she still only reached 35,275 knots.

As a result, the commission found it was impossible to meet the contractual conditions and the Yard then returned itself towards Vulkan AG in order not to lose face and gain experience in design, manufacture and testing of powerplants. There was indeed no equivalent in any fleet at the time. Vulkan proposed to increase the boiler's heating surface, replacing fans and inductors. The proposal was accepted and work started by the summer of 1913.

By August 28-30 torpedo launchung tests commanced, at speeds ranging from 18 to 34 knots. The commission decided to install bells and special signs inside the machinery also to raise wareness of the machinery engineers since te noise was unbearable at high speed, completely masking commands. On September 5-6, vibrations were tested and not judged too excessive for the guns, with residual deformations observed being minor. In the autumn it was established her metacentric height was excessive at 0.8 - 1.13 m with extra roll. At Putilov it was proposed to install extra ballast tanks to cure the problem, and extending the side keels, but at a cost of 1.5 knots speed.

In the spring of 1913, she was prepared to reach Vulkan, Germany, her armament removed, ammunition unloaded. On May 17, she was in Stettin and was gutted open for 3 months, to have her plant overhauled: All boilers were replaced, new inductors and fans installed, the expansion surface increased and thickness by 213 mm and 294 mm. After static tests, the steam output was increased by 15%. A casing was installed above the boiler room to allowed them to stand, being 325 mm higher. Also Vulkan precised the operation ad her displacement increased to 1,296 tons.

On sea trials on August 21 in German waters, Novik reached 36.92 knots (based on 13,60 tons, with an output of 42,800 hp) and even reached 37.3 knots over three preliminary runs, setting a world record. On August 27, official tests at full speed followed, recognized as successful with an average of 36.82 knots (41,980 hp and 141 tons more than normal displacement) over three hours, and with "peaks" at 37 knots and final average of 36.2 knots. On August 29, trials were complete so she was accepted for service. WW1 was just a year away.

⚙ specifications

Displacement1,280 tons (1260 long tons) standard, 1,360 tons FL*
Dimensions 102.43 x 9.53 x 3.53 m ( feets)
Propulsion3 steam turbines "A. E. G. Curtis-Vulkan, 6 Vulkan Boilers 42 000 shp (29.44 MW)
Speed37.3 knots (21 cruise speed, 32 average service)**
Range740 miles (32 knots)***
Armament4x 102 mm, 4x2 533mm TTs, 2 LMGs, mines, see notes.
Crew117 (1940: 168)
*1940: displacement standard - 1483 tons light, 1,717 tons normal and 1,951 tons FL.
**1940: Top speed 32 knots, 30.5 knots FL, 16 knots cruise speed.
***Cruising range 1940: 1800 miles (16 knots)

Final Assessment

On October 5, 1913 on the granite embankment of the Neva in St. Petersburg a crowd watched an unusual event, the arrival of a handsome new vessel, the destroyer Novik. The general public came here to admire her size and shape, but experts considered her advantage was a combination of innovation that were not perceptible by the general public: A true revolution in the development of such class of ships worldwide. Novik laid the foundation for the construction of a new type of fleet destroyers all fleets of the world. All admiralty took notice and prepare their own designs, when WWI broke out, many of these designs were ongoing. The first concerned however were the British, not the Germans, which strangely did not changed anything to their ongoing "hochseetorpedoboote" construction policy. The small black "toothbrush" style boats were judged sufficient for the confines of the Baltic and North Sea. The Russians hiwever had to care for the Pacific and the British their own far-fetched empire.

In WWI German "destroyers" were created exclusively for torpedo attacks as part of a flotilla, and focus on powerful torpedoes. The Germans unreasonably neglected artillery believing that keeping a tight formation would delegate fire protection to a light cruiser used as flotilla leader. German shipbuilders as the naval staff were also dismissive of radio equipment, assuming these flotilla were not intended either for reconnaissance or laying minefields, seen as a dangerous diversion of their core mission. However German High sees TBs had for them high speed, still good seaworthiness and long cruising range despite thir limited size.

The British Royal Navy developed their own type of destroyer, quite different and did not neglected other roles, ot the role of artillery. Their destroyers were traditionally more powerful than that the German ones, and constantly strengthened artillery.

The Novik, built on voluntary donations after the Russo-Japanese War favorably differed from other destroyers by its extremely low specific fuel consumption, due to the use of oil-fired boiler heating, high efficiency, compact power unit but also construction with a progressive use of longitudinal steel bracing, better seaworthiness with increased strength based on a still moderate displacement and high speed. Novik also combined a powerful artillery and torpedo armament, a very advanced radio station for the time, for better coordination, and versatility combining minelaying, torpedo attacks and duel with other destroyers, combined with the immense advantage of a superior speed to choose their own moment, and dictate their own battle rythm to the adversary.

The ceremonial keel laying took place on August 1, 1910 at Putilov shipyard was not secret, and thus, followed by naval attachés of all nations at St. Petestburg. The ship was ready a month and a half before schedule, and again, naval attachés came back to see her: This unusual ship borrowed all the best from British and German destroyers, while going further with ma,y other innovations kept on a 1500 tons design. Novik pushed the boundaries of all parameters on a moderate displacement.

In terms of artillery itself, Novik surpassed the competition. The organization of firing was les rational and suffered from cluttered arc of fires on places, but the guns themselves were judged superior to British 102-mm (4-in) guns in terms of muzzle velocity, shell weight and firing range, with the addition of a modern centralized fire control. The torpedo armament was also formidable with an eight-torpedo broadside, more powerful than even the very latest planned destroyers. And the third advantage was this ability to lay minefields on the go. The concept of "active minelaying" proper to Russia was noticed by all, but raised still doubts about the Russian capacity to effectively lay mines at 30+ knots (which was a design issues that kept admiralties occupied for decades and never properly solved but perhaps by the Germans with their interwar R-Bootes, small enough to avoid turbulence issues).

The last point, probably the most spectacular, and most striking was the new destroyer's unmatched top speed at the time. This record of 37.3 knots remained uncontested from 1912 to 1917. The Royal Navy felt concerned by the Novik design, but only went for larger destroyes when WWI started, as destroyer leaders (like the Scott class) with four 102-mm guns instead of three and six torpedo tubes. The British admirakty realized it was extremely difficult to reload torpedo tubes in combat conditions and eventually in turn started to adopt multiple tube banks quickly. But still they were inferior to the Novik (and successors) on that plan, missing a bank. They became eve more concerned as the next Ushakovskaya class had twelve torpedoes to launch in one go.

In 1916, the need to equip destroyers for laying minefields came back on the table to constrain the Hochseeflotte to path of their choosing, and to compensate for the weight of the mines it was necessary to remove the stern gun and stern twin-tube torpedo tube. After a 12 hours operations, including fitting rails, a destroyer could take 40 to 60 mines (for flotilla leaders). Novik and their successors kept that possibility without sacrifice or delays.

In September 1914, Novik was the only ship of her kind in the Russian fleet and she was so different than her predecessors, the naval command had her included in a detachment of cruisers. She performed well as expected in combat, and in the interwar, was large and solid enough to be upgraded and partly rebuilt twice. Thus, unlike all her precedessors, Novik and her circa 50 sister ships were relevant enough to be kept in service for the whole duration of WW2. Their original concept made them pioneers, and thus perfectly apt after two decades to perform all destroyers missions. They enabled the new Soviet admiralty to capitalize on their intimidating presence and not even considering starting any new design until the mid-1930s -with Italian help- for the Gnevniy class.

Read More


Breyer, Siegfried (1992). Soviet Warship Development: Volume 1: 1917–1937. London: Conway Maritime Press.
Budzbon, Przemysław (1985). "Russia". In Gray, Randal (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. NIP
Budzbon, Przemysław (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946.
Budzbon, Przemysław; Radziemski, Jan & Twardowski, Marek (2022). Warships of the Soviet Fleets 1939–1945. Vol. I NIP
Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.
Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations. Seaforth Publishing.
Halpern, Paul G. (1994). A Naval History of World War I. NIP
Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New Vanguard. Vol. 256. Osprey Publishing.
Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two NIP
Watts, Anthony J. (1990). The Imperial Russian Navy. London: Arms and Armour.



Model Kits



https://worldofwarships.eu/en/news/general-news/142-Novik/ Livery of the Novik as built: Grey: fan-ejectors capstan, fan-deflectors, 102-mm cannons, skylights, hull above the waterline, conning tower, bow and stern superstructure, steering wheel, fore-mast and fore-yard, chimneys, torpedo devices, shots, hull of a four-oar yal, hull of a whaleboat, hull of a motor boat above the waterline, davits, similar hatches, shields and machine gun casings, gangway, combat searchlights, steam siren steam pipe, main mast, gaff and main yard , ventilation shafts, min-beams, flagpole, propeller guard, fender, 102-mm shell elevators, round hatches, bed nets, outboard ladder, entrance doors, inclined ladders, boiler room ventilation casing, engine telegraph, steam boiler, deflectors boiler room fans, breakwater, signal flag fender, conning tower entrance platform, boiler room casing.

BLACK: Hall anchor, deck hawse, bollards, bitteng, standing rigging, chimney caps, mine rails, ladder brackets, bale slats, Legof stoppers and chain stop frames, anchor tubes.
WHITE: halves of each lifebuoy, spotlights.
RED: Port marker light, hull below the waterline, propeller shafts, propeller shaft brackets, powerboat hull below the waterline, rudder.
GREEN: starboard side marker light.
YELLOW: running rigging, fender.
LACQUERED WOOD: front gangway, main magnetic compass binnacle.
POLISHED METAL: propellers (bronze), side inscriptions, stern inscription, state emblem (copper), sights for 102 mm guns and twin torpedo tubes (bronze), magnetic compass caps (bronze).

Novik in two wars: 1912-1941

Prewar and wartime service 1913-1917

Novik as built in 1911

After sea trials and fleet training, gunnery and torpedo drills, the Novik was ready for her service with the Baltic fleet in the summer of 1914, as the only modern destroyer, enlisted in the cruiser brigade. On July 18, 1914, she operated in the area of Cape Dagerort, covering a large minelaying operation. On August 19-21 and 26, she went for several reconnaissance missions, looking for German vessels. On the night of August 19-20 she spotted and fired 4 torpedoes on the cruiser SMS Augsburg, but failed to hit her.

The commander of the Baltic Fleet, N. O. Essen, decided to carry out minelaying missions by nifght as close as the German coast as possible, and for these purpose, "Novik" was allocated to the special semi-division (Border Guard ships and the General Kondratenko, Okhotnik destroyers) but on site, Novik was supposed to act independently, laying mines in the Danzig Bay, west of the Stolpe Bank, the most dangerous spot. Her saving grace was her speed, which the other lacked.

On September 1914, Novik departed and met on the 2nd a German cruiser patrol, with the latter immediately retreating. SMS Augsburg spotted again her previous assailant and chased Novik for forty minutes, but could not catch up.

From the second half of September 1914, the Baltic Fleet started active minelaying in enemy waters, and the "special-purpose" destroyer unit wasn sent again with Novik appointed as formation leader. Minelaying was carried out in the southwestern and southern parts of the Baltic Sea. Indeed the Nile Bay and adjacent areas adjacent were used by the Kaiserliches Marine for their summer training manoeuvers. Also routes of German transports converged there, including the supply of many steel and weapons factories along the coast.

As a rule, a second destroyer flotilla covered the minelaying and once again, Novik departed to act independently, unsupported. Between secrecy and high speed the admiralty thought these missions would be performed without a hitch. Minelaying was made in full darkness, the flotillas returning at dawn to their shores.

The Germans did not conducted constant reconnaissance in these dangerously close areas, making it easier to approach, with severe consequences: Pn November 5, 1914, 12 days after the first minelaying mission, the armored cruiser Friedrich Karl blew up and sank. It was a stuning first success for the Russian admiraty and a complete surprise for the the German command, many believing this was due to a submarine action, as none though the Russian would have dared minelaying that close to their shores.

Gulf of Riga action (August 17, 1915)

In August 1915, the German fleet tried to break into the Gulf of Riga, mustering two battleships, four cruisers, 33 destroyers, and four divisions of minesweepers, plus a cohort of patrol ships and auxiliary vessels. The breakthrough was covered by ten dreadnoughts, 5 armored cruisers and 32 destroyers. The most important concentration of German naval forces in this area of the Baltic ever.

But minesweeping work was hampered by the battleship Slava. The destroyers V-99 and V-100 were despatched to spot her and sink her in the night of August 17, however they fell on two Russian destroyers, notably General Kondratenko, an older, but still potent design. The night battle had all four opponents quickly lost sight of each other. At 11 p.m. Novik while in the Irben Strait, was contacted by General Kondratenko and dispatched to prevent any German entrance to the bay. German destroyers were illuminated by searchlights from the the "Ukraina" and "Voiskovoy" and a new battle started, a quick exhanged lasting only three minutes. At 600 m, Russian gunners scored hits, launching two torpedoes so close they went under the keels of the nimble German destroyers. But in this exceptionally dark night, they lost sight again. The Germans retreated and waited for dawn to leave the bay through their own minefields.

However at this time, they were chased off by Novik, spotted and signalled in the predawn haze by the Mikhailovsky lighthouse. V-99 and V-100 were precisely built in Germany to deal with the new Russian destroyer generation and were capable of 35.5 knots. But they only totalled eight 88 mm guns, twelve torpedo tubes between them. Novik's captain was confident, with motivated, eager and well drilled crews. They were in the best boat of the Baltic fleet and knew it. At last, Novik caught sight of the two fleeing black "toothbrushes" and was first to open fire from 8,700 m. The enemy destroyers turned around to present theior best broadside and close the distance to respond, but at that range it was still ineffective. Their own spotters soon realized with what destroyers that had to deal. At the third volley, Novik found its mark on V-99 and switched to rapid fire. Gunners swated hard to load and shoot faster than in training.

A cloud of smoke and steam enveloped V99, hit several times. A fire broke out on her quarterdeck, her funnel fell, and from her stern a ball of flames erupted. V-100 put up a smokescreen to cover her retreat, stopping the engagement for a withdrawal. Novik concentrated on V-100 next, and quickly set it on fire in turn. Enemy firing became erratic and Novik maneuvered, hoping to drive them into the Russian minefield, succeeding in this. V-99 soon hit two mines in succession and rapidly sank. V-100, badly damaged, however made good her escape damage, joining the cover of the main forces. Novik suffered no loss or any hit and came back a war hero. The ship commander, Berens, and artillery officer, Lt. Fedotov were awarded the Order of St.George.

Novik went on her operations of minelaying notably in the Irbensky Strait, Libaya and localized minefield to deny the German fleet any passage in the Gulf of Riga. By September 15-21, she had her propellers repaired in drydock, after being damaged on August 4 during the explosion of a 12-in projectile astern during one of her sorties, when straddled by a German dreadnought. On September 25, near Odensholm, she recured pilot Musgyats as his hydroplane crash-landed nearby. On October 29-30 and November 22-23, she sorties with Gangut and Petropavlovsk, providing cover for the 1st minelaying division operating near Gotland. Later she took part in yet another a raid on German patrol ships, in the central Baltic. On December 24-25, she towed the damaged destroyer Zabiyaka after the Revel raid, which hit a mine near Dagerort.

Further operations (1916)

This victory was followed by a series of no less outstanding combat successes of the brand new destroyer. Novik became soon a household name, its successes reported to the Tsar. On the evening of November 7, 1915, Novik discovered the patrol vessel SMS Norburg near the Spon Bank and in less a minute, paralyze her with rapid fire followed by a torpedo hit which sent her to the bottom. As the Baltic Fleet intensified its minefield operations, Novik was always at the lead, and always acted independent action, being the most active ship in these campaigns. Night minelaying required still great skills from navigators, maneuvering in unknown areas and the ability to extract from the German, and their own minefields.

But to be effective these minefields had to stand in the most unexpected places. As dusk fell, the special detachment received a radiogram from the fleet commander that by the evening of December 4, 1915, Bremen cruiser and a large destroyer were sunk, likely by Novik's mines given their location. This added two more success and confirmed the path to maintain for a numerically inferior Baltic fleet. Instead of seeking a classic line engagement against a largely superior Hochseeflotte, a serie of hit and run operations such these became the accepted norm. And there was the construction of dozens of sisters of Novik on the way.

On the night of May 18, 1916, Novik, Grom and Pobedel, covered by the cruisers Rurik, Oleg and Bogatyr, made yet another raid on a German convoy in Norrköping Bay. The enusing battle, Russian destroyers launched their torpedoes and dispersed the 20 ships, and between them and the cruisers, claimed a German auxiliary cruiser, two armed trawlers and two merchant ships. On June 26, 1916, when crossing to Helsingfors near Nargen at 17 knots, she was grounded on rocky shoals. She was towed out by the icebreaker "Peter the Great" on the third attempt, towed to Helsingfors for repairs at Sandvik Dock, until August 13. From August 22, and until the end of the campaign she operated off Moonsund. On September 17-22, she sortied to look for U-Boats.

From October 4 to October 16, 1916, Novik was prepared for more sorties, but their were all postponed each time. On October 18, at 7:30, she sailed with the semi-division for a raid on the Memel area. A storm had the ships soon rolling up to 36° forcing them to slow down and reverse. On October 19, they made another sortie to Moonsund. On October 23 and November 10, two more minelaying missions were successfully done. More German vessels were sunk, but of less importance. On December 2, after another canceled operation while back off Reval, she collided with the minelayer Narova and her her stem bent. She was repaired from December 4 to December 18, in Helsingfors. From December 21 she stayed for the winter in Reval.

In early October, he carried out a minelaying operation off the Steinort lighthouse, and searched for German destroyers in the area of Sarychesky lighthouse. On November 2, together with the destroyer Desna she sailed to Rogokul and on December, 12 moved to Helsingfors for repairs adn an overhaul.

Last wartime operations (1917)

In May 1917, she became flagship of the mine division of the Baltic Fleet. She took part in the defense of the Moonsund archipelago and by October 1917, took part in the Battle of Moon sund with the German fleet. Afterwards, she was sent to revolutionary Petrograd, and entered a drydock for repairs and by November 1917, a major overhaul, her crew learning that from October 25, 1917 she was now part of the Red Fleet. On September 9, 1918, she was decommissioned however (her officers and crew gone) handed over to the Petrograd port for long-term storage. The war ended and her fate in the civil war years, like the rest of the fleet, was all but uncertain.

Modernization and interwar career as Yakov Sverdlov

Until 1925, Novik was mothballed in Petrograd, but by order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, on December 31, 1922, she was renamed after the first Chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee Yakov Sverdlov. The decision was initiated back in March 1921, in the 10th Congress, whien it was decided to revive and strengthen the fleet. On October 29, 1924, approved the allocation of funds for the complete overhaul of still extant Novik-style destroyers in the fleet. This was the occasion for an overhaul, a complete refection after years of neglect, complete restoration, and on August 30, 1928, freshly painted anew, with her new name and red star on the bow, she became part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.

After indeed being laid up from 9 September 1918 to 1925 she was indeed extensively rebuilt between 26 September 1925 and 30 August 1929. Her rearmost twin torpedo tubes bank was removed, three 102 mm (4.0 in) guns relocated forward, a second 76.2 mm (3 in) "Lender" AA gun ounted aft of the quarterdeck (a problem of the rearmost 102 mm gun). The three remaining twin torpedo tubes bankis were replaced by triples, re-positioned. The bridge structure was completely redesigned and enlarged, the deckhouse aft of the fourth funnel elmininated and a new, larger deckhouse added about 30 ft aft of the fourth funnel. Masts were now tripod, re-positioned, the forward funnel heightened by 2 metres (6.6 ft).

Interwar Service

Fleet Exercises with the Red Banner Baltic Fleet marked her early interwar service. Decommissioned again from December 1, 1926 to August 30, 1929 at the Northern Shipyard it was decided during the ioverhaul and maintenance to convert her into a destroyer division command ship, requiring larger accomodations, dedicated rooms and larger crew. The modernization caused and increase to 1,771 tons standard and 1,951 tons fully loaded.

After further fleet manoeuvers and exercises from 1930 to 1937, she was overhauled again between 28 November 1937 and 8 December 1940. This included her machinery, with elements replaced or refreshed. She also obtained ip to four 45 mm (1.8 in) 21-K anti-aircraft guns but re-designated a training ship on 23 April 1940. The same year it was decided to make another upgrade with her firepower enhance and taking a heavier displacement. The days of her record 37 knots were long gone. Her standard "best speed", despite her machinery overhaul, was circa 30 knots.

Before invasion of the summer 1941, Yakov Sverdlov was part of the training squadron, Frunze Naval School and in late July she was moved to the 3rd destroyer division of the Baltic Fleet squadron, no longer training but now fully active again.

A short and deadly WW2 career

In the first two months she carried out escort missions and covered actions of the fleet, screening cruisers and looking for enemy ships and U-Boats. She also took part in fire support missions for the ground forces. Also in July she became shortly flagship of the fleet ("command post").

As part of the 3rd Destroyer Division she covered the evacuation of the Soviet Navy from Tallinn to Kronstadt, Yakov Sverdlov escorted to the cruiser and flagship Kirov, under command of Captain 2nd Rank A. M. Spiridonov, ensured their breakthrough to a less exposed port. On August 28, 1941, at 05:00, together with the rearguard destroyers, she was detached to the Soviet Estonian capital Port to evacuate city defenders.

At 16:00 on the same day, near Nargen Island, she was sailing to the northern part of the island with five minesweepers at the head of the formation, and then an icebreaker. The destroyer Yakov Sverdlov screened Kirov, followed by a submarine and the Flotilla leader Leningrad. She received an order to move to a new position slightly ahead, port side of Kirov when it happened.

The end and controversy

Describing the events immediately preceding what happened her indicated:
Approaching “to my place”, I was dumbfounded by events alternating with lightning speed - a semaphore was received from one of the minesweepers: “You have a floating mine on your nose. Dodge." The port signalman reported: "Submarine periscope left 60 degrees." Having found the periscope at a distance of 8 cables, I ordered Senior Lieutenant Orlov to open fire. At the same time, he gave the order to make bombs and had already decided to go to the boat in order to ram it and bomb it, when suddenly the starboard signalman reported: "Kirov has stalled." Looking around, I found that the cruiser "Kirov", moving at the slowest speed, lowered a Red Navy man onto the gazebo, who was cutting the minesweeping part with an autogen. At the same time, the commander of the signalmen's squad reported: "To the left is the trail of a torpedo." Having found a torpedo trail in 2-3 cables, I realized that I could do nothing more than sacrifice the destroyer. Besides, even if I wanted to evade it, I could not do anything in this position; I knew this as the former head of the department of torpedo firing. -Captain A. M. Spiridonov's report

Sverdlov in 1940

Further events were witnessed not only by those who escaped Yakov Sverdlov, but also by sailors on duty aboard Kirov. According to Alexander Panasenko, a signalman from Kirov, warned that Yakov Sverdlov raised the dreaded "torpedo on the left" signal, compounded by its siren, and increasing speed, the captain, which flanked-guarded the flagship decided to willingfully take the torpedo himself, turning to the left and sparing Kirov. By all accounts by her sacrifice she saved the cruiser. If hit, Kirov, which was lightly protected against ASW threats, would have never reached Kronstadt and the flotilla could have lost her flagship.

A 2018 dive to the location and examination of the Yakov Sverdlov's wreck showed the torpoedo hit her under ​​the second funnel amidship. Due to the force of the detonation at this crucial point, she broke in half but did not sink immediately due to her excellent comparitmentation. This allowed part of the crew and refugee aboard to escape. According to Spiridonov report, the stern was still capable of moving independently, commanded by his assistant. Still 300 died: Circa 100 from her crew, 200 refugee from Tallinn (sources differs). She sank 10 miles from the island of Mohni, resting for decades at a depth of 75 meters. Her bow was turned upside down exposing her keel, the stern however sank upright, still intact with guns and superstructure on an even keel. The soviet coat of arms was still clearly readable as her name. Many photos and a film were taken.

This put an end to a controversial theory about the origin of the torpedo. In fact she sat on the eastern edge of the German-Finnish Yuminda minefield, on the reported mine line D.27, and thus probably hit EMC mines (250 kg explosives), the Russian-Finnish also discovering three more wrecks of ships sunk during the Tallinn breakthrough. The location of the Yakov Sverdlov in a dense minefield is compounded by declassified German achives reported that not a single U-Boat was ever reported in the area of ​​the Yuminda minefield during this breakthrough, due precisely to the danger of the minefield. This put an end to the long-maintained myth of the "her destroyer of the great patriotic war". A nice story ideal for the propaganda of the time.

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❢ Abbreviations & acronyms
    AAW// warfare
    AASAmphibious Assault Ship
    AEWAirbone early warning
    AGAir Group
    AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
    AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
    APArmor Piercing
    APCArmored Personal Carrier
    ASMAir-to-surface Missile
    ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
    ASROCASW Rockets
    ASWAnti Submarine Warfare
    ASWRLASW Rocket Launcher
    ATWahead thrown weapon
    avgasAviation Gasoline
    awAbove Waterline
    AWACSAirborne warning & control system
    bhpbrake horsepower
    BLBreach-loader (gun)
    BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
    BUBroken Up
    CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
    CalCaliber or ".php"
    CGMissile Cruiser
    CICCombat Information Center
    C-in-CCommander in Chief
    CIWSClose-in weapon system
    CECompound Expansion (engine)
    ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
    CLCruiser, Light
    CMBCoastal Motor Boat
    CMSCoastal Minesweeper
    CNOChief of Naval Operations
    CpCompound (armor)
    COBCompound Overhad Beam
    CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
    CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
    COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
    COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
    COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
    CRCompound Reciprocating
    CRCRSame, connecting rod
    CruDivCruiser Division
    CPControlled Pitch
    CTConning Tower
    CTLconstructive total loss
    CTOLConv. Take off & landing
    CTpCompound Trunk
    CVAircraft Carrier
    CVA// Attack
    CVE// Escort
    CVL// Light
    CVS// ASW support
    DADirect Action
    DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
    DCDepht Charge
    DCT// Track
    DCR// Rack
    DCT// Thrower
    DEDouble Expansion
    DEDestroyer Escort
    DDE// Converted
    DesRonDestroyer Squadron
    DFDouble Flux
    DPDual Purpose
    DUKWAmphibious truck
    EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
    ECMElectronic Warfare
    ESMElectronic support measure
    FCSFire Control System
    fpsFeet Per Second
    FYFiscal Year
    GMMetacentric Height
    GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
    GRTGross Tonnage
    GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
    HAHigh Angle
    HCHorizontal Compound
    HCR// Reciprocating
    HCDA// Direct Acting
    HCDCR// connecting rod
    HDA// direct acting
    HDAC// acting compound
    HDAG// acting geared
    HDAR// acting reciprocating
    HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
    H/FHigh Frequency
    HF/DF// Directional Finding
    HMSHer Majesty Ship
    HNHarvey Nickel
    HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
    HPHigh Pressure
    HRHorizontal reciprocating
    HRCR// connecting rod
    HSHarbor Service
    HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
    HSET// trunk
    HTHorizontal trunk
    HTE// expansion
    ICInverted Compound
    IDAInverted direct acting
    IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
    ihpindicated horsepower
    IMFInshore Minesweeper
    KCKrupp, cemented
    KNC// non cemented
    LALow Angle
    LCLanding Craft
    LCA// Assault
    LCAC// Air Cushion
    LFC// Flak (AA)
    LCG// Gunboat
    LCG(L)/// Large
    LCG(M)/// Medium
    LCG(S)/// Small
    LCI// Infantry
    LCM// Mechanized
    LCP// Personel
    LCP(R)/// Rocket
    LCS// Support
    LCT// Tanks
    LCV// Vehicles
    LCVP/// Personal
    LCU// Utility
    locolocomotive (boiler)
    LSCLanding ship, support
    LSD// Dock
    LSF// Fighter (direction)
    LSM// Medium
    LSS// Stern chute
    LST// Tank
    LSV// Vehicle
    LPlow pressure
    lwllenght waterline
    MA/SBmotor AS boat
    MGMachine Gun
    MGBMotor Gunboat
    MLMotor Launch
    MMSMotor Minesweper
    MTMilitary Transport
    MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
    HMGHeavy Machine Gun
    MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
    MLMuzzle loading
    MLR// rifled
    MSOOcean Minesweeper
    NCnon condensing
    nhpnominal horsepower
    nmNautical miles
    NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
    NSNickel steel
    NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
    NyDNaval Yard
    OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
    PCPatrol Craft
    PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
    psipounds per square inch
    PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
    QFQuick Fire
    QFC// converted
    RAdmRear Admiral
    RCRreturn connecting rod
    RFRapid Fire
    RPCRemote Control
    rpgRound per gun
    SAMSurface to air Missile
    SARSearch Air Rescue
    SBShip Builder
    SCSub-chaser (hunter)
    SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
    SESimple Expansion
    SET// trunk
    shpShaft horsepower
    SHsimple horizontal
    SOSUSSound Surv. System
    SPRsimple pressure horiz.
    SSSubmarine (Conv.)
    SSMSurface-surface Missile
    sfsteam frigate
    SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
    spfsteam paddle frigate
    STOVLShort Take off/landing
    SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
    tton, long (short in bracket)
    TACANTactical Air Nav.
    TBTorpedo Boat
    TBD// destroyer
    TCTorpedo carriage
    TETriple expansion
    TER// reciprocating
    TFTask Force
    TGBTorpedo gunboat
    TGTask Group
    TLTorpedo launcher
    TLC// carriage
    TSTraining Ship
    TTTorpedo Tube
    UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
    UHFUltra High Frequency
    VadmVice Admiral
    VCVertical compound
    VCE// expansion
    VDE/ double expansion
    VDSVariable Depth Sonar
    VIC/ inverted compound
    VLFVery Low Frequency
    VQL/ quadruple expansion
    VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
    VTE/ triple expansion
    VTOLVertical take off/landing
    VSE/ Simple Expansion
    WTWireless Telegraphy
    xnumber of
    BuShipsBureau of Ships
    DBMGerman Navy League
    GBGreat Britain
    DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    FAAFleet Air Arm
    FNFLFree French Navy
    MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
    MSAMaritime Safety Agency
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    RANRoyal Australian Navy
    RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
    R&DResearch & Development
    RNRoyal Navy
    RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
    ussrUnion of Socialist Republics
    UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
    UNUnited Nations Org.
    USNUnited States Navy
    WaPacWarsaw Pact

⛶ Pre-Industrial Eras

☀ Introduction
☀ Neolithic to bronze age
⚚ Antique
⚜ Medieval
⚜ Renaissance
⚜ Enlightenment

⚔ Naval Battles

⚔ Pre-Industrial Battles ☍ See the page
  • Salamis
  • Cape Ecnomus
  • Actium
  • Red Cliffs
  • Battle of the Masts
  • Yamen
  • Lake Poyang
  • Lepanto
  • Vyborg Bay
  • Svensksund
  • Trafalgar
  • Sinope
⚔ Industrial Era Battles ☍ See the page
⚔ WW1 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page
⚔ WW2 Naval Battles ☍ See the Page

⚔ Crimean War

Austrian Navy ☍ See the page
French Navy ☍ See the page
    Screw Ships of the Line
  • Navarin class (1854)
  • Duquesne class (1853)
  • Fleurus class (1853)
  • Montebello (1852)
  • Austerlitz (1852)
  • Jean Bart (1852)
  • Charlemagne (1851)
  • Napoleon (1850)
  • Sailing Ships of the Line
  • Valmy (1847)
  • Ocean class (1805)
  • Hercules class (1836)
  • Iéna class (1814)
  • Jupiter (1831)
  • Duperré (1840)
  • Screw Frigates
  • Pomone (1845)
  • Isly (1849)
  • Bellone (1853)
  • D’Assas class (1854)
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Primauguet class (1852)
  • Roland (1850)
Royal Navy ☍ See the page
  • Duke of Wellington
  • Conqueror (1855)
  • Marlborough (1855)
  • Royal Albert (1854)
  • St Jean D’Acre (1853)
  • Waterloo (1833
  • Sailing ships of the Line
  • Sailing Frigates
  • Sailing Corvettes
  • Screw two deckers
  • Screw frigates
  • Screw Corvettes
  • Screw guard ships
  • Paddle frigates
  • Paddle corvettes
  • Screw sloops
  • Paddle sloops
  • Screw gunboats
  • Brigs

⚑ 1870 Fleets

Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola ☍ See the Page
  • Numancia (1863)
  • Tetuan (1863)
  • Vitoria (1865)
  • Arapiles (1864)
  • Zaragosa (1867)
  • Sagunto (1869)
  • Mendez Nunez (1869)
  • Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
  • Frigate Tornado (1865)
  • Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
  • Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
  • Dannebrog (1863)
  • Peder Skram (1864)
  • Danmark (1864)
  • Rolf Krake (1864)
  • Lindormen (1868)

  • Jylland CR (1860)
  • Tordenskjold CR (1862)
  • Dagmar SP (1861)
  • Absalon class GB (1862)
  • Fylla class GB (1863)
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Basileos Giorgios (1867)
  • Basilisa Olga (1869)
  • Sloop Hellas (1861)
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine 1870
  • Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
  • De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
  • Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
  • Buffel class turret rams (1868)
  • Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
  • Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
  • Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
  • Adder class Monitors (1870)
  • A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
  • A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
  • Djambi class corvettes (1860)
  • Amstel class Gunboats (1860)
Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
  • Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
  • Screw Frigates (1849-59)
  • Conv. sailing frigates
  • Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
  • Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
  • Paddle Frigates
  • Paddle Corvettes
  • screw sloops
  • screw gunboats
  • Sailing ships of the line
  • Sailing frigates
  • Sailing corvettes
  • Sailing bricks

  • Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
  • Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
  • Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
  • Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
  • Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
  • Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864)
  • Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
  • Taureau arm. ram (1865)
  • Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
  • Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
  • Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

  • Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
  • Talisman cruisers (1862)
  • Resolue cruisers (1863)
  • Venus class cruisers (1864)
  • Decres cruiser (1866)
  • Desaix cruiser (1866)
  • Limier class cruisers (1867)
  • Linois cruiser (1867)
  • Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
  • Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
  • Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
  • Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

  • Curieux class sloops (1860)
  • Adonis class sloops (1863)
  • Guichen class sloops (1865)
  • Sloop Renard (1866)
  • Bruix class sloops (1867)
  • Pique class gunboats (1862)
  • Hache class gunboats (1862)
  • Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
  • Etendard class gunboats (1868)
  • Revolver class gunboats (1869)
Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
  • Barrozo class (1864)
  • Brasil (1864)
  • Tamandare (1865)
  • Lima Barros (1865)
  • Rio de Janeiro (1865)
  • Silvado (1866)
  • Mariz E Barros class (1866)
  • Carbal class (1866)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864)
  • Assari Tewfik (1868)
  • Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
  • Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
  • Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
  • Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
  • Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
  • Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
  • Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
  • Abdul Kadir Battleships (project)

  • Frigate Ertrogul (1863)
  • Selimieh (1865)
  • Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
  • Mehmet Selim (1876)
  • Sloops & despatch vessels
Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Marina Do Peru
  • Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
  • CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
  • Turret ship Huascar (1865)
  • Frigate Apurimac (1855)
  • Corvette America (1865)
  • Corvette Union (1865)
Portuguese Navy 1870 Marinha do Portugal
  • Bartolomeu Dias class (28-guns) steam frigates
  • Sagris (14 guns) steam corvette
  • Vasco Da Gama (74 guns) Ship of the Line
  • Dom Fernando I e Gloria (50) Sailing Frigate
  • Dom Joao I class (14 guns) Sailing corvettes
  • Portuguese Side-wheel steamers
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun 1870
  • Ironclad Ruyjo (1868)
  • Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
  • Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
  • Frigate Kasuga (1863)
  • Corvette Asama (1869)
  • Gunboat Raiden (1856)
  • Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
  • Teibo class GB (1866)
  • Gunboat Mushun (1865)
  • Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine 1870
  • Prinz Adalbert (1864)
  • Arminius (1864)
  • Friedrich Carl (1867)
  • Kronprinz (1867)
  • K.Whilhelm (1868)
  • Arcona class Frigates (1858)
  • Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
  • Augusta class Frigates (1864)
  • Jäger class gunboats (1860)
  • Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot 1870
  • Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
  • Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
  • Ironclad Smerch (1864)
  • Pervenetz class (1863)
  • Charodeika class (1867)
  • Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
  • Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
  • Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
  • Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
  • S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
  • S3D Sinop (1860)
  • S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
  • Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
  • Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
  • Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
  • Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
  • Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
  • Almaz class Sloops (1861)
  • Opyt TGBT (1861)
  • Sobol class TGBT (1863)
  • Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
  • Ericsson class monitors (1865)
  • Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
  • Frigate Stockholm (1856)
  • Corvette Gefle (1848)
  • Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
  • Skorpionen class (1866)
  • Frigate Stolaf (1856)
  • Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
  • Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
  • Frigate Vanadis (1862)
  • Glommen class gunboats (1863)
Union Union Navy ☍ See the Page
Confederate Confederate Navy ☍ See the Page
Union 'Old Navy'(1865-1885) ☍ See the Page
  • Dunderberg Bd Ironclad (1865)
  • Wampanoag class frigates (1864)
  • Frigate Chattanooga & Idaho (1864)
  • Frigate Idaho (1864)
  • Java class frigates (1865)
  • Contookook class frigates (1865)
  • Frigate Trenton (1876)
  • Swatara class sloops (1865)
  • Alaska class sloops (1868)
  • Galena class sloops (1873)
  • Enterprise class sloops (1874)
  • Alert class sloops (1873)
  • Alarm torpedo ram (1873)
  • Intrepid torpedo ram (1874)

⚑ 1890 Fleets

Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
  • Parana class (1873)
  • La Plata class (1875)
  • Pilcomayo class (1875)
  • Ferre class (1880)
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
  • Custoza (1872)
  • Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
  • Kaiser (1871)
  • Kaiser Max class (1875)
  • Tegetthoff (1878)

  • Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
  • SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
  • SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

  • Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
  • Saida (1878)
  • Fasana (1870)
  • Aurora class (1873)
Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
  • Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
  • Skjold (1896)
  • Cruiser Fyen (1882)
  • Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)
Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
  • Spetsai class (1889)
  • Nauarchos Miaoulis (1889)
  • Greek Torpedo Boats (1881-85)
  • Greek Gunboats (1861-84)
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
  • Gunboat St Michael (1970)
  • Gunboat "1804" (1875)
  • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
  • Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
  • Konigin der Netherland (1874)
  • Draak, monitor (1877)
  • Matador, monitor (1878)
  • R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
  • Evertsen class CDS (1894)
  • Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
  • Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
  • Banda class Gunboats (1872)
  • Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
  • Gunboat Aruba (1873)
  • Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
  • Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
  • Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
  • Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
  • Combok class Gunboats (1891)
  • Borneo Gunboat (1892)
  • Nias class Gunboats (1895)
  • Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
  • Dutch sloops (1864-85)
Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
  • Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
  • Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
  • Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
  • Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
  • Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
  • Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
  • Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
  • Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
  • Marceau class barbette ships (1888)

  • Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
  • Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
  • Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
  • Tonnant ironclad (1880)
  • Furieux ironclad (1883)
  • Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
  • Jemmapes class (1892)
  • Bouvines class (1892)

  • La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
  • Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
  • Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
  • Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
  • Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
  • Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
  • Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
  • Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
  • Troude class Cruisers (1888)
  • Alger class Cruisers (1891)
  • Friant class Cruisers (1893)
  • Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
  • Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
  • Linois class Cruisers (1896)
  • D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
  • Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

  • R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
  • Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
  • Cruiser Tourville (1876)
  • Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
  • Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
  • Villars class Cruisers (1879)
  • Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
  • Cruiser Naiade (1881)
  • Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
  • Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
  • Cruiser Milan (1884)

  • Parseval class sloops (1876)
  • Bisson class sloops (1874)
  • Epee class gunboats (1873)
  • Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
  • Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
  • Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
  • G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
  • Inconstant class sloops (1887)
  • Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
  • Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
  • Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Marinha do Portugal 1898 Marinha do Portugal
Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
  • GB Indipendencia (1874)
  • GB Democrata (1875)
Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
  • Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
  • Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
  • Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
  • Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
  • Turkish TBs (1885-94)
Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina
  • Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
  • Caio Duilio class (1879)
  • Italia class (1885)
  • Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
  • Carracciolo (1869)
  • Vettor Pisani (1869)
  • Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
  • Flavio Goia (1881)
  • Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
  • C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
  • Pietro Micca (1876)
  • Tripoli (1886)
  • Goito class (1887)
  • Folgore class (1887)
  • Partenope class (1889)
  • Giovanni Bausan (1883)
  • Etna class (1885)
  • Dogali (1885)
  • Piemonte (1888)
  • Staffeta (1876)
  • Rapido (1876)
  • Barbarigo class (1879)
  • Messagero (1885)
  • Archimede class (1887)
  • Guardiano class GB (1874)
  • Scilla class GB (1874)
  • Provana class GB (1884)
  • Curtatone class GB (1887)
  • Castore class GB (1888)
Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
  • Ironclad Fuso (1877)
  • Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

  • Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
  • Cruiser Takao (1888)
  • Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
  • Cruiser Chishima (1890)
  • Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
  • Cruiser Miyako (1898)

  • Frigate Nisshin (1869)
  • Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
  • Kaimon class CVT (1882)
  • Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
  • Sloop Seiki (1875)
  • Sloop Amagi (1877)
  • Corvette Jingei (1876)
  • Gunboat Banjo (1878)
  • Maya class GB (1886)
  • Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine
  • Ironclad Hansa (1872)
  • G.Kurfürst class (1873)
  • Kaiser class (1874)
  • Sachsen class (1877)
  • Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

  • Ariadne class CVT (1871)
  • Leipzig class CVT (1875)
  • Bismarck class CVT (1877)
  • Carola class CVT (1880)
  • Corvette Nixe (1885)
  • Corvette Charlotte (1885)
  • Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
  • Bussard class (1890)

  • Aviso Zieten (1876)
  • Blitz class Avisos (1882)
  • Aviso Greif (1886)
  • Wacht class Avisos (1887)
  • Meteor class Avisos (1890)
  • Albatross class GBT (1871)
  • Cyclop GBT (1874)
  • Otter GBT (1877)
  • Wolf class GBT (1878)
  • Habitch class GBT (1879)
  • Hay GBT (1881)
  • Eber GBT (1881)
  • Rhein class Monitors (1872)
  • Wespe class Monitors (1876)
  • Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
  • Lima class Cruisers (1880)
  • Chilean TBs (1879)
Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
  • Lindormen (1868)
  • Gorm (1870)
  • Odin (1872)
  • Helgoland (1878)
  • Tordenskjold (1880)
  • Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy 1898
  • Hotspur (1870)
  • Glatton (1871)
  • Devastation class (1871)
  • Cyclops class (1871)
  • Rupert (1874)
  • Neptune class (1874)
  • Dreadnought (1875)
  • Inflexible (1876)
  • Agamemnon class (1879)
  • Conqueror class (1881)
  • Colossus class (1882)
  • Admiral class (1882)
  • Trafalgar class (1887)
  • Victoria class (1890)
  • Royal Sovereign class (1891)
  • Centurion class (1892)
  • Renown (1895)

  • HMS Shannon (1875)
  • Nelson class (1876)
  • Iris class (1877)
  • Leander class (1882)
  • Imperieuse class (1883)
  • Mersey class (1885)
  • Surprise class (1885)
  • Scout class (1885)
  • Archer class (1885)
  • Orlando class (1886)
  • Medea class (1888)
  • Barracouta class (1889)
  • Barham class (1889)
  • Pearl class (1889)
  • 1870-90 Torpedo Boats
  • Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
    • Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

    • Aragon class (1879)
    • Velasco class (1881)
    • Isla de Luzon (1886)
    • Alfonso XII class (1887)
    • Reina Regentes class (1887)
    • Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
    • Emperador Carlos V (1895)
    • Cristobal Colon (1896)
    • Princesa de Asturias class (1896)

    • Destructor class (1886)
    • Temerario class (1891)
    • TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
    • De Molina class (1896)
    • Furor class (1896)
    • Audaz class (1897)
    • Spanish TBs (1878-87)
    • Fernando class gunboats (1875)
    • Concha class gunboats (1883)
    US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy US Navy 1898☍ See the Page
    • USS Maine (1889)
    • USS Texas (1892)
    • Indiana class (1893)
    • USS Iowa (1896)

    • Amphitrite class (1876)
    • USS Puritan (1882)
    • USS Monterey (1891)

    • Atlanta class (1884)
    • USS Chicago (1885)
    • USS Charleston (1888)
    • USS Baltimore (1888)
    • USS Philadelphia (1889)
    • USS San Francisco (1889)
    • USS Newark (1890)
    • USS New York (1891)
    • USS Olympia (1892)
    • Cincinatti class (1892)
    • Montgomery class (1893)
    • Columbia class (1893)
    • USS Brooklyn (1895)

    • USS Vesuvius (1888)
    • USS Katahdin (1893)
    • USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
    • GB USS Dolphin (1884)
    • Yorktown class GB (1888)
    • GB USS Petrel (1888)
    • GB USS Bancroft (1892)
    • Machias class GB (1891)
    • GB USS Nashville (1895)
    • Wilmington class GB (1895)
    • Annapolis class GB (1896)
    • Wheeling class GB (1897)
    • Small gunboats (1886-95)
    • St Louis class AMC (1894)
    • Harvard class AMC (1888)
    • USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
    • USN Armed Yachts


    ☉ Entente Fleets

    US ww1 US Navy ☍ See the Page
    British ww1 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww1 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Japan ww1 Nihhon Kaigun ☍ See the Page
    Russia ww1 Russkiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Italy ww1 Regia Marina

    ✠ Central Empires

    German Navy 1914 Kaiserliche Marine
    austria-hungary ww1 KuK Kriesgmarine
    turkey ww1 Osmanli Donmanasi
    • Barbarossa class battleships (1892)
    • Yavuz (1914)
    • Cruiser Mecidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Hamidieh (1903)
    • Cruiser Midilli (1914)
    • Namet Torpedo cruisers (1890)
    • Sahahani Deria Torpedo cruisers (1892)
    • Destroyers class Berk-Efshan (1894)
    • Destroyers class Yarishar (1907)
    • Destroyers class Muavenet (1909)
    • Berk i Savket class Torpedo gunboats (1906)
    • Marmaris gunboat (1903)
    • Sedd ul Bahr class gunboats (1907)
    • Isa Reis class gunboats (1911)
    • Preveze class gunboats (1912)
    • Turkish WW1 Torpedo Boats
    • Turkish Armed Yachts (1861-1903)
    • Turkish WW1 Minelayers

    ⚑ Neutral Countries

    Argentinian navy Argentina
    Brazilian Navy Brazil
    Chilean Navy 1914 Chile
    Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
    • Gunboat Baire (1906)
    • Gunboat Patria (1911)
    • Diez de octubre class GB (1911)
    • Sloop Cuba (1911)
    Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti
    • Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
    • GB Toussaint Louverture (1886)
    • GB Capois la Mort (1893)
    • GB Crete a Pierot (1895)
    Mexican Navy Mexico
    • Cruiser Zatagosa (1891)
    • GB Plan de Guadalupe (1892)
    • Tampico class GB (1902)
    • N. Bravo class GB (1903)
    Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
    • Almirante Grau class (1906)
    • Ferre class subs. (1912)
    Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
    • Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
    • Drski class TBs (1906)
    Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
    • Skjold class (1896)
    • Herluf Trolle class (1899)
    • Herluf Trolle (1908)
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Hekla class cruisers (1890)
    • Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
    • Fyen class crusiers (1882)
    • Danish TBs (1879-1918)
    • Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
    • Danish Minelayer/sweepers
    Greek Royal Navy Greece
    Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
    • Eversten class (1894)
    • Konigin Regentes class (1900)
    • De Zeven Provincien (1909)
    • Dutch dreadnought (project)
    • Holland class cruisers (1896)
    • Fret class destroyers
    • Dutch Torpedo boats
    • Dutch gunboats
    • Dutch submarines
    • Dutch minelayers
    Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
    • Haarfarge class (1897)
    • Norge class (1900)
    • Norwegian Monitors
    • Cr. Frithjof (1895)
    • Cr. Viking (1891)
    • DD Draug (1908)
    • Norwegian ww1 TBs
    • Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
    • Sub. Kobben (1909)
    • Ml. Fröya (1916)
    • Ml. Glommen (1917)
    Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
    • Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
    • Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
    • Sao Gabriel class (1898)
    • Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
    • Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
    • Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
    • Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
    • Portuguese ww1 Gunboats
    Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
    Spanish Armada Spain
    Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
    Chinese navy 1914 China
    Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
    • Maha Chakri (1892)
    • Thoon Kramon (1866)
    • Makrut Rajakumarn (1883)

    ⚏ WW1 3rd/4th rank navies

    ✈ WW1 Naval Aviation

    US naval aviation USN
    • Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
    • Aeromarine 39 (1917)
    • Curtiss H (1917)
    • Curtiss F5L (1918)
    • Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
    • Curtiss NC (1918)
    • Curtiss NC4 (1918)
    • Short 184 (1915)
    • Fairey Campania (1917)
    • Felixtowe F2 (1916)
    • Felixtowe F3 (1917)
    • Felixtowe F5 (1918)
    • Sopwith Baby (1917)
    • Fairey Hamble Baby (1917)
    • Fairey III (1918)
    • Short S38 (1912)
    • Short Admiralty Type 166 (1914)
    • Short Admiralty Type 184 (1915)

    • Blackburn Kangaroo
    • Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter
    • Sopwith Pup
    • Sopwith Cuckoo 1918
    • Royal Aircraft Factory Airships
    German Imperial naval aviation Marineflieger
    • Albatros W.4 (1916)
    • Albatros W.8 (1918)
    • Friedrichshafen Models
    • Gotha WD.1-27 (1918)
    • Hansa-Brandenburg series
    • L.F.G V.19 Stralsund (1918)
    • L.F.G W (1916)
    • L.F.G WD (1917)
    • Lübeck-Travemünde (1914)
    • Oertz W series (1914)
    • Rumpler 4B (1914)
    • Sablatnig SF (1916)
    • Zeppelin-Lindau Rs series
    • Kaiserlichesmarine Zeppelins
    French naval aviation French Naval Aviation
    • Borel Type Bo.11 (1911)
    • Nieuport VI.H (1912)
    • Nieuport X.H (1913)
    • Donnet-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA-Leveque (1913)
    • FBA (1913)
    • Donnet-Denhaut (1915)
    • Borel-Odier Type Bo-T(1916)
    • Levy G.L.40 (1917)
    • Blériot-SPAD S.XIV (1917)
    • Hanriot HD.2 (1918)
    • Zodiac Airships
    Italian naval aviation Italian Naval Aviation
    • Ansaldo SVA Idro (1916)
    • Ansaldo Baby Idro (1915)
    • Macchi M3 (1916)
    • Macchi M5 (1918)
    • SIAI S.12 (1918)
    Russian naval aviation Russian Naval Aviation
    • Grigorovich M-5 (1915)
    • Grigorovich M-9 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-11 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-15 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    • Grigorovich M-16 (1916)
    ✠ K.u.K. SeeFliegkorps
    • Lohner E (1914)
    • Lohner L (1915)
    • Oeffag G (1916)
    IJN Aviation IJN Air Service
    • IJN Farman 1914
    • Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1917)
    • Yokosuka Igo-Ko (1920)


    ✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

    US ww2 US Navy
    British ww2 Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    French ww2 Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    Soviet ww2 Sovietskiy Flot ☍ See the Page
    Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Koninklije Marine, Dutch Navy ww2 Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    Chinese Navy Chinese Navy 1937 ☍ See the Page

    ✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

    Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    italy ww2 Regia Marina ☍ See the Page
    German ww2 Kriegsmarine ☍ See the Page

    ⚑ Neutral Navies

    Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    Armada de Chile Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    Søværnet Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Niels Iuel (1918)
    • Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    • Danish ww2 submarines
    • Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers
    Merivoimat Finnish Navy ☍ See the Page
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Greek ww2 Destroyers
    • Greek ww2 submarines
    • Greek ww2 minelayers
    Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser ORP Dragon
    • Cruiser ORP Conrad
    • Brislawicka class Destroyers
    • Witcher ww2 Destroyers
    • Minelayer Gryf
    • Wilk class sub.
    • Orzel class sub.
    • Jakolska class minesweepers
    • Polish Monitors
    Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Douro class DDs
    • Delfim class sub
    • Velho class gb
    • Albuquerque class gb
    • Nunes class sloops
    Romanian Navy Romanian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Romanian ww2 Destroyers
    • Romanian ww2 Submarines
    Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret ☍ See the Page
    • Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats
    Spanish Armada Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Sverige class CBBs (1915)
    • Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
    • Interwar Swedish CBB projects

    • Tre Kronor class (1943)
    • Gotland (1933)
    • Fylgia (1905)

    • Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
    • Psilander class DDs (1926)
    • Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
    • Romulus class DDs (1934)
    • Göteborg class DDs (1935)
    • Mode class DDs (1942)
    • Visby class DDs (1942)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)

    • Swedish ww2 TBs
    • Swedish ww2 Submarines
    • Swedish ww2 Minelayers
    • Swedish ww2 MTBs
    • Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
    • Swedish ww2 Minesweepers
    Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kocatepe class Destroyers
    • Tinaztepe class Destroyers
    • İnönü class submarines
    • Submarine Dumplumpynar
    • Submarine Sakarya
    • Submarine Gur
    • Submarine Batiray
    • Atilay class submarines
    Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cruiser Dalmacija
    • Dubrovnik class DDs
    • Beograd class DDs
    • Osvetnik class subs
    • Hrabi class subs
    • Gunboat Beli Orao
    Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Taksin class
    • Ratanakosindra class
    • Sri Ayuthia class
    • Puket class
    • Tachin class
    • Sinsamudar class sub
    minor navies Minor Navies ☍ See the Page

    ✈ Naval Aviation

    Latest entries | WW1 | Cold War
    US naval aviation USN aviation ☍ See the Page
    Fleet Air Arm ☍ See the Page
    IJN aviation ☍ See the Page
    • Mitsubishi 1MF (1923)
    • Nakajima A1N (1930)
    • Nakajima A2N (1932)
    • Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" (1935)
    • Nakajima A4N (1935)
    • Mitsubishi A6M "zeke" (1940)
    • Nakajima J1N Gekko "Irving" (1941)
    • Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "George" (1942)
    • Nakajima J5N Tenrai (1944)

    • Aichi S1A Denko* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi A7M reppu* (1944)
    • Mitsubishi J8M1 Shusui* (1945)
    • Mitsubishi J8M2 Shusui-kai* (1945)
    • Kyushu J7W Shinden* (1945)
    • Nakajima J9Y Kikka* (1945)

    • Mitsubishi 1MT (1922)
    • Mitsubishi B1M (1923)
    • Mitsubishi B2M (1932)
    • Kugisho B3Y (1932)
    • Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
    • Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi B5M "Mabel" (1937)
    • Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
    • Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
    • Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
    • Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
    • Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1942)
    • Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
    • Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
    • Kawanishi P1Y Ginga "Frances" (1943)
    • Kyushu Q1W Tokai "Lorna" (1943)
    • Tachikawa Ki-74 "Patsy" (1944)
    • Nakajima G8N Renzan "Rita" (1944)

    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Nakajima C2N1 (1931)
    • Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
    • Nakajima L1N1 (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K2/4-L (1938)
    • Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
    • Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
    • Mitsubishi L4M1 (1942)
    • Nakajima G5N Shinzan "Liz" (1942)
    • Yokosuka L3Y "Tina" (1942)
    • Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna"(1943)
    • Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
    • Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
    • Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945)

    • Hiro H1H (1926)
    • Yokosuka E1Y (1926)
    • Nakajima E2N (1927)
    • Aichi E3A (1929)
    • Yokosuka K4Y (1930)
    • Nakajima E4N (1931)
    • Nakajima E8N "Dave" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E7K "Alf" (1935)
    • Kawanishi E11K1 (1937)
    • Aichi E11A "Laura" (1938)
    • Watanabe E9W (1938)
    • Watanabe K8W* (1938)
    • Mitsubishi F1M "pete" (1941)
    • Nakajima E14Y "Glen" (1941)
    • Aichi E13A "Jake" (1941)
    • Aichi H9A (1942)
    • Nakajima A6M2-N (1942)
    • Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1942)
    • Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" (1943)
    • Aichi E16A "Zuiun" (1944)
    • Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1945)

    • Kawanishi E11K* (1937)
    • Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" (1938)
    • Kawanishi K6K* (1938)
    • Kawanishi H6K3 (1939)
    • Kawanishi K8K (1940)
    • Kawanishi H8K "Emily" (1942)
    • Yokosuka H5Y "Cherry" (1936)

    • Mitsubishi 2MR (1923)
    • Yokosho K1Y (1924)
    • Yokosuka K2Y (1928)
    • Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
    • Hitachi LXG1 (1934)
    • Kyushu K10W "Oak" (1943)
    Italian Aviation ☍ See the Page
    French Aeronavale ☍ See the Page
    • Levasseur PL5/9 (1924)
    • Wibault 74 (1926)
    • CAMS 37 (1926)
    • Gourdou-Leseurre GL.300 series (1926-39)
    • Levasseur PL7 (1928)
    • Levasseur PL10 (1929)
    • Latécoere 290 (1931)
    • Breguet 521/22/23 (1931)
    • Leo H257 bis (1932)
    • Latécoere 300 series (1932)
    • Morane 226 (1934)
    • Dewoitine 376 (1934)
    • Latécoere 321 (1935)
    • Potez 452 (1935)
    • Latécoere 38.1 (1936)
    • Loire 210 (1936)
    • Leo H43 (1936)
    • Levasseur PL107 (1937)
    • Loire 130 (1937)
    • Dewoitine HD.730 (1938)
    • Latecoere 298 (1938)
    • LN 401 (1938)
    Soviet Naval Aviation
    Luftwaffe (Naval) ☍ See the Page
    • Arado 197 (1937)
    • Fieseler Fi-167 (1938)
    • Junkers Ju-87C (1938)
    • Messerschmitt Me 109T (1941)
    • Messerschmitt 155 (1944)

    • Heinkel HE 1 (1921)
    • Caspar U1 (1922)
    • Dornier Do J Wal (1922)
    • Dornier Do 16 ‘Wal’ (1923)
    • Heinkel HE 2 (1923)
    • Junkers A 20/Ju 20 (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro II (1923)
    • Rohrbach Ro III (1924)
    • Dornier Do D (1924)
    • Dornier Do E (1924)
    • Junkers G 24 (1924)
    • Rohrbach Ro IV (1925)
    • Heinkel HD 14 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 25 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 26 (1925)
    • Heinkel HE 24 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 4 (1926)
    • Junkers W 33/34 (1926)
    • Heinkel HE 5 (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro VII Robbe (1926)
    • Rohrbach Ro V Rocco (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 31 (1927)
    • Heinkel HE 8 (1927)
    • Arado W II (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 9 (1928)
    • Heinkel HD 16 (1928)
    • Heinkel He 55 (1929)
    • Heinkel He 56 (1929)
    • Arado SSD I (1930)
    • Junkers Ju 52w (1930)
    • Heinkel HE 42 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 50 (1931)
    • Heinkel He 59 (1931)
    • Arado Ar 66 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 58 (1932)
    • Junkers Ju 46 (1932)
    • Klemm Kl 35bW (1932)
    • Heinkel He 62 (1932)
    • Heinkel He 60 (1933)
    • Heinkel He 51w (1933)
    • Arado Ar 95 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 196 (1937)
    • Arado Ar 199 (1939)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 139 (1936)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 138 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss Ha 140 (1937)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 222 (1938)
    • Blohm & Voss BV 238 (1942)
    • Dornier Do 24/318 (1937)
    • Dornier Do 18 (1935)
    • Dornier Do 26 (1938)
    • Dornier Do 22 (1938)
    • DFS Seeadler (1936)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 58W (1935)
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 62 (1937)
    • Heinkel He 114 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 115 (1936)
    • Heinkel He 119 (1936)
    Dutch Naval Aviation
    • Fokker W.3 (1915)
    • Fokker T.II (1921)
    • Fokker B.I/III (1922)
    • Fokker B.II (1923)
    • Fokker T.III (1924)
    • Fokker T.IV (1927)
    • Fokker B.IV (1928)
    • Fokker C.VII W (1928)
    • Fokker C.VIII W (1929)
    • Fokker C.XI W (1934)
    • Fokker C.XIV-W (1937)
    • Fokker T.VIII-W (1939)

    ☢ The Cold War


    Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot ☍ See the Page
    Warsaw Pact cold war navy Warsaw Pact Navies ☍ See the Detail
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • Volksmarine East Germany
    • Parchim class corvettes (1985)
    • Hai class sub-chasers (1958)
    • Volksmarine's minesweepers
    • Volksmarine's FAC
    • Volksmarine's Landing ships
    • ORP Warzsawa (1970)
    • ORP Kaszub (1986)
    • Polish Landing ships
    • Polish FACs
    • Polish Patrol ships
    • Polish Minesweepers
    • Missile Destroyer Muntenia (1982)
    • Tetal class Frigates (1981)
    • Romanian river patrol crafts

    ✦ NATO

    bundesmarine Bundesmarine ☍ See the Page
    Dutch Navy Danish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)
    • Frigate Beskytteren (1976)
    • Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)
    • Thetis class frigates (1989)
    • Bellona class corvettes (1955)
    • Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

    • Delfinen class submarines (1958)
    • Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

    • Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)
    • Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)
    • Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)
    • Soloven class Torpedo Boats (1962)
    • Willemoes class FAC (1976)
    • Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)
    • Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)
    • Danish Minelayers
    • Danish Minesweepers
    Dutch Navy Dutch Navy ☍ See the Page
    • CV Karel Doorman (1948)
    • De Zeven Provinciën class cruisers (1945)
    • Holland class DDs (1953)
    • Friesland class DDs (1953)
    • Roodfier class Frigates (1953)
    • Frigate Lynx (1954)
    • Van Speijk class Frigates (1965)
    • Tromp class Frigates (1973)
    • Kortenaer class frigates (1976)
    • Van H. class Frigates (1983)
    • K. Doorman class Frigates (1988)
    • Dolfijn clas sub. (1959)
    • Zwaardvis class subs. (1970)
    • Walrus class subs. (1985)
    • ATD Rotterdam (1990s)
    • Dokkum class minesweepers (1954)
    • Alkmaar class minesweepers (1982)
    Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Hydra class FFs (1990)
    • Greek cold war Subs
    • Greek Amphibious ships
    • Greek MTBs/FACs
    • Greek Patrol Vessels
    Eire Irish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eithne class PBs (1983)
    • Cliona class PBs
    • Deidre/Emer class PBs
    • Orla class fast PBs
    Marina Militare Marina Militare ☍ See the Page
      Aircraft Carriers
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1983)
    • Conte di Cavour (2004)*
    • Trieste (2022)*
    • Cruisers
    • Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)
    • Doria class H. cruisers (1962)
    • Vittorio Veneto (1969)
    • Destroyers

    • Impetuoso class (1956)
    • Impavido class (1957)
    • Audace class (1971)
    • De La Penne class (1989)
    • Orizzonte class (2007)*
    • Frigates
    • Grecale class (1949)
    • Canopo class (1955)
    • Bergamini class (1960)
    • Alpino class (1967)
    • Lupo class (1976)
    • Maestrale class (1981)
    • Bergamini class (2013)*
    • Thaon di Revel class (2020)*
    • Corvettes (OPV)
    • Albatros class (1954)
    • De Cristofaro class (1965)
    • Minerva class (1987)
    • Cassiopeia class (1989)
    • Esploratore class (1997)*
    • Sirio class (2003)*
    • Commandanti class (2004)*
    • Submarines
    • Toti class (1967)
    • Sauro class (1976)
    • Pelosi class (1986)
    • Sauro class (1992)*
    • Todaro class (2006)*
    • Attack/Amphibious ships
    • San Giorgio LSD (1987)
    • Gorgona class CTS (1987)
    • Italian Landing Crafts (1947-2020)
    • Misc. ships
    • Folgore PB (1952)
    • Lampo class PBs (1960)
    • Freccia class PBs (1965)
    • Sparviero class GMHF (1973)
    • Stromboli class AOR (1975)
    • Anteo SRS (1980)
    • Etna class LSS (1988)
    • Vulcano AOR (1998)*
    • Elettra EWSS (2003)*
    • Etna AOR (2021)*
    • Mine warfare ships
    • Lerici class (1982)
    • Gaeta class (1992)*
    Marine Française Marine Nationale ☍ See the Page
    • Jean Bart (1949)
    • Aircraft/Helicopter carriers
    • Dixmude (1946)
    • Arromanches (1946)
    • Lafayette class light carriers (1954)
    • PA 28 class project (1947)
    • Clemenceau class (1957)
    • Jeanne d'Arc (1961)
    • PA 58 (1958)
    • PH 75/79 (1975)
    • Charles de Gaulle (1994)

    • Cruisers
    • De Grasse (1946)
    • Chateaurenault class (1950)
    • Colbert (1956)

    • Destroyers
    • Surcouf class (1953)
    • Duperre class (1956)
    • La Galissonniere class (1960)
    • Suffren class (1965)
    • Aconit (1970)
    • Tourville class (1972)
    • G. Leygues class (1976)
    • Cassard class (1985)

    • Frigates
    • Le Corse class (1952)
    • Le Normand class (1954)
    • Cdt Riviere class (1958)
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Lafayette class (1990)

    • Corvettes
    • Estiennes D'Orves class (1973)
    • Floreal class (1990)

    • Submarines
    • La Creole class (1940)
    • Narval class (1954)
    • Arethuse class (1957)
    • Daphne class (1959)
    • Gymnote test SSBN (1964)
    • Le Redoutable SSBN (1967)
    • Agosta SSN (1974)
    • Rubis SSN (1979)
    • Amethyste SSN (1988)
    • Le Triomphant SSBN (started 1989)

    • Amphibian Ships
    • Issole (1958)
    • EDIC class (1958)
    • Trieux class (1958)
    • Ouragan lass (1963)
    • Champlain lass (1973)
    • Bougainville (1986)
    • Foudre class (1988)
    • CDIC lass (1989)

    • Misc. ships
    • Le Fougueux class (1958)
    • La Combattante class (1964)
    • Trident class (1976)
    • L'Audacieuse class (1984)
    • Grebe class (1989)
    • Sirius class (1952)
    • Circe class (1972)
    • Eridan class (1979)
    • Vulcain class (1986)
    RCAN RCAN ☍ See the Page
    • HCMS Bonaventure (1957)
    • St Laurent class DDE (1951)
    • Algonquin class DDE (1952)
    • Restigouche class DDs (1954)
    • Mackenzie class DDs (1961)
    • Annapolis class DDH (1963)
    • Iroquois class DDH (1970)

    • River (mod) 1955
    • Tribal class FFs (Pjct)
    • City class DDH (1988)

    • Ojibwa class sub. (1964)
    • Kingston class MCFV (1995)
    Royal Navy Royal Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Cold War Aircraft Carriers
    • Centaur class (1947)
    • HMS Victorious (1957)
    • HMS Eagle (1946)
    • HMS Ark Royal (1950)
    • HMS Hermes (1953)
    • CVA-01 class (1966 project)
    • Invincible class (1977)

    • Cold War Cruisers
    • Tiger class (1945)

    • Destroyers
    • Daring class (1949)
    • 1953 design (project)
    • Cavendish class (1944)
    • Weapon class (1945)
    • Battle class (1945)
    • FADEP program (1946)
    • County class GMD (1959)
    • Bristol class GMD (1969)
    • Sheffield class GMD (1971)
    • Manchester class GMD (1980)
    • Type 43 GMD (1974)

    • British cold-war Frigates
    • Rapid class (1942)
    • Tenacious class (1941)
    • Whitby class (1954)
    • Blackwood class (1953)
    • Leopard class (1954)
    • Salisbury class (1953)
    • Tribal class (1959)
    • Rothesay class (1957)
    • Leander class (1961)
    • BB Leander class (1967)
    • HMS Mermaid (1966)
    • Amazon class (1971)
    • Broadsword class (1976)
    • Boxer class (1981)
    • Cornwall class (1985)
    • Duke class (1987)

    • British cold war Submarines
    • T (conv.) class (1944)
    • T (Stream) class (1945)
    • A (Mod.) class (1944)
    • Explorer class (1954)
    • Strickleback class (1954)
    • Porpoise class (1956)
    • Oberon class (1959)
    • HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
    • Valiant class SSN (1963)
    • Resolution class SSBN (1966)
    • Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
    • Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
    • Upholder class (1986)
    • Vanguard class SSBN (started)

    • Assault ships
    • Fearless class (1963)
    • HMS Ocean (started)
    • Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
    • Sir Galahad (1986)
    • Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
    • Brit. LCVPs (1963)
    • Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

    • Minesweepers/layers
    • Ton class (1952)
    • Ham class (1947)
    • Ley class (1952)
    • HMS Abdiel (1967)
    • HMS Wilton (1972)
    • Hunt class (1978)
    • Venturer class (1979)
    • River class (1983)
    • Sandown class (1988)

    • Misc. ships
    • HMS Argus ATS (1988)
    • Ford class SDF (1951)
    • Cormorant class (1985)
    • Kingfisger class (1974)
    • HMS Jura OPV (1975)
    • Island class OPVs (1976)
    • HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
    • Castle class OPVs (1980)
    • Peacock class OPVs (1982)
    • MBT 538 class (1948)
    • Gay class FACs (1952)
    • Dark class FACs (1954)
    • Bold class FACs (1955)
    • Brave class FACs (1957)
    • Tenacity class PCs (1967)
    • Brave class FPCs (1969)
    Armada de espanola - Spanish cold war navy Spanish Armada ☍ See the Page
    • Dédalo aircraft carrier (1967)
    • Principe de Asturias (1982)

    • Alava class DDs (1946)
    • Audaz class DDs (1955)
    • Oquendo class DDs (1956)
    • Roger de Lauria class (1967)

    • Baleares class FFs (1971)
    • Descubierta class FFs (1978)
    • Numancia class FFs (1987)

    • Pizarro class gunboats (1944)
    • Artevida class Cvs (1952)
    • Serviola class Cvs (1990)
    • Spanish cold-war submarines
    • Spanish FACs
    • Spanish Minesweepers
    Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen ☍ See the Page
    • Tre Kronor class (1946)
    • Öland class DDs (1945)
    • Halland class DDs (1952) (1945)
    • Ostergotland class DDs (1956)
    • Spica III class Corvettes (1984)
    • Goteborg class Corvettes (1989)

    • U1 class subs (mod.1963)
    • Hajen class subs (1954)
    • Sjoormen class subs (1967)
    • Nacken class subs (1978)
    • Vastergotland class subs (1986)
    • Gotland class subs (1995)

    • T32 class MTBs (1951)
    • T42 class MTBs (1955)
    • Plejad class FACs (1951)
    • Spica I class FACs (1966)
    • Spica II class FACs (1972)
    • Hugin class FACs (1973)
    • Swedish Patrol Boats
    • Swedish minesweepers
    • Swedish Icebreakers
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters
    Turkish Navy Turkish Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Berk class FFs (1971)
    • Atilay class sub. (1974)
    • Cakabey class LST
    • Osman Gazi class LST
    • Turkish Fast Attack Crafts
    • Turkish Patrol Boats
    US Navy USN (cold war) ☍ See the Page

    ☯ ASIA

    Chinese Navy ☍ See the Page
    Indian Navy Indian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Vikrant class CVs (1961)
    • Viraat class CVs (1986)

    • Cruiser Delhi (1948)
    • Cruiser Mysore (1957)
    • Raja class DDs (1949)
    • Rajput class DDs (1980)
    • Delhi class DDs (1990)

    • Khukri class FFs (1956)
    • Talwar class FFs (1958)
    • Brahmaputra class FFs (1957)
    • Nilgiri class FFs (1968)
    • Godavari class FFs (1980)

    • Kusura class subs (1970)
    • Shishumar class subs (1984)
    • Sindhugosh class subs (1986)

    • Indian Amphibious ships
    • Indian corvettes (1969-90)
    • Khukri class corvettes (1989)
    • SDB Mk.2 class PBs (1977)
    • Vikram class OPVs (1979)
    • Sukanya class OPVs (1989)
    Indonesia Indonesian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Fatahilla class Frigates (1977)
    • Pattimura class corvettes (1956)
    • Indonesian Marines
    • Indonesian Mine Vessels
    • Indonesian FAC/OPVs
    JMSDF JMSDF ☍ See the Page
      JMSDF Destroyers
    • Harukaze class DD (1955)
    • Ayanami class DD (1957)
    • Murasame class DD (1958)
    • Akizuki class DD (1959)
    • Amatukaze missile DD (1963)
    • Yamagumo class DDE (1965)
    • Takatsuki class DD (1966)
    • Minegumo class DDE (1967)
    • Haruna class DDH (1971)
    • Tachikaze class DD (1974)
    • Shirane class DDH (1978)
    • Hatsuyuki class DDs (1980)
    • Hatakaze class DDs (1984)
    • Asigiri class DDs (1986)
    • Kongo class DDs (started 1990)

    • JMSDF Frigates
    • Akebono class FFs (1955)
    • Isuzu class FFs (1961)
    • Chikugo class FFs (1970)
    • Ishikari class FFs (1980)
    • Yubari class FFs (1982)
    • Abukuma class FFs (1988)

    • JMSDF submarines
    • Oyashio class Sub. (1959)
    • Hayashio class Sub. (1961)
    • Natsushio class Sub. (1963)
    • Oshio class Sub. (1964)
    • Uzushio class Sub. (1970)
    • Yushio class Sub. (1979)
    • Harushio class Sub. (1989)

    • JMSDF Misc. ships
    • Japanese Landing Ships
    • Japanese Large Patrol Ships
    • Japanese Patrol Crafts
    • Japanese Minesweepers
    • Japanese Sub-chasers
    North Korean Navy North Korean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Najin class Frigates
    • Experimental Frigate Soho
    • Sariwan class Corvettes

    • Sinpo class subs.
    • Sang-O class subs.
    • Yono class subs.
    • Yugo class subs.

    • Hungnam class LCM
    • Hante class LST
    • Songjong class HVC
    • Sin Hung/Ku Song FACs
    • Anju class FACs
    • Iwon class FACs
    • Chaho class FACs
    • Hong Jin class FAC-G
    • Sohung class MTBs
    • Sinpo class MTBs
    • Nampo class FALC
    Philippines Navy Philippines Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Datu Kalantian class Frigates (1976)
    • Bacolod City class LS(L)
    • Philippino Patrol Crafts
    Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN ☍ See the Page
    • Ulsan class frigates (1980)
    • Pohang class corvettes (1984)
    • Dong Hae class corvettes (1982)
    • Han Kang class patrol corvettes (1985)
    • Chamsuri (PKM 268) PBs (1978)
    • ROKS coast guard vessels
    • Paek Ku class FAC (1975)
    • Kang Keong class minehunters (1986)
    Taiwanese Navy Taiwanese Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Kwang Hua class FFs (1991)
    • Kwang Hua II class FFs (1993)
    • Hai Lung class sub. (1986)
    • LCU 1466 class LCU (1955)
    • Fuh Chow class FAC
    • Lung Chiang class FAC
    • Hai Ou class FAC(M)
    • MWW 50 class minehunters


    Israeli Navy IDF Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Eilat class Corvettes (1993)
    • SAAR 5 Project
    • SAAR 1 FAC
    • SAAR 4 FAC
    • SAAR 4.5 FAC
    • Dvora class FAC
    • Shimrit class MHFs
    • IDF FACs/PBs
    • Etzion Geber LST
    • Ash class LCT
    Iranian Navy Iranian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Destroyer Artemiz (1965)
    • Bayandor class FFs (1963)
    • Alvand class FFs (1969)
    • Khalije Fars class DDs (2016)*


    Australian Navy RAN ☍ See the Page
    • HMAS Sydney (1948*)
    • HMAS Melbourne (1955*)
    • Tobruk class DDs (1947)
    • Voyager class DDs (1952)
    • Perth class MDD (1963)
    • Quadrant class FFs (1953)
    • Yarra class FFs (1958)
    • Swan class FFs (1967)
    • Adelaide class MFFs (1978)
    • Anzac class MFFs (1990s)
    • Oxley class subs (1965)
    • Collins class subs (1990s)
    • Australian Amphibious ships
    • Fremantle class PBs
    RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy ☍ See the Page
    • HMNZS Royalist (1956)
    • Pukaki class patrol Crafts (1974)
    • Moa class patrol crafts (1983)
    • HMNZS Aotearoa (2019)*

    ☩ South America

    Armada de argentina Argentina ☍ See the Page
    • ARA Independencia (1958)
    • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (1968)
    • Belgrano class cruisers (1951)
    • Almirante Brown class Frigates (1981)
    • Mantilla class corvettes (1981)
    • Espora class corvettes (1982)
    • Salta class submarines (1972)
    • Santa Cruz class submarines (1982)
    Brazilian Navy Brazilian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Minas Gerais aircraft carrier (1956)
    • Cruiser Barroso (1951)
    • Cruiser Tamandare (1951)
    • Acre class destroyers (1945)
    • Niteroi class Frigates (1974)
    • Ihnauma class Frigate (1986)
    • Tupi class submarines (1987)
    • Brazilian patrol ships
    Chilean Navy Chilean Navy ☍ See the Page
    • O'Higgins class cruisers
    • Lattore Cruiser (1971)
    • Almirante class destroyers (1960)
    • Prat class M. Destroyers (1982)
    • Almirante Lynch class Frigates (1972)
    • Thomson class subs (1982)
    • Small surface combatants
    Peruvian Navy Peruvian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • Almirante Grau(ii) class
    • Almirante Grau(iii) class
    • Abtao class sub.
    • PR-72P class corvettes
    • Velarde class OPVs

    ℣ AFRICA

    Egyptian Navy Egyptian Navy ☍ See the Page
    • October class FAC/M (1975)
    • Ramadan class FAC/M (1979)
    SADF South African Navy ☍ See the Page
    ☫ Minor cold war/modern Navies Algerian NavyAzerbaijani NavyBangladesh NavyBarheini NavyBolivian NavyCambodian NavyComoros NavyCosta Rica NavyCroatian NavyCuban NavyDjibouti NavyDominican Republic NavyEquadorian NavyEstonian NavyEthiopian NavyFinnish NavyGeorgian NavyHaitian NavyHonduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

    ✚ MORE

    ⚔ Cold War Naval Events
    • ⚔ Indochina War naval ops
    • ⚔ Korean War naval ops
    • ⚔ 1956 intervention in Suez
    • ⚔ 1960 Cuban crisis
    • ⚔ 1960 US/Soviet compared strenghts
    • ⚔ 1963-69 Algerian war naval ops
    • ⚔ Naval warfare in Vietnam
    • ⚔ Middle East naval fights
    • ⚔ 1980 Falkland wars
    • ⚔ 1990 Gulf War
    ⚔ Modern Navies
    ✈ Cold War Naval Aviation See the full section
    • Grumman Mallard 1946
    • Edo OSE-1 1946
    • Short Solent 1946

    • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
    • Grumman Albatross 1947
    • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
    • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
    • Short Sealand 1947

    • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
    • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
    • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
    • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
    • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949

    • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
    • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
    • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
    • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)

    • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
    • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955

    • Ikarus Kurir H 1957

    • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
    • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
    • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
    • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
    • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
    • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
    • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984

    • Patrol Planes
    • ATR 42 MP Surveyor (Italy, 1984)
    • ATR 72 MP (Italy 1988)

    • ATR 72 ASW (France, 1988)
    • Breguet Atlantic (France 1965)
    • Nord 1402 Noroit (France 1949)

    • Avro Shackleton (UK 1949)
    • BAE Nimrod MRA4 (UK 2004)
    • Britten-Norman Defender/Islander (UK 1970)
    • Fairey Gannet (UK 1949)
    • Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod (UK 1967)

    • Beechcraft King Air (USA 1963)
    • Basler BT-67 (USA 1990)
    • Boeing 737 Surveiller (USA 1967)
    • Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA 2009)
    • Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA, 1945)
    • Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA 1959)
    • Martin P4M Mercator (USA 1946)
    • Convair P5Y (USA 1950)
    • Douglas/BSAS Turbo Dakota (USA 1991)

    • Bombardier DHC-8 MPA/MSA (Can 2007)
    • Canadair CP-107 Argus (Can 1957)

    • CASA C-212 MPA (Spain 1971)
    • CASA/IPTN CN-235 MPA/HC-144 Ocean Sentry (Spain 1983)
    • CASA C-295 MPA (Spain 1997)

    • Diamond DA42 Guardian (Austria 2002)

    • Dornier 228 (Germany 1981)

    • Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante (Brazil 1968)
    • Embraer R-99 (Brazil 2001)
    • Embraer P-99 (Brazil 2003)

    • Fokker F27 200-MAR (NL 1955)
    • Fokker F27 Maritime Enforcer (NL 1955)

    • IAI 1124N Sea Scan (Israel 1977)

    • Kawasaki P-1 (Japan 2007)
    • Kawasaki P-2J (Japan 1966)

    • Saab Swordfish (Sweden 2016)
    • Shaanxi Y-8F,Q,X (China 1984)
    • Short Seavan (UK 1976)

    • Beriev Be-8 1947
    • Beriev Be-6 1949
    • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
    • Beriev Be-10 1956
    • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
    • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986
    • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
    • Ilyushin Il-38 'May' (USSR 1967)
    • Myasishchev 3M/3MD (USSR 1956)
    • Tupolev Tu-16T/PL/R/RM/SP (USSR 1952)
    • Tupolev Tu-95MR (USSR 1961)
    • Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR 1968)

    • Carrier Planes
    • Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
    • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
    • Douglas A2D Skyshark
    • Douglas AD Skyraider
    • Douglas F3D Skynight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Grumman A-6 Intruder
    • Grumman AF Guardian
    • Grumman C-1 Trader
    • Grumman C-2 Greyhound
    • Grumman E-1 Tracer
    • Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
    • Grumman EA-6B Prowler
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F9F Panther
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat ➚
    • Grumman S-2 Tracker
    • Lockheed Martin F-35B
    • Lockheed S-3 Viking ➚
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
    • McDonnell FH Phantom
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
    • McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
    • North American A-5 Vigilante
    • North American AJ Savage
    • North American FJ Fury
    • North American T-2 Buckeye
    • North American T-28 Trojan
    • Vought A-7 Corsair
    • Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Vought F6U Pirate
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    • Boeing EA-18G Growler
    • RN
    • Blackburn Buccaneer
    • Boulton Paul Sea Balliol
    • BAe Sea Harrier
    • de Havilland Sea Vampire
    • de Havilland Sea Venom
    • de Havilland Sea Vixen
    • Fairey Gannet
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Short Seamew
    • Westland Wyvern
    • Marine Nationale
    • Breguet Alizé
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Étendard
    • Dassault Rafale M
    • Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr M
    • SNCASE Aquilon
    • Soviet Navy
    • Sukhoi Su-25UTG/UBP
    • Sukhoi Su-33
    • Yakovlev Yak-38

    Navy Helicopters
      Chinese PLAN:
    • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
    • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
    • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
    • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
    • Italy:
    • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
    • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
    • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
    • India:
    • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
    • France:
    • Alouette II (1955)
    • Alouette III (1959)
    • Super Frelon (1965)

    • Cougar ()
    • Panther ()
    • Super Cougar H225M ()
    • Fennec ()
    • MH-65 Dolphin ()
    • UH-72 Lakota ()
    • Germany:
    • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
    • NHIndustries NH90
    • Japan:
    • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
    • Poland:
    • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
    • Romania:
    • IAR 330M (1975)
    • United Kingdom:
    • Westland Lynx (1971)
    • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
    • Westland Sea King (1969)
    • Westland Wasp (1962)
    • Westland Wessex (1958)
    • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
    • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
    • USA:
    • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
    • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
    • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
    • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
    • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
    • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
    • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
    • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
    • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
    • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
    • ussr:
    • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
    • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
    • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
    • Ka-31 (1987)
    • Ka-35 (2015)
    • Ka-40 (1990)
    • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
    • Mil Mi-4 (1952)
    Civilian ♆ WW1 US Shipping Board
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